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Rossendale
Rossendale
/ˈrɒsəndeɪl/ is a district with borough status in Lancashire, England, holding a number of small former mill towns centred on the valley of the River Irwell
River Irwell
in the industrial North West. Rossendale
Rossendale
combines modest size urban development with rural villages and is immediately south of the more populated town of Burnley, east of Blackburn
Blackburn
and north of Bolton, Bury, Manchester
Manchester
and Rochdale, centred 15 miles (24 km) north of Manchester.[2] In the 2001 census the population of Rossendale
Rossendale
was 65,652,[3] spread between the larger towns of Bacup, Haslingden
Haslingden
and Rawtenstall; the villages of Crawshawbooth, Edenfield, Helmshore, Waterfoot, Whitworth; and as well as Britannia, Broadclough, Chatterton, Cloughfold, Cowpe, Irwell Vale, Loveclough, Newchurch, Shawforth, Stacksteads, Stubbins, Turn and Weir. The population at the 2011 Census had risen to 67,922.[4] The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, from the municipal boroughs of Bacup, Haslingden, Rawtenstall, part of Ramsbottom Urban District and Whitworth Urban District. Rossendale
Rossendale
is twinned with the German town of Bocholt, located close to the Netherlands
Netherlands
border. The name "Rossendale" may also refer geographically to Rossendale Valley, and historically refers to the medieval Forest or "Chase" of Rossendale, which encompassed approximately the same area as the modern district. Rossendale
Rossendale
is part of the Rossendale
Rossendale
and Darwen
Darwen
constituency. Jake Berry MP has been the Member of Parliament for Rossendale
Rossendale
and Darwen since 2010. All of Rossendale
Rossendale
is unparished, except for Whitworth, which has a town council.

Contents

1 History and industry 2 Etymology 3 Transport 4 Education in Rossendale 5 The arts in Rossendale 6 Sports and entertainment 7 Settlements

7.1 Civil parishes

8 Notable current and past residents 9 References 10 External links

History and industry[edit] Rossendale
Rossendale
is part of the Forest of Rossendale, which consists of the steep-sided valleys of the River Irwell
River Irwell
and its tributaries, which flow from the Pennines
Pennines
southwards to Manchester
Manchester
and cut through the moorland which is characteristic of the area. It was given the designation of "forest" in medieval times denoting a hunting reserve. The larger settlements grew into market towns, typically through the late Middle Ages. Farming and a cottage woollen industry developed during the reign of Henry VIII, but Rossendale's population only really expanded during the period of the Industrial Revolution. The population was 16,033 in 1801; in 1901 it had grown to 89,540 (relevant censuses). Its wet and damp climate are ideally suited to the development of watermills, and later to the mechanisation of the wool and cotton spinning and weaving industries in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the middle of the 19th century a felt industry developed, and from this the manufacturing of slippers so that footwear also became a major employer in the area.[5] The area became one of the cradles of the Industrial Revolution, and was known as 'The Golden Valley'. There was great hardship among working people during this time, but many fortunes were made among the mill-owning classes.[6] There was large-scale immigration from Ireland to find work building the railways and in the mills, which led to several instances of serious civil disturbances between the two communities. Michael Davitt, the Irish republican
Irish republican
leader was among these immigrants, settling in Haslingden, where he received his education after losing an arm at the age of 11 in a mill accident. The area is also notable for its quarrying, and Rossendale
Rossendale
Flagstone was used widely throughout the country in the 19th century. The flagstones in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
in London
London
were quarried in Rossendale.[7] Upland farming is still carried out, largely of sheep but also of cattle. The history of Rossendale
Rossendale
is well documented, largely through the efforts of the historian Chris Aspin, a specialist on the textile industry, and Derek Pilkington, whose efforts led to the preservation of Higher Mill in Helmshore, now Helmshore
Helmshore
Mills Textile Museum. The Whitworth Doctors were local surgeons and bone setters whose reputation spread far and wide, so that they treated patients from throughout the country, including Princess Elizabeth and the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1819 William Hewitt described them as "the most remarkable men of their class that ever appeared in England". With the steady decline of the cotton industry Rossendale
Rossendale
suffered from serious economic decline which has only recently halted, and the area still has pockets of poverty. However, the opening of fast road connections with Manchester, allied to the attractiveness of the local countryside has meant that Rossendale
Rossendale
has developed a sizeable commuter population. In its wake this is bringing some signs of economic revival, and Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
in particular now houses a number of shops that sell niche fashion and luxury consumer goods alongside Asda and Tesco
Tesco
superstores. This, coupled with redevelopment plans to regenerate the Valley
Valley
Precinct and bus depot (both in Rawtenstall), are intended to attract more businesses and visitors into Rossendale. R.S. Ireland
Ireland
(The Real Lancashire
Lancashire
Black Pudding Co.) is based near Haslingden;[8] a family run business of specialist black pudding makers, using only traditional methods and with a recipe dating back to 1879. Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
has Fitzpatricks Herbal Health, this is the last remaining functioning temperance bar in England, that makes and sells its own non-alcoholic drinks, such as sarsaparilla, black beers and blood tonic. Etymology[edit] The name Rossendale
Rossendale
first appeared in 1292. A record of the name as Rocendal (1242) suggests Celtic ros "moor, heath", with Old Norse dalr "dale, valley", hence moor valley i.e. the valley of the River Irwell.[9] Transport[edit] The borough is linked by the motorway network to Manchester, Burnley and Blackburn
Blackburn
via the A56/M65 and M66 motorways. Bordering Greater Manchester
Manchester
southwards, it is 17.4 miles to Deansgate
Deansgate
(city centre) via the Edenfield
Edenfield
by-pass and M66, with a journey time of around 30 minutes in a car. Alternatively the A56 route can be taken via Edenfield, Walmersley, Bury
Bury
centre, Whitefield, Prestwich
Prestwich
and Broughton. There was once a rail link south to Manchester
Manchester
via Bury, but this was closed in 1966 as part of cuts following the Beeching Report. Part of the old railway reopened in 1991 as the East Lancashire
Lancashire
Railway operating a service from Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
to Bury
Bury
via Ramsbottom and Summerseat, and manned by volunteers. In September 2003 an eastbound extension from Bury
Bury
to Heywood was opened. The line is now just over 12 miles long and is open every weekend of the year. There are aspirations to redevelop this line as a link to Manchester
Manchester
providing a commuter service. As such the nearest railway connections are Blackburn, Burnley, and Todmorden. The area is well served by public transport, with bus services provided mainly by Rosso and Burnley
Burnley
Bus Company. These provide regular services to Burnley, Blackburn, Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Manchester
Manchester
and Rochdale
Rochdale
as well as Todmorden
Todmorden
and other local destinations. In March 2015 a 37-minute rail connection for Rossendale
Rossendale
to the centre of Manchester
Manchester
was proposed.[10] Education in Rossendale[edit] Rossendale
Rossendale
contains multiple secondary schools, these are:

