ROTTEN TOMATOES is an American review aggregator website for film and
television. The company was launched in August 1998 by Senh Duong and
since January 2010 has been owned by
Flixster , which was, in turn,
acquired in 2011 by
From early 2008 to September 2010, Current Television aired the weekly _ The Rotten Tomatoes Show _, featuring hosts and material from the website. A shorter segment was incorporated into the weekly show, _InfoMania_, which ended in 2011. In September 2013, the website introduced "TV Zone", a section for reviewing scripted TV shows.
* 1 History
* 2 Website
* 2.1 Tomatometer critic aggregate score
* 2.1.1 Golden
* 2.2 Critics Consensus * 2.3 Audience Score and reviews * 2.4 Localized versions * 2.5 API
* 3 Hollywood reaction * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
Duong teamed up with University of California, Berkeley classmates Patrick Y. Lee and Stephen Wang, his former partners at the Berkeley, California –based web design firm Design Reactor, to pursue Rotten Tomatoes on a full-time basis. They officially launched it on April 1, 2000.
In June 2004,
IGN Entertainment acquired rottentomatoes.com for an
undisclosed sum. In September 2005,
IGN was bought by
News Corp 's
Fox Interactive Media . In January 2010,
IGN sold the website to
Flixster . The combined reach of both companies is 30 million unique
visitors a month across all different platforms, according to the
companies. In May 2011,
Flixster was acquired by
In early 2009, Current Television launched the televised version of
the web review site, _The
By late 2009, the website was designed to enable Rotten Tomatoes users to create and join groups to discuss various aspects of film. One group, "The Golden Oyster Awards", accepted votes of members for various awards, spoofing the better-known Oscars or Golden Globes . When Flixster bought the company, they disbanded the groups, announcing: "The Groups area has been discontinued to pave the way for new community features coming soon. In the meantime, please use the Forums to continue your conversations about your favorite movie topics."
As of February 2011, new community features have been added and others removed. For example, users can no longer sort films by Fresh Ratings from Rotten Ratings, and vice versa. On September 17, 2013, a section devoted to scripted television series, called "TV Zone", was created as a subsection of the website.
In February 2016,
TOMATOMETER CRITIC AGGREGATE SCORE
ICON SCORE DESCRIPTION
70–100% CERTIFIED FRESH. Wide-release films with a score of 75% or higher that are reviewed by at least 80 critics, of which 5 are "Top Critics" are given this seal. The "Certified Fresh" seal remains until the score drops below 70%. Films with limited releases only require 40 reviews (including 5 from "Top Critics") to qualify for this seal.
60–100% FRESH. Films with a score of 60% or higher that do not meet the requirements for the "Certified Fresh" seal.
0–59% ROTTEN. Films with a score of 0–59% receive this seal.
The website keeps track of all of the reviews counted for each film and the percentage of positive reviews is calculated. Major, recently released films can attract up to 300 reviews. If the positive reviews make up 60% or more, the film is considered "fresh", in that a supermajority of the reviewers approve of the film. If the positive reviews are less than 60%, the film is considered "rotten".
"Top Critics", such as Roger Ebert , Desson Thomson , Stephen Hunter , Owen Gleiberman , Lisa Schwarzbaum , Peter Travers , and Michael Phillips are identified in a sub-listing that calculates their reviews separately. Their opinions are also included in the general rating. When there are sufficient reviews, the staff creates and posts a consensus statement to express the general reasons for the collective opinion of the film.
This rating is indicated by an equivalent icon at the film listing, to give the reader a one-glance look at the general critical opinion about the work. The "Certified Fresh" seal is reserved for movies that satisfy two criteria: a "Tomatometer" of 75% or better and at least 40 reviews from Tomatometer Critics (including 5 Top Critics). Films earning this status would keep it unless the positive critical percentage drop below 70%. Films with 100% positive ratings but fewer than required reviews may not receive the "Certified Fresh" seal.
