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Roxbury is a dissolved municipality and a currently officially recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.[1] Roxbury is one of 23 official neighborhoods of Boston
Boston
used by the city for neighborhood services coordination. The city asserts that Roxbury serves as the "heart of Black culture in Boston."[2] Roxbury was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony in 1630, and became a city in 1846 until annexed to Boston
Boston
on January 5, 1868.[3] The original boundaries of the Town
Town
of Roxbury can be found in Drake's History of Roxbury and its noted Personages. Those boundaries include the Christian Science
Science
Center, the Prudential Center (built on the old Roxbury Railroad Yards) and everything south and east of the Muddy River including Symphony Hall, Northeastern University, Boston
Boston
Latin School, Madison Park Technical Vocational High School
Madison Park Technical Vocational High School
John D. O'Bryant School
School
of Mathematics & Science, Roxbury Community College
Roxbury Community College
YMCA, Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
and many hospitals and schools in the area. This side of the Muddy River is Roxbury, the other side is Brookline and Boston. Franklin Park, once entirely within Roxbury when Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury
West Roxbury
and Roslindale
Roslindale
were villages within the town of Roxbury until 1854, has been divided with the line between Jamaica Plain and Roxbury located in the vicinity of Peter Parley Road on Walnut Avenue, through the park to Columbia Road. Here, Walnut Avenue changes its name to Sigourney Street, indicating the area is now Jamaica
Jamaica
Plain. One side of Columbia Road is Roxbury, the other Dorchester. Melnea Cass Boulevard is located approximately over the Roxbury Canal that brought boats into Roxbury, bypassing the busy port of Boston
Boston
in the 1830s. The neighborhood has recently added a new police station improving response time assisting its residents. This facility opened in 2011 and is energy efficient. Also assisting the community are programs such as the Child
Child
Services of Roxbury, the youth build Boston programs, and many more. New initiatives by the city of Boston
Boston
have propelled the neighborhood of Boston
Boston
to become eco-friendly. There has been development of new E+ buildings. Along with the move into an eco-friendly community, each building is now mandated to provide accessibility to people with handicaps. The neighborhood has also formed community gardens and developed the first urban farm of the city in accordance to the adoption of article 89, Urban Agricultural Ordinance, which provides framework for creating community resources for fresh produce, to be sold at low cost, and also to be donated to programs who help feed those who are in shelters or other care facilities alike.[4] There are also many emergency response facilities who help underprivileged people in the area, such as youth centers, and social service centers. When it was a separate municipality, Roxbury was part of Norfolk County; it is now part of Suffolk County.

Contents

1 Colonial origin 2 Revolutionary War and following 3 20th Century 4 Lower Roxbury 5 Industry 6 Urban policy 7 Demographics 8 Housing

8.1 Project Bread, Food Project, and the Foodsource Hotline 8.2 Other community resources 8.3 Environmental resources

9 Recreational centers 10 Education

10.1 Primary and secondary schools 10.2 Colleges and universities 10.3 Public
Public
libraries 10.4 Other educational services

11 Entertainment

11.1 Sports 11.2 Museums 11.3 Parks 11.4 Miscellaneous entertainment in Roxbury

12 Historic buildings 13 Boston
Boston
Police Department

13.1 Safety 13.2 Waste collection and disposal

14 Transportation 15 Notable residents 16 Sites of interest 17 See also 18 References

18.1 Notes 18.2 Further reading

19 External links

Colonial origin[edit]

Munroe House, built in 1683, as seen in 1905

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony founded a group of six towns, including Boston, Cambridge, and Roxbury.[5] For more than 200 years, Roxbury also encompassed West Roxbury
West Roxbury
and Jamaica
Jamaica
Plain.[5] Three miles south, the only land route to the capital led through Roxbury, which made the town important for both transportation and trade.[5] Roxbury in the 1600s also held many of the resources that the Colonists prized: potentially arable land, timber, and a brook (source of water and water power), and stone for building.[6] That particular stone exists only in the Boston
Boston
basin; it is visible on stony outcroppings and used in buildings such as the Warren House, and it proved to be a valuable asset to the community that led to early prosperity. The village of Roxbury was originally called "Rocksberry"[7] for the rocks in its soil that made early farming a challenge. It is noted for its hilly geography and many large outcroppings of Roxbury Puddingstone, which was quarried for many years and used in the foundations of a large number of houses in the area.