All Saints' Catholic High School Alder Grange Community and Technology School Bacup
Bacup
and Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
Grammar School (selective state school) Haslingden
Haslingden
High School Fearns Community Sports College Whitworth Community High School

In addition, there is Accrington
Accrington
and Rossendale
Rossendale
College, based in Accrington. The arts in Rossendale[edit]

Waugh's Well

Rossendale
Rossendale
is the home to a large community of artists with several painters' studios, many of which are centred on the area around Waterfoot. Rossendale's only traditional theatre is in Bacup. The Royal Court Theatre first opened in 1893 and has a thriving Youth Theatre called The Rossendale
Rossendale
Musical Theatre Academy. The theatre and arts centre known as 'The Boo' as well as being a regular venue for family theatre shows, music and a wide range of arts events, is the home of the Horse and Bamboo Theatre
Horse and Bamboo Theatre
Company who specialise in visual theatre, often using distinctive masks. The painters and other artists who make up the major studios within the valley - Globe Arts, Prospect Studio, Valley
Valley
Artists - along with the Boo, the Whitaker, Apna Rossendale, and individual artists now work together to open their studios and premises each year at the Rossendale
Rossendale
Art Trail Open Studios weekend in late summer. The first part of the Irwell Sculpture Trail
Irwell Sculpture Trail
runs from Deerplay, above Bacup, to Stubbins. The actress Jane Horrocks was born in Rawtenstall, Rossendale, and the composer Alan Rawsthorne was born in Haslingden. Betty Jackson, the fashion designer, is a native of Bacup. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Larks of Dean were an unusual group of working class musicians whose music-making at the Baptist
Baptist
Chapel in Goodshaw
Goodshaw
Fold became an important local feature. There is also a brass band tradition as well as an amateur theatre scene. There was once over 40 bands in and around Rossendale, including the Irwell Springs Band whose fame was at a peak at the turn of the 19th century. There are currently the Haslingden
Haslingden
and Helmshore
Helmshore
Band, Rossendale
Rossendale
Encore Concert Band, Goodshaw
Goodshaw
Band, Stacksteads
Stacksteads
Band, Water Band, 2nd Rossendale
Rossendale
Scout Group Band, Whitworth Vale & Healey Band, Whitworth Youth Band, Haslingden
Haslingden
Concert Band and the Whitworth Veterans' Band. Rossendale
Rossendale
is home to a unique dancing troup, the Britannia Coco-nut Dancers, formed in the mid-19th century, and who traditionally dance along the local roads every Easter.