In the year 2000,
The films are divided into wide release and limited release categories. Limited releases are defined as opening in 500 or less theaters at initial release. Platform releases , movies initially released under 600 theaters but later receiving wider distribution, fall under this definition. Any film opening in more than 600 theaters is considered wide. There are also two categories purely for British and Australian films. The "User" category represents the highest rated film among users, and the "Mouldy" award represents the worst-reviewed films of the year. A movie must have 40 (originally 20) or more rated reviews to be considered for domestic categories. It must have 500 or more user ratings to be considered for the User category.
Films are further classified based on film genre . Each movie is eligible in only one genre, aside from non-English films, which can be included in both their genre and the respective "Foreign" category.
Once a film is considered eligible, its "votes" are counted. Each
critic from the website's list gets one vote (as determined by their
review), all weighted equally. Because reviews are continually added,
manually and otherwise, a cutoff date at which new reviews are not
counted toward the Golden
Each movie features a brief summary of the reviews used in that entry's Tomatometer aggregate score.
AUDIENCE SCORE AND REVIEWS
Each movie features a "user average," which calculates the percentage of users who have rated the film positively, similar to calculation of recognized critics' reviews. The users' score is more detailed, because users rate the movie on a scale of 0–10. (Critic reviews generally use 4-star ratings and are often qualitative). A user score of 7 (equivalent to 3.5 stars on a 5-star scale) or higher is considered positive. Registered and logged-in users can rate and review movies.
Localized versions of the site available in Britain ,
In recent years, major Hollywood studios have grown to see Rotten Tomatoes as a threat to their marketing . For instance, in 2017 several blockbuster films like _Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales _, _Baywatch _ and _The Mummy _ were projected to open to a respective $90 million, $50 million and $45 million, but ended up debuting with $62.6 million, $23.1 million and $31.6 million. Rotten Tomatoes, which gave the films low scores of 32%, 19% and 15%, respectively, was faulted for undermining them. That same summer, films like _Wonder Woman _ (92%) and _Spider-Man: Homecoming _ (93%) received high scores and opened on-par with their $100+ million trackings.
As result of this concern,
20th Century Fox , commissioned a 2015
study titled “
Some studios have suggested embargoing or cancelling early critic
screenings in a response to poor reviews prior to a film's release
affecting pre-sales and opening weekend numbers. In July 2017, Sony
embargoed critic reviews for _
The Emoji Movie _ until mid-day the
Thursday before its release. The film ended up with a 6% rating
(including 0% after the first 25 reviews), but still opened to $24
million, on par with projections. Josh Greenstein, Sony Pictures
president of worldwide marketing and distribution, said, "_The Emoji
Movie_ was built for people under 18 ... so we wanted to give the
movie its best chance. What other wide release with a score under 8
percent has opened north of $20 million? I don't think there is one."
Conversely, Warner Bros. also did not do critic pre-screenings for
_The House _, which ended up with a 20% rating, until the day of its
release, but it still opened just $8.7 million, the lowest of star
Jon Penn, of the National Research Group (NRG), noted that the
website is an increasingly serious interference to movie marketing :
“Moviegoers love trailers. They pay attention to the TV spots. But
In January 2010, on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the New
By contrast, others have noted that filmmakers have only themselves
to blame if film critics dismiss their films, causing Rotten Tomatoes
to give their product a bad score. As one independent film distributor
marketing executive noted, “To me, it’s a ridiculous argument that
* Internet portal
* Metacritic * Internet Movie Database (IMDb) * List of films with a 0% rating on Rotten Tomatoes * List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes
* ^ "Fandango snaps up
* ^ _A_ _B_ "How ‘Pirates’ & ‘Baywatch’ Are Casualties Of
Summer Franchise Fatigue At The Domestic B.O.". Deadline . May 28,
2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Studios Fight Back Against Withering Rotten
The Hollywood Reporter
* Official website