Roxbury Town
Town
Hall built in 1810, as seen in 1899

The settlers of Roxbury originally comprised the congregation of the First Church in Roxbury, established in 1632.[8] During this time, the church served as a place of worship and as a meeting place for town government. The congregation had no time to raise a meeting house the first winter and so met with the neighboring congregation in Dorchester. One of the early leaders of this church was Amos Adams, and among the founders were Richard Dummer and his wife Mary.[9] The first meeting house was built in 1632, and the building pictured here is the fifth meeting house, the oldest such wood-frame church in Boston.[10] Boston
Boston
was previously connected to mainland Massachusetts
Massachusetts
by a narrow isthmus called Boston
Boston
Neck or Roxbury Neck,[11] and this was home to a number of early leaders of the colony, including original Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony treasurer William Pynchon. Pynchon left Roxbury in 1636 with nearly one third its men to found Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
on far less rocky and more arable soil.[12] Within a few decades, Roxbury residents developed prized apple orchards, and this led to another unique claim to fame: the Roxbury Russet
Roxbury Russet
apple, particularly suited for cider. Revolutionary War and following[edit] The First Church of Roxbury was the starting point for William Dawes' "Midnight Ride" of April 18, 1775 (in a different direction from that of Paul Revere) to warn Lexington and Concord of the British raids at the opening of the American Revolutionary War. After the war, those able to afford it sought to live in free-standing, single-family houses away from their jobs in the city, and this led to Roxbury becoming one of the first American suburbs.[6] Many homes were built in the Greek Revival style, symbolizing the republic of ancient Greece, a democracy that the young United States
United States
admired.[13] Trade was booming in the early 1800s in rum, salt, fish, and tobacco which brought in a horse-drawn carriage line across Boston
Boston
Neck and down Washington Street, as well as the Boston
Boston
to Providence, Rhode Island railroad in 1835.[6] Many Irish immigrants flooded to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to escape the potato famine in the 1840s, and some families settled directly in Roxbury. St. Joseph's Catholic Church was the first Catholic Church with a predominantly Irish congregation, built in 1846. Some of the homes of these wealthy residents still stand today, such as the Edward Everett Hale House
Edward Everett Hale House
on Morley Street, the Alvah Kittredge Mansion
Mansion
on Linwood Street, the Spooner Lambert House
House
on Dudley Street, Rockledge on Highland St., and Ionic Hall on Roxbury Street. Oakbend was the last mansion built in Roxbury in 1872; it now houses the National Center of Afro-American Artists. The neighborhood also contains an example of workers’ housing at Frederick Douglass Square Historic District
Frederick Douglass Square Historic District
(Greenwich, Warwick, and Sussex streets), brick houses built in the 1880s.[13] As the need increased for more workers, old farms and the estates were subdivided, and single family homes, row houses, and multi-family homes sprang up to accommodate the growing population with the advent of trolley service in 1887.[6] One of these was Hibernian Hall, built in 1913, which is now the Roxbury Center of the Arts. 20th Century[edit] Many German immigrants also immigrated to the US in the early 1900's, quite possibly to escape the effects of the first World War. German immigrants also settled in the Mission Hill area of Roxbury, and were instrumental in developing the many breweries that prospered along the Stony Brook until prohibition. In the early 20th century, a Jewish community was also established. Responding to the need for increased municipal services, the citizens of Roxbury voted to incorporate as a city in 1846, and later to become annexed to Boston
Boston
in 1868. During the 1940s and 1950s, a major migration from the southern to the northern cities led Roxbury towards becoming the center of the African-American
African-American
community in Boston. They were joined by immigrants from the Caribbean, especially Jamaica
Jamaica
and Barbados
Barbados
and after World War II by southern blacks migrating north.[13] During this population boom, city planners set aside land for Franklin Park—with 527 acres it is the largest park Boston. Designed by landscape architect Frederick Law
Law
Olmsted, Franklin Park
Park
is the final jewel of the Emerald Necklace, the seven mile stretch of public parkland that begins at Boston
Boston
Common.[5] Social
Social
issues and the resulting urban renewal activities of the 1960s and 1970s led to a decline in the neighborhood population, as racism caused a significant white flight. The reason for such a large immigration was mostly due to visionary African-American
African-American
leader W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois
who inspired people to various parts of the world in search of their dreams of freedom and equality.[13] Lower Roxbury[edit] Lower Roxbury was once the name of the thriving area from Dudley Street to Tremont Street with bustling businesses up and down Ruggles Street. Around 1965, one side of Ruggles Street was small shops and the other side was decorated with tenement style and single family housing.[14] At the corner of Douglas Square and Tremont Street was one notable shop called People's Market; the first supermarket in Boston
Boston
located in a black area.[15] In 1986, the Greater Roxbury Incorporation Project sought to create a 12.5 square-mile city that included the entirety of Roxbury and Mattapan
Mattapan
as well as portions of Dorchester, Jamaica
Jamaica
Plain, Fenway, Columbia Point and the South End that was to be called "Mandela" after Nelson Mandela.[16] In 1988, a referendum was defeated that would have examined the feasibility of reincorporation because the organizers of the movement believed that the area would flourish if they could create their own government that would not discriminate against minorities.[17] Industry[edit] In the 1600s, most people were farming or living off the land. In the 1700s mills and tanneries made up the main industry of Roxbury, but by the 1800s breweries, piano makers, iron foundries and rubber makers provided employment for a growing Roxbury population.[18] By the turn of the 20th century, the area was a bustling mix of department stores, hotels, silent movie theaters, banks-even a bowling alley- designed by prominent Boston
Boston
architects in a rich mixture of revival styles.[18] As the marshes were filled in, factories and warehouses took their place. Nowadays, most spaces are used for office or retail stores since the community holds an emphasis on keeping jobs within the neighborhood and promoting jobs for youth. Urban policy[edit]

Fort Hill Tower (also known as the Cochituate Standpipe), designed by Nathaniel J. Bradlee
Nathaniel J. Bradlee
and built in 1869 on the site of Revolutionary War fortifications

As Roxbury developed in the 19th century, the northern part became an industrial town with a large community of English, Irish, and German immigrants and their descendants, while the majority of the town remained agricultural and saw the development of some of the first streetcar suburbs in the United States. This led to the incorporation of the old Roxbury village as one of Massachusetts's first cities, and the rest of the town was established as the town of West Roxbury. In the early 20th century, Roxbury became home to recent immigrants; a thriving Jewish community developed around Grove Hall, along Blue Hill Avenue, Seaver Street and into Dorchester along Columbia Road. A large Irish population also developed, with many activities centered around Dudley Square, which just before and following annexation into Boston, became a central location for Roxbury commerce. Following a massive migration from the South to northern cities in the 1940s and 1950s, Roxbury became the center of the African-American
African-American
community in Boston. The center of African American residential and social activities in Boston
Boston
had formerly been on the north slope of Beacon Hill and the South End. In particular, a riot in response to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
resulted in stores on Blue Hill Avenue being looted and eventually burned down, leaving a desolate and abandoned landscape which discouraged commerce and business development. Rampant arson in the 1970s along the Dudley Street corridor also added to the neighborhood's decline, leaving a landscape of vacant, trash filled lots and burned out buildings. In early April 1987, the original Orange Line MBTA route along Washington Street was closed and relocated to the Southwest Corridor (where the Southwest Expressway was supposed to be built a couple decades before). More recently, grassroots efforts by residents have been the force behind revitalizing historic areas and creating Roxbury Heritage State Park. A movement known as the Greater Roxbury Incorporation Project, led by Roxbury residents Andrew Jones[19] and Curtis Davis,[20][21] sought to form an independent municipality out of the Roxbury and the Mattapan area.[22][23] The project was part of a larger goal to increase the amount of services available to residents, but in 1986 Boston
Boston
Mayor Raymond Flynn
Raymond Flynn
rejected the idea.[24][25] The area was to be named "Mandela" (after South African activist Nelson Mandela).[26] The Boston
Boston
Transportation Planning Review stimulated relocation of the Orange Line, and development of the Southwest Corridor Park
Park
spurred major investment, including Roxbury Community College
Roxbury Community College
at Roxbury Crossing and Ruggles Center at Columbus Avenue and Ruggles Street. Commercial development now promises reinvestment in the form of shopping and related consumer services. The Fort Hill section experienced significant gentrification when college students (many from Northeastern University
Northeastern University
and Wentworth Institute of Technology), artists, and young professionals moved into the area in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In the present day, there is much commercial and residential redevelopment. In 2014, a new tech-incubator called Smarter in the City
City
launched its initiative to encourage growth in Roxbury by cultivating startups in Dudley Square.[27]

The building where the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative organization is located.

Currently the Boston
Boston
Redevelopment Authority (BRA) has cited twelve projects approved for construction in the neighborhood of Roxbury. The BRA project in Dudley square calls for the demolition of a ten unit building on Hampden St. and the rehabilitation of two buildings. The final project will have 42 units available for affordable housing, with units ranging from one to four bedrooms. This construction of Dudley will revamp the look of the community.[28] To improve the communities energy efficiency E+ buildings are beginning to develop in the neighborhoods of Boston. In April 2014, on Highland street the construction of the first E+ building in Roxbury was awarded the LEED platinum award. The building is part of the " Boston
Boston
E+ Green
Green
Building Program" [29] In 2013, the city of Boston
Boston
accepted the urban agriculture ordinance, which is stated in article 89.[4] The neighborhood of Roxbury is grounds for the first urban farm and is larger than 12,000 ft. The farm opened in July 2014.[4] The DSNI is composed of thirty five board of directors.The board of directors are made up of 16 residents which are African-American, Latino, Cape Verdean, and white, also there are 2 additional appointed residents, 4 youth representatives, 7 non profit agencies, 2 churches, 2 businesses and 2 CDCs'.[30] The DSNI has 225 housing units on their land trusts currently. The DSNI land trust allows for the sales of low income housing. The sale of the homes remain for those with low-income as a result of the DSNI land trust housing units. In the next decade the DSNI plans to build 250 new homes in what is known as the Dudley Triangle.[31] Roxbury is subject to article 80, a checklist for projects large and small to comply with people with disabilities. The article also includes, "improvements for pedestrian and vehicular circulation... new buildings and public spaces to be designed to enhance and preserve Boston's system of parks, squares, walkways, and active shopping streets, ensure that person with disabilities have full access...afford such persons the educational, employment, and recreational opportunities available to all citizens... and preserve and increase the supply of living space accessible to person with disabilities."[32] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1820 4,135

1830 5,247

26.9%

1840 9,089

73.2%

1850 18,364

102.0%

1860 25,137

36.9%

The first mosque in Roxbury was the Mosque for the Praising of Allah. Pictured here is the ISBCC Mosque.

