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The Ross Sea
Sea
is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
in Antarctica, between Victoria Land
Victoria Land
and Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
and within the Ross Embayment. It derives its name from the British explorer James Ross who visited this area in 1841. To the west of the sea lies Ross Island and Victoria Land, to the east Roosevelt Island and Edward VII Peninsula in Marie Byrd Land, while the southernmost part is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf, and is about 200 miles (320 km) from the South Pole. Its boundaries and area have been defined by the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
as having an area of 637,000 square kilometres (246,000 sq mi).[1] The underlying rocks are of upper Precambrian
Precambrian
to lower Paleozoic
Paleozoic
age and are partly composed of calcium carbonate[citation needed]. The circulation of the Ross Sea
Sea
is dominated by a wind-driven ocean gyre and the flow is strongly influenced by three submarine ridges that run from southwest to northeast[citation needed]. The circumpolar deep water current is a relatively warm, salty and nutrient-rich water mass that flows onto the continental shelf at certain locations. The Ross Sea
Sea
is covered with ice for most of the year[citation needed]. The nutrient-laden water supports an abundance of plankton and this encourages a rich marine fauna. At least ten mammal species, six bird species and 95 fish species are found here, as well as many invertebrates, and the sea remains relatively unaffected by human activities. New Zealand has claimed that the sea comes under their jurisdiction as part of the Ross Dependency. Marine biologists consider the sea to have a high level of biological diversity and it is the site of much scientific research. It is also the focus of some environmentalist groups who have campaigned to have the area proclaimed as a world marine reserve.

Contents

1 Description 2 Geology

2.1 The continental shelf 2.2 The Ross System

3 Oceanography

3.1 Circulation

4 Ecological importance and conservation

4.1 Biodiversity 4.2 Toothfish Fishery 4.3 Marine Protected Area

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit] The Ross Sea
Sea
was discovered by James Ross in 1841. In the west of the Ross Sea
Sea
is Ross Island
Ross Island
with the Mt. Erebus volcano, in the east Roosevelt Island. The southern part is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf.[2] Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
started his South Pole
South Pole
expedition in 1911 from the Bay of Whales, which was located at the shelf. In the west of the Ross sea, McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
is a port which is usually free of ice during the summer. The southernmost part of the Ross Sea
Sea
is Gould Coast, which is approximately two hundred miles from the geographic South Pole. Geology[edit] The continental shelf[edit] The Ross Sea
Sea
(and Ross Ice Shelf) overlies a deep continental shelf. Although the average depth of the world’s continental shelves (at the shelf break joining the continental slope) is about 130 meters,[3][4] the Ross shelf average depth is about 500 meters.[5] It is shallower in the western Ross Sea
Sea
(east longitudes) than the east (west longitudes).[5] This overdeepened condition is due to cycles of erosion and deposition of sediments from expanding and contracting ice sheets overriding the shelf since Oligocene time,[6] and is also found on other locations around Antarctica.[7] Erosion was more focused on the inner parts of the shelf while deposition of sediment dominated the outer shelf, making the inner shelf deeper than the outer.[6][8] The Ross System[edit] Ross System rocks are of upper Precambrian
Precambrian
to lower Paleozoic
Paleozoic
age and each group of Ross System have an echelon vein pattern demonstrating possible dextral faulting. These miogeosyncline metasedimentary rocks are usually folded about northwest and southeast axes and are partly composed of calcium carbonate, often including limestone. Groups within the Ross System include the Robertson Bay Group, Priestley Group, Skelton Group, Beardmore Group, Byrd Group, Queen Maud Group, and Koettlitz Group. The Robertson Bay Group ranges from 56 to 76% silica and compares closely with other Ross System members. The Priestley Group rocks are similar to those of the Robertson Bay Group and include dark slates, argillites, siltstones, fine sandstones and limestones. They can be found near the Priestley and Campbell glaciers. For thirty miles along the lower Skelton Glacier
Skelton Glacier
are the calcareous greywackes and argillites of the Skelton Group. The region between the lower Beardmore Glacier
Beardmore Glacier
and the lower Shackelton Glacier sits the Beardmore Group. North of the Nimrod Glacier
Nimrod Glacier
are four block faulted ranges that make up the Byrd Group. The contents of the Queen Maud Group area are mainly post-tectonic granite.[9] Oceanography[edit] Circulation[edit]