Haslingden
Haslingden
Halo

There has been a long tradition of dialect poetry and writing in Rossendale.[11] Local poets have included Andrew Houston (The Rossendale
Rossendale
Bard), Walter Hargreaves (Shepster) and Clifford Heyworth (Bill o' Bows). Waugh's Well, above Edenfield
Edenfield
and Cowpe, marks the spot where Edwin Waugh
Edwin Waugh
wrote many of his poems, and is a favourite spot for walkers - a popular activity in Rossendale
Rossendale
that does not appear to be in decline. The Halo is an artwork in the form of an 18m-diameter steel lattice structure supported on a tripod overlooking Haslingden, positioned to be clearly visible from the M66 and A56 approach to Lancashire. Designed by John Kennedy and selected as part of a design competition managed by RIBA Competitions
RIBA Competitions
which was launched in 2003. It is lit after dark using low-energy LEDs powered by an adjacent wind turbine. It is the fourth Panopticon in Lancashire. It, and the adjacent landscaped area at Top o'Slate, was opened to the public in September 2007, and was designed by John Kennedy of LandLab and engineered by Booth King Partnership. Rossendale
Rossendale
is also home to touring theatre company Hard Graft. Established in 1999 Hard Graft found notoriety in the UK touring non theatre venues. Their first tour was with their award winning comedy Thick As Thieves , touring living rooms throughout the UK. They then toured 56 charity shops with Burt n Joyce turning each shop into a theatre for the evening. Sports and entertainment[edit]

Lee Quarry
Lee Quarry
now contains a purpose-built mountain bike trail.[12]

Three Rossendale
Rossendale
towns have cricket clubs in the Lancashire
Lancashire
League - Bacup, Haslingden
Haslingden
and Rawtenstall. The overseas professionals who are associated with the League have therefore often lived in the Rossendale
Rossendale
Valley. For example, Everton Weekes
Everton Weekes
was long associated with Bacup; Clive Lloyd
Clive Lloyd
with Haslingden. Edenfield
Edenfield
Cricket Club are also associated with the Lancashire
Lancashire
League but only participate in the leagues T/20 competition. Rossendale
Rossendale
rugby club for many years had been a small rugby union club playing in the lower leagues, but in recent years the club has gained two promotions to take them into National League 3 North. Notable players such Daniel Collins, Dave Wood and Tim Fourie now play at the valley side. The area's only semi-pro non league football team are Bacup
Bacup
Borough F.C. who play their home games at West View and are members of the North West Counties League
North West Counties League
Division One. The area's other major non league side Rossendale
Rossendale
United, who played their home games at nearby Newchurch near Rawtenstall, folded in 2011. The only other semi-pro team from the Rossendale
Rossendale
area are Ramsbottom United
Ramsbottom United
who play in the Northern Premier League Division One North. Previously there had been Haslingden
Haslingden
F.C., playing at Ewood Bridge, on the outskirts of Haslingden, until they folded in 1998. Their ground was later used briefly by Stand Athletic F.C.
Stand Athletic F.C.
before they vacated and moved back to Whitefield in Greater Manchester. Other clubs around the Rossendale area are all from Step 7 (Level 11) and below, and so playing in various leagues at this level - the West Lancashire
Lancashire
Football League ( Haslingden
Haslingden
St Mary's), East Lancashire
Lancashire
League ( Stacksteads
Stacksteads
St Joseph's, Water FC), Lancashire
Lancashire
Amateur League ( Rossendale
Rossendale
FC, Whitworth Valley, Valley
Valley
United). The popular comedy series, The League of Gentlemen
The League of Gentlemen
is apparently based upon Rossendale
Rossendale
(and perhaps Bacup
Bacup
in particular), playing upon stereotypes and exaggerations of the area. Subsequently, the producers filmed in various northern towns, one of which was Bacup
Bacup
itself, which Jeremy Dyson
Jeremy Dyson
(writer) and Steve Pemberton
Steve Pemberton
(actor) proclaimed, "Bacup was the furthest we went into Lancashire. Bacup
Bacup
was our hot favourite, but it was too frightening - when we arrived there was this cartoon drunk with a bottle shaking his fist at us. Bacup
Bacup
in real life was worse than Royston Vasey".[13] Various towns within the Rossendale Valley
Rossendale Valley
were used for filming scenes of the BBC TV series Hetty Wainthropp Investigates
Hetty Wainthropp Investigates
during the 1990s. The 1980 drama Juliet Bravo
Juliet Bravo
was filmed in Rossendale. During autumn 2008 areas around Rossendale
Rossendale
were used in the filming of the BBC TV series Survivors (2008 TV Series)
Survivors (2008 TV Series)
including the Airtours site and other sites in Helmshore
Helmshore
and Bank Street in Rawtenstall. In 2012 Rossendale
Rossendale
featured on the ITV reality television series "May the Best House Win" featuring former Rossendale Radio
Rossendale Radio
DJ Si Carvell. Local radio station Rossendale Radio
Rossendale Radio
broadcast throughout the valley from 2010, before shutting down on 5 March 2012 due to financial difficulties. The area has a sizeable ski slope, appropriately named Ski Rossendale, which attracts many visitors. The slope has spawned and aided the Brass brothers, Steve Bailey, Chris Moran, Danny Wheeler; and more recently Johnny Greenwood, Colum Mytton and Molly Percival (née Boys) to fame in the snowboarding world. Until recent years, Rossendale
Rossendale
also hosted the Rossendale
Rossendale
Motorbike Show which brought in motorbike enthusiasts from across the country. Based in Nelson, the Rossendale
Rossendale
Model Stock Car Club races scalextric-like 1/32 scale model stock cars. Rossendale
Rossendale
is sometimes called "The Valley
Valley
of Song", and this was certainly the case when the choir was founded in 1924, by Fred Tomlinson MBE. He took a group of men and moulded them into one of the country's finest male voice choirs, winning countless festivals, including the international Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
in Llangollen
Llangollen
on four occasions. The choir has been fortunate in enjoying the services of several conductors, some of whom have remained for many years. The choir's current musical director is Kate Shipway, and like all the others, Kate brings something new and vibrant to the table, and it is from this diversity that the choir has continued to draw great benefit. Over the years, and from different competitions, trophies and silverware have been held aloft and brought back to the valley. Whilst these are a good yard-stick of the choir's abilities, they have never been the most important aspect of what the choir does, and why they do it. Friendships between the members are integral to the choir, and sharing a love of singing and music-making drives all members to do their very best, at any concert or festival. These friendships extend well beyond the valley, and the choir has an active twinning association with two German choirs; a ladies choir from Monchengladbach, and a male voice choir from Bocholt. The choir has been heavily involved is charity fundraising work, and recently appeared alongside the Black Dyke Band, raising £30,000 for the Christie Hospital. Settlements[edit]