"Today Roxbury is home to a diverse community which includes African American, Hispanic, and Asian families, along with young professionals".[33] The neighborhood has a total population of 59,626 people as of 2016. There are 21,116 males (46.1%) and 24,713 females (53.9%). Of the total population 33,182 (72.4%) are not Hispanic or Latino. White alone makes up 3,695 (8.1%) of the total population. There are 26,081 (56.9%) Black or African American people in the neighborhood of Roxbury. Asian alone is a total of 1,345 people (2.9%). Two or more races were reported by 1054 people (2.3%). Hispanic or Latino was reported by 12,647 people (27.6%).[34] 6,523-14.2% reported being 60 years and older.[35] Of the 45,829 surveyed 42,571 were over the age of five, the language spoken at home was recorded. Between the ages of 5-17 (8,898,20.9% of total population), 5,086 speak only English (57.2%), 2,508 (28.2%) speak Spanish. Between the ages of 18-64 (29,296-68.8% of total population) 17,040 (58.2%) speak only English. In this age group 7,440 (25.4%) speak Spanish, and 2,696 (9.2%) speak other European languages. Those surveyed who were 65 years and over (4,377-10.3% of total population) have 3,184 (72.7%) people that speak English at home, and 784 (17.9%) reported speaking Spanish at home.[35] Only 74.9% of the population has made it past 8th grade.[36] Educational attainment for the population 25 years and over was also surveyed. Of the 26,202, 5379 (20.5%) reported having earned a bachelor's degree or higher.[35] The population density is very high at 13,346 people per square mile, compared to Boston
Boston
as a whole at 12,812 people per square mile.[37] Roxbury is 4% more densely populated than Boston
Boston
as a whole.[37] The crime rate is 39% higher than the national average, meaning 1 out of 25 people will become a victim.[38] The annual crime rate has gone down by 4% in 2016.[38] The median household income is $34,374 and the unemployment rate is 10.7%, which is more than double the national average.[39] Male
Male
median earnings are 41% higher than female median earnings.[39] Roxbury test scores in public schools are 38% lower than the national average.[36] 1/4 of the Roxbury population was born in another country.[40] 42% of the population is 25 years old or younger.[41] Meanwhile, only 11% of the population are over the age of 65.[41] 40% of the population drive to work, 36% take public transportation, 10% of the population walk to work, 10% bike to work, and 4% work from home.[41] Roxbury's crime rate is 7% higher than the national average for 2016.[42] The average home in Roxbury is worth $455,000 but the average home is sold for $380,000 because of Roxbury's reputation.[42] The cost of living in Roxbury is about 15% cheaper than the national average.[42] Housing[edit] There are many housing resources in Roxbury, including government housing, shelters, different organizations and Domestic Violence resources. Emergency Shelter Commission mission is to help prevent and end homelessness and hunger through proactive planning, policy analysis, program development and advocacy with our city, state, federal and community partner agencies. The Boston
Boston
Fair housing helps Boston
Boston
residents purchase, improve, and keep their homes. They offer training and financial help to first time buyers. There are different organizations such as MASS housing, Section 8 waiting list, Action For Boston
Boston
Community
Community
Development and Mass Access. Mass Housing
Housing
provides more than $16 billion for financing housing for home buyers and home owners. It will increase affordable housing for Massachusetts residents. Section 8 waiting list is a voucher program that opened on January 2003 in accordance with provisions contained in the United States Housing
Housing
Act of 1937, as amended. Action for Boston
Boston
Community Development provides basic services and programs to help individuals, families and communities of Boston
Boston
to overcome poverty live with dignity and achieve to their full potential.[43] Project Bread, Food Project, and the Foodsource Hotline[edit] Project Bread, located in East Boston, supports more than 400 community food programs in over 120 communities in Massachusetts. Funds raised throughout the year help support over 400 community food programs—soup kitchens, food pantries, food vouchers at health centers, subsidized CSA shares, community gardens, double-value farmers market coupons, etc.—in over 120 communities statewide in Massachusetts. This funding also targets the state's most vulnerable populations—children, working poor families, immigrants, and elders. They have much support from partners, donors, corporate sponsors, an individuals.[44] The Food Project
Food Project
has built a national model of engaging young people in personal and social change through sustainable agriculture. This program also helps with growing produce to help serve the community in farmers markets as well as donations to hunger relief organizations. The Food Project
Food Project
program works with around 120 teenagers a year and also benefits from the help of volunteers.[45] The BCYF ( Boston
Boston
Center for Youth
Youth
and Families) The foodsource hotline is a toll-free hotline that responds to more than 46,000 calls a year from people across Massachusetts
Massachusetts
struggling to feed their families. FoodSource Hotline counselors refer callers to food resources in their community as well as provides them with information about school meals, summer meal sites for kids, elder meals programs, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as food stamps. They will screen callers for eligibility for SNAP and help them with the application. Their goal is to help the caller find as many resources as possible to put good food on the table. When relevant, they also connect callers with utility, fuel assistance, and MassHealth. And all information is kept strictly confidential.[46]

This is a community gardens.

Other community resources[edit] The Green
Green
house garden is a program that assists low income families in obtaining fresh produce. The garden is a Roxbury community initiative to battle obesity rates. The Program is powered by two hundred volunteers who assist in planting the produce as well as maintenance. The BCYF ( Boston
Boston
Center for Youth
Youth
and Families) Shelburne Community
Community
Center serves the Roxbury community. This community resource provides basketball leagues, classes (computer, digital media, martial arts etc.), physical fitness, teen mentoring and more. BCYF is an integral component to the Youth
Youth
Standing Strong Against Violence program in partnership with the Boston
Boston
Police Department. The BCYF mission statement reads "The mission of Boston
Boston
Centers for Youth
Youth
& Families (BCYF) is to enhance the quality of life of Boston's residents by partnering with various organizations to offer a wide range of comprehensive programs and activities according to neighborhood needs and interests."[47] The center is located at 2730 Washington Street, Roxbury Ma.The neighborhood of Roxbury opened a new area B-2 police station. The building is energy efficient and has state of the art technology to better equip the police in serving the Roxbury community.The mission of the police department is community policing. The new police station opened on August 1, 2011.[48] The police department created a team for woman to play basketball, it is led by deputy of the police department and invites women to play basketball. The team played against AAU all girls team coached by one of the officer of the department. In their mission to create solid bonds in the community and show positive role models.[49] The team plays at the Reggie Lewis Center at the Roxbury Community
Community
College. Project R.I.G.H.T is another community resource afforded to the Roxbury community. This organization is focused on connecting its community residents to matters of community stabilization and economic growth. Project R.I.G.H.T has teamed up with the Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Health Commission, to "develop numerous programs that focus on substance abuse, eliminating health disparities, infectious disease control, neighborhood wellness and BPHC's Violence, Intervention and Prevention program."[50] The Extra Help program is also based in Roxbury, where it conducts its live recording at the Roxbury Community
Community
College. This program is a weekly television show that helps the student residents with questions, homework, as well as help preparing for the MCAS tests. The student members of the community can call or email the teachers. Programs air on Tuesdays during the fall and winter.[51] Adding to the focus on the youth Roxbury is also home to the Child Services of Roxbury. This program intends to assist troubled youth and also their families. This branch was created specifically to assist children that were living with substance abusing parents. The program has been efficient in decreasing risk factors for the youth by maintaining its family focused assistance. They provide early education services, behavioral health services, youth and family services, and housing services.[52] The Youth
Youth
Build Boston
Boston
program has a branch located at 27 Centre St, it has been a resource for the community of Roxbury for 25 years, starting in 1995. This program teaches young people trades and allows them to take on projects. It serves underprivileged children in the community with classes and workshops. The programs focus on 16-year-olds up to 24-year-olds.[53] Environmental resources[edit] The Environment, Energy and Open Space Cabinet oversees the Inspectional Services Department, the Environment Department, the Parks and Recreation Department, and oversees programs and policies on energy efficiency, green buildings, groundwater, park planning, recycling, renewable energy, and certain transportation issues.[54] The City
City
of Boston
Boston
continues to pursue energy-saving initiatives to conserve energy in municipal buildings and also encourage residents and businesses to improve their energy use. They are dedicated to the development and construction of public and private renewable energy systems throughout our community.[55] The Public
Public
Works Street Lighting Division is working to convert street lights from traditional lighting sources, such as mercury vapor and sodium, to LED.[56] Renew Boston
Boston
Solar is increasing the solar energy system capacity in Boston. With the assistance of U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, the City
City
of Boston
Boston
launched Renew Boston
Boston
Solar to encourage the widespread adoption of solar energy in Boston. Through Renew Boston
Boston
Solar, the City
City
is encouraging the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including easing permitting requirements, mapping feasible locations, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city is working with local organizations to maximize Boston
Boston
's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. Plus the city is tracking and mapping solar and other renewable energy systems in Boston. Solar Boston
Boston
partners include the U.S. Department of Energy, the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Clean Energy Center, local utilities and unions, an anonymous foundation, and a broad range of local, regional, and national clean energy stakeholders.[57] Recreational centers[edit] The Roxbury YMCA was founded in 1851 in the Greater Boston
Boston
which is a cause driven nonprofit organization committed to developing youth by informing them about healthy living and promoting social responsibility in the community. It is one of the largest urban YMCA's in the country and Boston
Boston
s largest provider of social services for children and families. The Greater Boston
Boston
YMCA offers programs in categories, including adult education, aquatics, child care, sports and health/wellness.[58] The John A. Shelburne community center is a non-profit recreational, educational, and cultural enrichment facility located in the heart of historic Roxbury. The Hattie B Copper Community
Community
center served Leadership
Leadership
development for women of color for over 89 years. The Center was named after John A. Shelburne that was a native of Roxbury.[59] In 1916, the Hattie B Cooper Center opened their doors to 69 children at the Fourth Methodist Church on Shawmut Avenue. They have served in the Roxbury community for nearly 100 years that provided programs facilitate growth and development, while creating opportunities for future successes. The women noticed a need in the community to educate the youth and keep them safe, the same issues that Cooper addresses today. They currently provide high quality care for early education and care to 125 students on the daily and children that are children that are in the infants and toddler program, Preschool, and After school program.[60] The Reggie Lewis Center was opened in 1995 which was built by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This center serves as the home for the Roxbury Community
Community
College's powerful intercollegiate and intramural athletics. Known as the "Reggie" and one of the fastest tracks in the World. The "Reggie" hosts over ninety high schools, collegiate and national track meets annually and some have included meets such as the USA Track and Field Championships, Boston
Boston
Indoor Games, Northeast 10 Championships, NCAA Division II Championships and the High School National Championships. This center is a place for children and adults can attend to different sports such as basketball, track and soccer. They have community outreach programs that helps students stay out of trouble. There are after school programs to tutor students with their homework, physical activities and Arts and Crafts. Its a positive centers that changes people's lives for the better.[61] Education[edit] Primary and secondary schools[edit] Students in Roxbury are served by Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Schools (BPS). BPS assigns students based on preferences of the applicants and priorities of students in various zones.[62] Roxbury contains Boston
Boston
Latin Academy, Madison Park Technical Vocational High School
Madison Park Technical Vocational High School
and John D. O'Bryant School
School
of Mathematics & Science, 7-12 secondary schools and two of the city's three exam schools.[63] Roxbury Preparatory Charter School
School
is a public charter school that serves Grades 6-8 in the Roxbury neighborhood of Mission Hill. Roxbury Charter High Public School
School
is located elsewhere in the area. Roxbury High School
School
was once located on Greenville Avenue.[64] The Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Schools' pilot schools have a great partnership that was launched in 1994 among Mayor Thomas M. Menino, the Boston
Boston
School Committee, superintendent, and the Boston
Boston
Teachers Union. The pilot schools were created to be models of educational innovation and to serve as research and development sites for effective urban public schools. Pilot schools are part of the school district but have over budget, staffing, governance, curriculum/assessment, and the school calendar to provide increased flexibility to organize schools and staffing to meet the needs of students and families. Roxbury has six Horace Mann Charter Schools, which is also called the district charter schools. Alternative school is when a student that just came to America, helps students has a strong start in the Boston
Boston
Public schools. There are other programs that help students that are over-age or off-track, who need to go to school at night, has disabilities, and has disciplinary issues. Turnaround schools allows Boston
Boston
Public Schools to come into the school to assist their lowest-performing schools by changing the staff, increasing class time, and adding new supports for students. With these flexibilities, the "Level 4" schools can access new tools to that can increase improvement in performance.[65] Colleges and universities[edit]