Bacup

Haslingden

Rawtenstall

Balladen

Bent Gate

Britannia

Broadclough

Chatterton

Cloughfold

Cowpe

Crawshawbooth

Edenfield

Goodshaw

Helmshore

Irwell Vale

Loveclough

Newchurch

Sharneyford

Shawforth

Stacksteads

Strongstry

Stubbins

Turn Village

Waterfoot

Weir

Whitworth

Hail Storm Hill

Musbury Tor

Brown Wardle

Towns, villages and hills in the Borough of Rossendale

Civil parishes[edit]

  Whitworth parish shown within Rossendale

Whitworth is the only civil parish in Rossendale. Notable current and past residents[edit] For notable past residents see individual towns and villages

Agyness Deyn – model Natalie Casey – actress/presenter (Hollyoaks) Jane Horrocks – actress Ted Robbins – actor/comedian (Phoenix Nights) William Roache – actor Phil Neville – footballer (Everton) Sam Aston – actor (Coronation Street) Jennie McAlpine – actress (Coronation Street) Andy Kershaw – DJ/reporter Liz Kershaw – DJ Karl Burns – punk drummer from The Fall David Trippier – Former Conservative environment minister Michael Carr – Former Liberal Democrat MP Frankee Connolly – member of music duo Mini Viva Phil Lester – YouTuber, author, and former BBC Radio 1 presenter Chris Allen – Lead Vocalist, The Troggs

References[edit]