RCCollege08

Roxbury is home to Roxbury Community
Community
College,"Roxbury Community College is a co-educational public institution of higher education offering Associate Degrees and certificate programs. RCC's primary objective is to provide residents of the Commonwealth, specifically those individuals living in the greater Boston
Boston
area, optimum opportunity for access to a college education consistent with their interests and aptitudes and to reduce to a minimum economic, social, psychological and academic barriers to educational opportunity."[66] Beginning in the Fall semester from academic school year 2011-2013 Roxbury Community College
Roxbury Community College
has had an average female enrollment of 1761, and an average male enrollment of 868 in credit courses.[67] Through the years 2011-2013, the school has had an average of 1253 black students, 10 Native-American Indian students, 52 Asian American students, 426 Latino students, 167 White, 10 non-resident alien, and 710 students enrolled reported their ethnicity unknown.[66] Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary's Center for Urban Ministerial Education
Education
(CUME)opened in 1976 at Twelfth Baptist Church. The campus has over 400 students. To accommodate the diversity of the school, "classes are taught in English, Spanish, French Creole and Portuguese, with occasional classes in American Sign Language". The Roxbury campus is represented by students of 21 different nationalities and 39 denominations.[68] The college is located at 90 Warren St. in Roxbury, Ma. Emmanuel College's spiritual retreat center. This center offers spiritual education to all staff and students for no charge. The center is designed to promote a relationship with god and explore your own spirituality. Further, The Eastern Nazarene College offers Adult Studies/LEAD classes in Roxbury. Public
Public
libraries[edit] Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Library operates the Dudley Branch Library in Roxbury. The branch, which opened in April 1978, replaced the Mount Pleasant Branch, a library branch, and the Fellowes Athenaeum, a privately endowed facility. Next to the Dudley Branch Library is the Dudley Literacy Center which assists patrons who are learning English as a second language. It is the largest public library literacy center in the Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Library system. The Grove Hall Branch of the Boston Public
Public
Library, which was formerly located on Crawford Street since 1971, is now located at 41 Geneva Avenue in Dorchester/Roxbury. The Branch is in a new facility that opened in April, 2009.[69] Other educational services[edit] Boston
Boston
Day and Evening Academy, located in Roxbury, re-engages off-track students in their education. It prepares them for high school graduation, post-secondary success and meaningful participation in their community. BDEA is open 10 hours a day in where it serves any Boston
Boston
Public
Public
School
School
student who is overage for high school, who has had trouble with attendance issues, has been held back in 8th grade, who feels they are not getting the attention in class that they need to succeed, or who has dropped out but is eager to come back to school to earn their diploma.[70] City
City
on a Hill Charter Public
Public
School
School
is a cluster of charter schools in Roxbury. It is a network of three college preparatory high schools in the cities of Boston
Boston
and New Bedford. Each City
City
on a Hill school is tuition-free and open to all students. CoaH schools do not have entrance exams; students are admitted by a random lottery with new students admitted in the ninth grade only.[71] City
City
on a Hill serves students who are traditionally underserved by the public school system. The majority of students arrive performing significantly below grade level. However, 100% of City
City
on a Hill students pass the MCAS, and 91% of recent graduates have enrolled in college.[71] While a fully-grown City
City
on a Hill school operates almost entirely on state funds, they rely on private gifts to supplement the operating budget of growing schools, to provide capital support, and to fund special projects and educational initiatives.[71] As another example, Roxbury Preparatory Charter School
School
(Roxbury Prep) began on Mission Hill in 1999, serving 75 students. By 2019, they will serve 1,800 students at three middle school campuses and a high school.[72] Roxbury Prep is a nonprofit organization that starts and manages outstanding urban charter public schools that prepare students to graduate from college. Charter schools are entitled to federal categorical funding for which their students are eligible, such as Title I and Special
Special
Education
Education
monies. Federal legislation provides grants to help charters to manage start-up costs.[73] 826 Boston
Boston
is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting students ages 6 to 18 with their creative and expository writing skills, and to helping teachers inspire their students to write. This organization has programs like after school writing and tutoring, creative writing workshops, storytelling and bookmarking field trips, summer theater and writing camp, the in-school writing and publishing program, and college preparedness programs.[74] It is located on 3035 Washington Street in Roxbury. There is also the YouthBuildBoston (YBB)that was founded in 1990 with the goal of providing underserved young people with the support and credentials needed to successfully enter the trades. While YBB promotes the core values of youth development and community service, it stands out as an innovative non-profit offering a hands-on approach to building trades training. Students are put on a career path through highly successful programs, from construction training to sustainable landscape design. These programs provide opportunities in vocational education, but also academic instruction, counseling and other life skills that readily strengthen and prepare students for the workforce upon graduation.[53] YBB receives much support from scholarships and apprenticeships and YBB is located on 27 Centre Street, in Roxbury. Entertainment[edit] Sports[edit] The popular local teams in the area consist of the Boston
Boston
Red Sox (baseball), Boston
Boston
Bruins (hockey), Boston
Boston
Celtics (basketball), the New England Revolution
New England Revolution
(soccer), and the New England
New England
Patriots (football). Less well known local teams also include the Boston Breakers (women's soccer) and Boston
Boston
Cannons (lacrosse). Other notable sporting annual events include the Boston
Boston
Marathon on the third Monday of every April, also known in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Maine
Maine
as Patriot's Day. Boston
Boston
is also home to the Charles Regatta. The Charles Regatta has been the world's largest rowing competition for the last 46 years.[75] Museums[edit] Boston
Boston
Children's Museum
Museum
was founded in 1913 by the Science
Science
Teachers' Bureau, making it one of the largest children's museums in the world.[76] The Boston
Boston
Children's Museum
Museum
was originally created to instill a sense of wonder about science and the arts in Boston's youth. The Hamill Gallery of African Art
Art
is 16,000 square feet owned by Bobbi and Tim Hamill housed in a 19th-century wallpaper factory that Tim Hamill had purchased in the 1970s.[77] With over 40,000 pieces from Ghana, Mali
Mali
and Nigeria
Nigeria
they hope to educate the public about tribalism and the importance of authentic art.[78] Many of these objects preserve and convey beliefs and values about tribalism. The masks were typically used in costumes to dance for social structure, education, or entertainment as displayed through their 70 traveling exhibits.[77] Parks[edit] Several parks, including the urban wilds which surround the William J. Devine Memorial Golf Course, offer residents substantial green space.[79] Other parks including in the "urban wild" space are the Eliot Burying Grounds, the Puddingstone Garden and the Buena Vista Urban Wilds. These parks recently received $450k in grants to restore and revitalize the areas in the community.[80] Some other active parks are the Southwest Corridor Park, Highland Park, known as Fort Hill, along with the Elma Lewis Playhouse Park. The Emma Lewis Playhouse Park
Park
has annual concerts and other miscellaneous venues year round and the park is an active member of the Franklin Parks Coalition.[81] Miscellaneous entertainment in Roxbury[edit] The Roxbury Center for the Arts, Culture, and Trade, which opened in 2005, celebrates community culture through visual and performance arts.[82] Roxbury International Film Festival
Festival
has been running since 1999 and was formerly known as the Dudley Film Festival, it was later changed to encompass all of Roxbury. The festival supports films with people of color or people of color who have created the films. For about four days, many different films are screened, to date more than 600 films have been screened at the festival.. The festival is New England's largest film festival that "showcases and honors the work of emerging and established filmmakers of color".[83] Along with screening of new independent films, the film festival also provides workshops for artists to come together and share ideas as well as learn new methods. Roxbury has also held an Annual Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Walk for Peace since 2000.[84] Public
Public
sculptures and murals can also be see down Ruggles Street and Malcolm X
Malcolm X
Boulevard.[85] MainStage theater provided by the Roxbury Community College
Roxbury Community College
provides workshops for students and kids in the community. They also have public plays open to all. Also, public speakers visit the theater for open to the public speeches. Historic buildings[edit]

Abbotsford — 300 Walnut Avenue Abbotsford was built in 1872 for industrialist Aaron Davis Williams Jr. It was designed by architect Alden Frink. The structure, originally named Oak Bend, is an example of a Victorian Gothic-style villa in Boston
Boston
and a reminder of the 19th century prosperity. The home was once part of an estate known for its apple orchards; it later served as a school for delinquent boys. It was purchased in 1976 by the National Center of Afro-American artists and renovated for use as a museum dedicated to the collection and exhibition of the black visual arts heritage worldwide.[86]

Blue Hill Avenue Synagogue — 397 Blue Hill Avenue Designed and built by architect Frederick Norcross in 1905. Financed by the Adath Jeshurun congregation, it was erected at a center of Jewish activity in early 20th century Boston. In 1967, the temple was sold to Ecclesia Apostolic because the Jewish population was rapidly declining because of the white flight as the area became the heart of black culture in Boston. The First Haitian Baptist Church purchased the Late Romanesque Revival building in 1978 and restored it to its present state.[86]

Cedar Street Marble
Marble
Row Houses — 28–40 Cedar St. This marble-clad block is an example of Second Empire Style
Second Empire Style
design, a French style popular at the time of Roxbury's annexation to Boston
Boston
in 1868. Built by George D. Cox in 1871, the houses were an attempt to attract other developers by creating the base for a middle class urban square.[86]

Cox Building
Building
— John Eliot Square Built in 1870 by developer G.D. Cox, this building typifies the post-Civil War reconstruction of Roxbury from an independent rural town to a suburban neighborhood. The Cox Building
Building
originally consisted of a central section containing street-level stores with hotel rooms on the upper floors, flanked by five attached one-family residences.[86]

Edward Everett Hale House
Edward Everett Hale House
— 12 Morley St. A Unitarian clergyman and well-known humanitarian reformer, lived in the Greek Revival residence for over forty years. He was also an author of many novels, including The Man Without a Country. The house was built on Highland Street in 1841 during the early period of suburban growth, and was moved to this location between 1899 and 1906.[86]

Eliot Burying Ground
Eliot Burying Ground
— Eustis St. This has been the oldest cemetery in Roxbury. It was established in 1630 and named after Reverend John Eliot. He is buried in the Parish Tomb, along with other early ministers of the First Parish of Roxbury.[86]

First Church of Roxbury — John Eliot Square The oldest wood frame church in Boston, this 1804 building is the fifth meetinghouse on this site since the first church was built in 1632. The architect, William Blaney, was a church member. The land around it is a fragment of the original town commons. Its most famous pastor was Reverend John Eliot, the missionary to the Algonquin Native American tribe. Due to Eliot's work, First Church in Roxbury
First Church in Roxbury
was one of only three churches in the Puritan Massachusetts
Massachusetts
era to admit Native Americans as full-fledged members.[86]

Freedom House
House
— 14 Crawford St. The Freedom House
House
was established in 1949 by social workers Otto and Muriel Snowden. The Freedom House
House
is an important social, educational and political organization and gathering place for the neighborhoods of Roxbury, Mattapan, Dorchester and Jamaica
Jamaica
Plain. It has been at the center of key political movements in Boston, including urban renewal in the 1960s, the bus crisis of the 1970s, and education reform for the city's children beginning in the 1990s.[86]

Hibernian Hall — Dudley Square Hibernian Hall was one of the last of Dudley Square's lively Irish social clubs and dance halls during the first half of the twentieth century. It began in 1836 in New York City
City
as a response to anti-Irish sentiment, and later shifted to charitable work and the promotion and preservation of Irish cultural heritage.[87]

Landing Place — 500 Parker St. This was one of two public boat landing sites that served the town in colonial times. In 1658, John Pierpont
John Pierpont
built a tidal mill here at the point where the Stony Brook emptied into the tidal basin. In 1821, the Mill Dam
Mill Dam
was built for power. The Sewall and Day Cordage Mill was built here in 1834, which became the largest manufacturer of rope used in maritime trades.[86]

Malcolm X
Malcolm X
and Ella Little-Collins
Ella Little-Collins
House
House
— 72 Dale St This was the home of Ella Little-Collins, an educator and sister of activist and Muslim
Muslim
leader Malcolm X, who lived here in the early 1940s. Ella acted as a parental figure to Malcolm, encouraging him to study theology and law during his incarceration. Malcolm returned to Boston
Boston
in 1953 and founded Temple
Temple
Number Eleven. After visiting the holy city of Mecca
Mecca
in 1964, Malcolm rejected black separatism and adopted the name El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. He was later assassinated in 1965.[86]

Palladio Hall — 60–62 Warren St. Built in the late 1870s, Palladio Hall is a rare Boston
Boston
example of an Italian Renaissance-style commercial block. It was designed and owned by Nathaniel J. Bradlee.[86]

Shirley Eustis House
House
— 33 Shirley St. Construction for the Shirley Eustis House
House
began in 1747, but was not completed until 1750 by the governor of the Massachusetts, William Shirley. This mansion is one of only four remaining colonial governors' mansions in the United States. The house served as a barracks during the Siege of Boston
Boston
in 1775-1776, housing the Continental Army's Sixth Regiment
Regiment
of Foot. From 1823-1825 it was the home of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Governor
Governor
William Eustis, the first democrat to hold that post.[86]

Spooner-Lambert House
House
— 64 Bartlett St. Built in 1782 for Major John Jones Spooner, first commander of the Roxbury Artillery. Boston
Boston
merchant Captain William Lambert bought the house in 1788.[86]

William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison
House
House
— Highland Park
Park
St. This Greek Revival residence was the home of William Lloyd Garrison, leader of the anti-slavery cause in Boston
Boston
and editor of the abolition journal The Liberator. The house, called Rockledge, was built in the 1840s, during Roxbury's early period of suburban population growth. After emancipation was achieved, Garrison and his wife retired to his mansion in 1864.[86]

Boston
Boston
Police Department[edit] Safety[edit] The Boston
Boston
Police Department is a government organization dedicated to working in partnership with the community to fight crime, reduce fear and improve the quality of life in our neighborhoods. Their Mission is Community
Community
Policing. The Boston
Boston
Police Department established Safe Street Teams in 2007 to enhance community engagement. Safe Street Teams provide a reassuring presence in neighborhoods by walking the beat while cultivating local relationships, pursuing proactive crime prevention measures, enforcing public safety, and improving quality of life. Community
Community
policing builds trust and reduces crime in Boston's neighborhoods. The BPD Safe Street Teams create clean, safe and orderly environments, increase positive interaction with local youth, and listen to the concerns of residents while offering tangible solutions.[88] In April 2011, the City
City
of Boston
Boston
presented its comprehensive plan at a Youth
Youth
Violence Summit in Washington, D.C. The Obama Administration
Obama Administration
selected the City
City
of Boston
Boston
along with five others to participate in the National Forum on Youth
Youth
Violence Prevention. Participants shared knowledge and experience, as well as develop comprehensive community-based plans to prevent youth and gang violence. Building
Building
upon a strong foundation of existing relationships and best practices, the City
City
of Boston
Boston
and its partners developed a multidisciplinary plan to reduce violence in our neighborhoods. The plan includes evidence-based crime prevention, intervention, enforcement, and reentry strategies; improves information sharing and coordination; and enhances civic engagement on multiple levels through a shared mission of youth violence prevention and reduction.[89] The BPD also has other programs and partnerships including the street outreach team, constituent response team, crime stoppers text-A-Tip program, neighborhood advisory councils, etc.[90] Waste collection and disposal[edit] The Code Enforcement Police's (CEP) primary function is to maintain and enhance the quality of life for Boston's residents by enforcing the State and City
City
sanitary codes related to illegal dumping, improper storage of trash, illegal vending and posting, and unshoveled sidewalks. CEP maintains a strong presence in the City
City
by patrolling the streets of Boston
Boston
on foot, bike, or car.[91] The Waste Reduction Division (formerly Recycling and Sanitation) is responsible for the collection and disposal of residential recyclables, trash, and leaf and yard waste. The Division also holds hazardous waste drop-off days up to four times per year, seasonal paint and motor oil drop-offs, and offers discounted backyard compost bins.[92] Boston
Boston
has single-stream recycling. You can mix all recyclable materials together and place them on the curb for pickup on your recycling day. In addition, they collect and composts residents' leaf and yard waste on designated recycling days from April to the first week of December. Boston residents can also safely dispose of hazardous waste and shred unwanted documents for free on specific dates and events.[93] Transportation[edit]