^ "Resident Population Estimates by Ethnic Group (Percentages)". Office for National Statistics. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2008.  ^ Grid reference Finder measurement tools ^ Government census records ^ "Non metropolitan district population 2011". Retrieved 14 January 2016.  ^ A Rossendale
Rossendale
Anthology; Ronald Digby; Forest Press, Bacup
Bacup
1969 ^ Lancashire
Lancashire
- The First Industrial Society; Chris Aspin; Carnegie 1995; ISBN 1-85936-016-5 ^ Building Blocks; D. Revell and A. Baldwin; 1985; ISBN 0-947738-13-4 ^ http://www.reallancashireblackpuddings.co.uk/ ^ Oxford Dictionary of British Place Names; A.D. Mills; OUP 1991; ISBN 0-19-852758-6. ^ Template:Cite url=http://www.rossendalefreepress.co.uk/news/rossendale-rail-link-could-connect-8768137 ^ A Bacup
Bacup
Miscellany : Prose and Verse by Local Writers Past and Present. Ed. Harry Craven. ISBN 978-0-9502527-0-4 ^ "News : The Adrenaline Live! Weekend Takes Shape". lancashire.gov.uk. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2009-03-15.  ^ The League Of Gentleman Blog; https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/gwaddingham/log.htm&date=2009-10-25+23:37:08

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borough of Rossendale.

Higher Mill Textile Museum

v t e

Geography of the Borough of Rossendale

Towns

Bacup Haslingden Rawtenstall

Villages

Broadclough Crawshawbooth Edenfield Helmshore Lumb Newchurch Waterfoot Whitworth

Hamlets

Balladen Bent Gate Britannia Chatterton Cloughfold Cowpe Goodshaw Irwell Vale Loveclough Sharneyford Shawforth Stacksteads Strongstry Stubbins Turn Village Weir

Parishes

Whitworth

Topography

Hills

Brown Wardle Hill Hail Storm Hill Musbury Tor

Waterways

River Irwell Limy Water River Ogden Whitewell Brook

Reservoirs

Calf Hey Reservoir

Valleys

Alden Valley Haslingden
Haslingden
Grane Irwell Valley Musbury Valley Rossendale
Rossendale
Valley

v t e

Buildings and structures in the Borough of Rossendale

Grade II*

Places of worship

Crawshawbooth: St John the Evangelist Newchurch: St Nicholas

Grade II

Higher Mill, Helmshore

Places of worship

Bacup: Christ Constable Lee: St Paul Rawtenstall: St John

Unlisted

Scout Moor Wind Farm

Listed in

Bacup Haslingden Rawtenstall Whitworth

v t e

Culture and infrastructure of the Borough of Rossendale

Transport

East Lancashire
Lancashire
Railway Rosso Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
Corporation Tramways

Heritage railway stations

Irwell Vale Rawtenstall

Disused railway stations

Bacup Britannia Clough Fold Ewood Bridge and Edenfield Facit Haslingden Helmshore Shawforth Stacksteads Stubbins Waterfoot Whitworth

Schools

Alder Grange All Saints' Bacup
Bacup
and Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
Grammar Fearns Haslingden Whitworth

Sport

Bacup
Bacup
Borough F.C. Bacup
Bacup
Cricket Club Haslingden
Haslingden
Cricket Club Lee Quarry Ramsbottom Cricket Club Ramsbottom United
Ramsbottom United
F.C. Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
Athletic F.C. Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
Cricket Club Rossendale
Rossendale
RUFC Rossendale United
Rossendale United
F.C.

Media

Rossendale
Rossendale
Radio

Politics

Council Council elections

1998 99 2000 02 03 04 06 07 08 10 11 12 14 15

Constituencies: Rossendale

By-elections: 1892 1900 04 17

Rossendale
Rossendale
and Darwen

v t e

Ceremonial county of Lancashire

North West England
North West England
Portal

Unitary authorities

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool

Boroughs or districts

City of Lancaster City of Preston Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Pendle Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Major settlements

Accrington Adlington Bacup Barnoldswick Blackburn Blackpool Brierfield Burnley Carnforth Chorley Cleveleys Clitheroe Colne Darwen Earby Fleetwood Garstang Great Harwood Haslingden Kirkham Lancaster Leyland Longridge Lytham St Annes Morecambe Nelson Ormskirk Oswaldtwistle Padiham Penwortham Poulton-le-Fylde Preesall Preston Rawtenstall Rishton Skelmersdale Waterfoot Whitworth See also: List of civil parishes in Lancashire

Rivers

Calder Darwen Douglas Hodder Irwell Lune Ribble Wyre

Canals

Lancaster Leeds and Liverpool

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements Schools SSSIs Country houses Grade I buildings Grade II* buildings History Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

v t e

Districts of North West England

Cheshire

Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Halton Warrington

Cumbria

Allerdale Barrow-in-Furness Carlisle Copeland Eden South Lakeland

Greater Manchester

Bolton Bury Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Trafford Wigan

Lancashire

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Lancaster Pendle Preston Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Merseyside

Knowsley Liverpool St Helens Sefton Wirral

Coordinates: 53°41′00″N 02°15′00″W / 53.68333°N 2.25000°W /

.