Orange Line trains at Roxbury Crossing, May 2014

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) provides subway and bus services to the Roxbury community. In Roxbury, the subway's Orange Line stops at Roxbury Crossing, arguably the only train station servicing the Roxbury neighborhood.[94] Roxbury Crossing[citation needed] is located at 1400 Tremont Street in the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, on the location of a former commuter rail station of the same name. The current station opened in 1987 as part of the renovation and relocation of the southern Orange Line. Like all stations on the Orange Line, this station is wheelchair accessible. The Silver Line stops at Dudley Square
Dudley Square
Bus Station. Roxbury is served by bus lines: 15, 19, 22, 23, 25, 28, 42, 44, 45, 66, 1, 8, 10, 14, 15, 19, 23, 28, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 66, 170, and 171.[95] Notable residents[edit]

Irving Ashby (1920–1987), jazz guitarist Edith Barrett
Edith Barrett
(1907-1977), actress Ruth Batson (1921–2003), civil rights and education activist Susan Batson, actress, daughter of Ruth Batson Michael Beach
Michael Beach
(born 1963), actor Ricky Bell (born 1967), member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston
Boston
in 1978 Michael Bivins, member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978 Nathaniel Jeremiah Bradlee
Nathaniel Jeremiah Bradlee
(1829–1888), architect Edward Brooke
Edward Brooke
(1919–2015), U.S. senator, first African American elected to Senate in the 20th century Bobby Brown (born 1969), member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston
Boston
in 1978 Wilhelmina Crosson
Wilhelmina Crosson
(1900-1991), educator James Michael Curley
James Michael Curley
(1874–1958), four-term mayor of Boston, congressman, and governor of Massachusetts Alan Dawson (1929–1996), famous jazz drummer and percussion teacher, grew up in Roxbury Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn
(1751–1829), physician, general, U.S. representative, U.S. Secretary of War Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn
Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn
(1783–1851), U.S. representative, mayor of Roxbury, son of Henry Dearborn Ronnie DeVoe, member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston
Boston
in 1978 Joseph Dudley
Joseph Dudley
(1647–1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts, son of Thomas Dudley Thomas Dudley
Thomas Dudley
(1576–1653), colonial governor of Massachusetts Ed O.G. (born 1970), hip hop artist, founder of Da Bulldogs, named an album after Roxbury John Eliot (1604–1690), minister, Bible translator, founder of Roxbury Latin
Latin
School Gustavus Esselen (1888–1952), chemist, born in Roxbury William Eustis
William Eustis
(1753–1825), governor of Massachusetts, owner of Shirley-Eustis House
House
in Roxbury Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
(born 1933), Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
leader, activist, raised in Roxbury[96] Mark Frechette
Mark Frechette
(1947–1975), film actor, Zabriskie Point Margaret Foley (1875-1957), suffragist The G-Clefs, soul group William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison
(1805–1879), journalist, abolitionist, lived in Roxbury the last 15 years of his life[97] Charles Dana Gibson
Charles Dana Gibson
(1867–1944), illustrator Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Samuel Griswold Goodrich
(1793–1860), author, state legislator Diane Guerrero
Diane Guerrero
(born 1986), actress Guru (1966–2010), rapper, member/founder of Gang Starr Edward Everett Hale
Edward Everett Hale
(1822–1909), author, reformer, Unitarian clergyman Roy Haynes
Roy Haynes
(born 1925), jazz drummer and bandleader Elma Lewis (1921–2004), arts educator, founder of the National Center of Afro-American Artists (NCAAA) Mel Lyman (1938–1978), harmonica player, cult leader Nelson Merced, state legislator, Latino activist Lucy Miller Mitchell
Lucy Miller Mitchell
(1899-2002), educator and activist Shabazz Napier
Shabazz Napier
(born 1991), NBA player Patrice O'Neal
Patrice O'Neal
(1969–2011), comedian, actor Louis Prang
Louis Prang
(1824–1909), printer, lithographer and publisher William Pynchon
William Pynchon
(1590–1662), founder of Roxbury and Springfield, Massachusetts Sylvester H. Roper
Sylvester H. Roper
(1823–1896), inventor Nathaniel Ruggles
Nathaniel Ruggles
(1761–1819), U.S. representative Byron Rushing
Byron Rushing
(born 1942), state legislator, activist Kenneth Kamal Scott
Kenneth Kamal Scott
(born 1940), singer, dancer, actor, nephew of Irving Ashby Ebenezer Seaver
Ebenezer Seaver
(1763–1844), U.S. representative William Shirley
William Shirley
(1694–1771), colonial governor of Massachusetts, built Shirley-Eustis House
House
in Roxbury Aafia Siddiqui, neuroscientist, alleged Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
operative, Roxbury resident 1995-2001 Ebenezer Stevens (1751–1823), American Revolution activist, officer Sonny Stitt
Sonny Stitt
(1924–1982), jazz saxophonist John L. Sullivan
John L. Sullivan
(1858–1918), boxing heavyweight champion, born in Roxbury[98] Donna Summer
Donna Summer
(1948–2012), R&B singer, "Queen of Disco"[99] Increase Sumner
Increase Sumner
(1746–1799), governor of Massachusetts Ralph Tresvant
Ralph Tresvant
(born 1968), member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston
Boston
in 1978 Martha Tucker, great-grandmother of Laura Ingalls Wilder
Laura Ingalls Wilder
and the main character of the Little House:The Martha Years series of books[100] Darius Walker, CNN
CNN
Vice President and New York bureau chief, lived in Roxbury as a youth[101] Jimmy Walker (1944–2007), professional basketball guard Joseph Warren
Joseph Warren
(1741–1775), physician, Revolutionary major general Tony Williams (1945–1997), famous jazz drummer, grew up in Roxbury Malcolm X
Malcolm X
(1925–1965), Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
minister and activist, founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity,[102] spent formative years in Roxbury

Sites of interest[edit]

Franklin Park
Park
Zoo Shirley-Eustis House Madison Park
Park
Technical Vocational High School John D. O'Bryant School
School
of Mathematics & Science Roxbury Community
Community
College Roxbury Historic Markers Dudley Square Hibernian Hall (Boston, Massachusetts)

See also[edit]

Boston
Boston
portal Massachusetts
Massachusetts
portal

Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
Academy Dudley Square Former Mayors of Roxbury Roxbury Film Festival Roxbury High Fort St. Joseph's Church West Roxbury

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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City
of Boston. Retrieved on May 2, 2009. ^ Roxbury History. Part of Roxbury had become the town of West Roxbury on May 24, 1851, and additional land in Roxbury was annexed by Boston in 1860. ^ a b c "Article 89 Urban Agriculture
Agriculture
Initiatives Taking Root". Boston Redevelopment Authority. July 11, 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ a b c d "Demographic Maps".  ^ a b c d "About Roxbury". Roxbury Historical Society. 2014-06-26. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ [1] ^ First Church in Roxbury, MA. Records, 1641-1956, Harvard University Library ^ Thwing, Walter Eliot (1908). "First Church in Roxbury (1630–1650)". Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Historical Markers: Roxbury The Boston
Boston
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Boston
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Massachusetts
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Boston
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of Boston. 2014 City
City
of Boston. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "History of YMCA". YMCA of Greater Boston. Retrieved 27 April 2016.  ^ "John A. Shelburne Community
Community
Center". Timothy Smith Network. Retrieved 27 April 2016.  ^ "Hattie B. Community
Community
Center History". Cooper. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Reggie Lewis Center". Reggie Lewis Center. Retrieved 27 April 2016.  ^ "Student Assignment Policy Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine.." Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Schools. Retrieved on April 15, 2009. ^ " Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
Academy". Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Schools. Retrieved April 15, 2009.  ^ "Roxbury High School
School
students." The Ten O'Clock News at Open Vault WGBH-TV. September 13, 1978. Retrieved on April 16, 2009. ^ "Roxbury Public
Public
Schools". Roxbury Public
Public
Schools.  ^ a b "About". RCC.mass.edu. Roxbury Community
Community
College. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Fall Students Enrolled in Credit Courses by Gender". Rcc.mass.edu. Roxbury Community
Community
College. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "About the Boston
Boston
Campus". Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary. Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Dudley Branch Library." Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Library. Retrieved on May 23, 2010. ^ "Welcome to BDEA". Bacademy. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ a b c "About Us". City
City
on a Hill. City
City
on a Hill Charter Public Schools. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Our School". Roxbury Prep. Uncommon Schools. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Roxbury Prep". Roxbury Prep. Uncommon Schools. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Programs". 826 Boston. 826 Boston. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Head Of The Charles Regatta Boston
Boston
MA Cambridge MA Charles River". www.hocr.org. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ "About Boston
Boston
Children's Museum". www.bostonchildrensmuseum.org. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ a b "The Gallery". www.hamillgallery.com. Retrieved 2016-04-25.  ^ "African art in the heart of Roxbury". Boston.com. Retrieved 2016-04-25.  ^ Interactive, Boston. "Census and Demographic Maps Boston Redevelopment Authority". www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ "Roxbury 'Urban Wilds' to Get Makeover Thanks to Grant Money". Boston
Boston
Magazine. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ Budelman., Designed by Classic Graphx, Customized Code by Mat. "Playhouse in the Park
Park
- Franklin Park
Park
Coalition". Franklin Park Coalition. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ "Roxbury City
City
of Boston". www.cityofboston.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ "The Roxbury International Film Festival". Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts, Boston. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ "Home". Mother's Day
Mother's Day
Walk For Peace. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ "Neighborhood Public
Public
Art: Roxbury". Boston
Boston
Magazine. Retrieved 2016-04-26.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n " Education
Education
- Historic Markers - Roxbury". www.bostonhistory.org. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ " Education
Education
- Historic Markers - Roxbury". www.bostonhistory.org. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ "Safe Street Team". BpdNews. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "National Forum on Youth
Youth
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City
of Boston. 2014 City
City
of Boston. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ "Waste Reduction". City
City
of Boston. 2014 City
City
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House
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City
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City
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Massachusetts
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William Lloyd Garrison
House ^ "Founding father of the sweet science." The Irish Times. Wednesday October 29, 2008. Retrieved on June 18, 2009. ^ Morse, Steve. "A WARM HOMECOMING FOR DONNA SUMMER." The Boston Globe. July 24, 1990. Retrieved on June 18, 2009. ^ Martha Grainne (Morse) Tucker on Find a Grave ^ Walker Becomes CNN
CNN
NY Bureau Chief - TVNewser. Mediabistro.com (2007-07-03). Retrieved on 2013-07-15. ^ Helfer, Andrew; DuBurke, Randy (2006). Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 40. ISBN 0-8090-9504-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Roxbury Directory. Roxbury: John Backup. 1858; 1866. "Historical Sketch of Boston
Boston
Highlands", Mercantile Publishing Company, Boston, 1888. There is much information on Roxbury. Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell (1997), Roxbury, Images of America, Dover, N.H.: Arcadia, OL 287718M  City
City
of Boston
Boston
& Boston
Boston
Redevelopment Authority, "Roxbury Strategic Master Plan", 2004 Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell; Rosenberg, Charlie, Roxbury, Arcadia Publishing, Then & Now series, 2007 Roxbury History— Boston
Boston
Landmarks Commission (2007 archived version) Born before plastic: stories from Boston's most enduring neighborhoods; North End, Roxbury, and South Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: City
City
of Boston
Boston
and Grub Street, Inc., 2007 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Boston
Boston
- Roxbury.

Global Boston: Roxbury Media related to Roxbury, Boston
Boston
at Wikimedia Commons

Maps

1832 Map of the Town
Town
of Roxbury - Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain
Historical Society 1832 Map of Roxbury by John G. Hales at the BPL. 1849 Map of Roxbury by Charles Whitney at the BPL. 1868 Map of Roxbury and Boston
Boston
by E.P.Dutton at the BPL. 1895 Outline and Ward Index Map of Boston
Boston
and Roxbury by George and Walter Bromley. 1895 Map of Ward 17 Roxbury area of Hampton, Gerand, Allerton, and Mass. Ave showing New England
New England
Piano, Mechanics Foundry, and Boston Lead Works at DavidRumsey.com . 1895 Atlas of Boston
Boston
and Roxbury links to the Roxbury Plates - 19, 20, 21, and 31-45. Bailey Co. Map—1888 bird's-eye view map of Roxbury area

Info

Vital Records Of Roxbury 1765-1870 population "Roxbury (Boston, Mass.)". Boston
Boston
TV News Digital Library. WBGH. 1960–2000.  Roxbury Neighborhood - Boston
Boston
Revelopment Authority Boston
Boston
Pictorial Archive. Boston
Boston
Public
Public
Library. Images of Roxbury

Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Archives

The La Alianza Hispana records, 1960-1999 (bulk 1975-1995) are located in the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA. The Lower Roxbury Community
Community
Corporation records, 1968-1978 are located in the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA. The Roxbury Multi-Service Center records, 1965-2002 are located in the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Libraries, Archives and Special
Special
Collections Department, Boston, MA. The Lower Roxbury Black History Project records, 2007-2009 are located in the Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA.

Tourism

Discover Roxbury—tours and information Shirley-Eustis House—Massachusetts' Royal Governor's Mansion Roxbury Crossing
Roxbury Crossing
Historical Trust—historical society

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