Bloom in the Ross Sea, January 2011

The Ross Sea
Sea
circulation, dominated by polynya processes, is in general very slow-moving. Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is a relatively warm, salty and nutrient-rich water mass that flows onto the continental shelf at certain locations in the Ross Sea. Through heat flux, this water mass moderates the ice cover. The near-surface water also provides a warm environment for some animals and nutrients to excite primary production. CDW transport onto the shelf is known to be persistent and periodic, and is thought to occur at specific locations influenced by bottom topography. The circulation of the Ross Sea
Sea
is dominated by a wind-driven gyre. The flow is strongly influenced by three submarine ridges that run from southwest to northeast. Flow over the shelf below the surface layer consists of two anticyclonic gyres connected by a central cyclonic flow. The flow is considerable in spring and winter, due to influencing tides. The Ross Sea
Sea
is covered with ice for much of the year and ice concentrations and in the south-central region little melting occurs. Ice concentrations in the Ross Sea
Sea
are influenced by winds with ice remaining in the western region throughout the austral spring and generally melting in January due to local heating. This leads to extremely strong stratification and shallow mixed layers in the western Ross Sea.[10] Ecological importance and conservation[edit] The Ross Sea
Sea
is one of the last stretches of seas on Earth
Earth
that remains relatively unaffected by human activities.[11] Because of this, it remains almost totally free from pollution and the introduction of invasive species. Consequently, the Ross Sea
Sea
has become a focus of numerous environmentalist groups who have campaigned to make the area a world marine reserve, citing the rare opportunity to protect the Ross Sea
Sea
from a growing number of threats and destruction. The Ross Sea
Sea
is regarded by marine biologists as having a very high biological diversity and as such has a long history of human exploration and scientific research, with some datasets going back over 150 years.[12][13] Biodiversity[edit] The Ross Sea
Sea
is home to at least 10 mammal species, half a dozen species of birds, 95 species of fish, and over 1,000 invertebrate species. Some species of birds that nest in and near the Ross Sea include the Adélie penguin, emperor penguin, Antarctic petrel, snow petrel, and south polar skua. Marine mammals in the Ross Sea
Sea
include the Antarctic minke whale, killer whale, Weddell seal, crabeater seal, and leopard seal. Antarctic toothfish, Antarctic silverfish, Antarctic krill, and crystal krill also swim in the cold Antarctic water of the Ross Sea.[14] The flora and fauna are considered similar to other southern Antarctic marine regions. Particularly in Summer, the nutrient-rich sea water supports an abundant planktonic life in turn providing food for larger species, such as fish, seals, whales, and sea- and shore-birds. Albatrosses rely on wind to travel and cannot get airborne in a calm. The westerlies do not extend as far south as the ice edge and therefore albatrosses do not travel often to the ice-pack. An albatross would be trapped on an ice floe for many days if it landed in the calm.[15] The coastal parts of the sea contain a number of rookeries of Adélie and Emperor penguins, which have been observed at a number of places around the Ross Sea, both towards the coast and outwards in open sea.[2] A 10-metre (32.8 feet) long colossal squid weighing 495 kilograms (1,091 lb) was captured in the Ross Sea
Sea
on February 22, 2007.[16][17][18][19][20] Toothfish Fishery[edit] In 2010, the Ross Sea
Sea
Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
fishery was independently certified by the Marine Stewardship Council,[21] and has been rated as a 'Good Alternative' by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch program[citation needed]. However, a 2008 document submitted to the CCAMLR reported significant declines in toothfish populations of McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
coinciding with the development of the industrial toothfishing industry since 1996, and other reports have noted a coincident decrease in the number of orcas. The report recommended a full moratorium on fishing over the Ross shelf.[22] In October 2012, Philippa Ross, James Ross' great, great, great granddaughter, voiced her opposition to fishing in the area.[23] In the southern winter of 2017 New Zealand scientists discovered the breeding ground of the Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
in the northern Ross Sea seamounts for the first time[24] underscoring how little is known about the species. Marine Protected Area[edit] Beginning in 2005, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) commissioned scientific analysis and planning for Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Antarctic. In 2010, the CCAMLR endorsed their Scientific Committee’s proposal to develop Antarctic MPAs for conservation purposes. The US State Department submitted a proposal for a Ross Sea
Sea
MPA at the September 2012 meeting of the CCAMLR.[25] At this stage, a sustained campaign by various international and national NGOs commenced to accelerate the process[26]. In July 2013, the CCAMLR held a meeting in Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
in Germany, to decide whether to turn the Ross Sea
Sea
into an MPA. The deal failed due to Russia voting against it, citing uncertainty about whether the commission had the authority to establish a marine protected area.[27] In October 2014, the MPA proposal was again defeated at the CCAMLR by votes against from China and Russia.[28] At the October 2015 meeting a revised MPA proposal from the US and New Zealand was expanded with the assistance of China, who however shifted the MPA's priorities from conservation by allowing commercial fishing. The proposal was again blocked by Russia.[29] On 28 October 2016, at its annual meeting in Hobart, a Ross Sea
Sea
marine park was finally declared by the CCAMLR, under an agreement signed by 24 countries and the European Union. It protected over 1.5 million square kilometres of sea, and was the world's largest protected area at the time. However, a sunset provision of 35 years was inserted as part of negotiations, which means it does not meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature definition of a marine protected area, which requires it to be permanent.[30] See also[edit]

Beaufort Island Iceberg B-15 McMurdo Station Ross Dependency Ross Gyre Ross Ice Shelf

References[edit]

^ "About the Ross Sea". NIWA. 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2018-02-23.  ^ a b "Ross Sea
Sea
(sea, Pacific Ocean) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ Gross, M. Grant (1977). Oceanography: A view of the Earth
Earth
(6 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 28.  ^ Shepard, F.P. (1963). Submarine Geology (2 ed.). New York: Harper & Row. p. 264.  ^ a b Hayes, D.E.; Davey, F.J. A Geophysical Study of the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Antarctica
(PDF). doi:10.2973/dsdp.proc.28.134.1975.  ^ a b Bartek, L. R.; Vail, P. R.; Anderson, J. B.; Emmet, P. A.; Wu, S. (1991-04-10). "Effect of Cenozoic ice sheet fluctuations in Antarctica
Antarctica
on the stratigraphic signature of the Neogene". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 96 (B4): 6753–6778. doi:10.1029/90jb02528. ISSN 2156-2202.  ^ Barker, P.F., Barrett, P.J., Camerlenghi, A., Cooper, A.K., Davey, F.J., Domack, E.W., Escutia, C., Kristoffersen, Y. and O'Brien, P.E. (1998). "Ice sheet history from Antarctic continental margin sediments: the ANTOSTRAT approach". Terra Antarctica. 5 (4): 737–760. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher; Johnson, Aaron H. (1995). "Morphology and stratal geometry of the Antarctic continental shelf: insights from models". In Cooper, Alan K.; Barker, Peter F.; Brancolini, Giuliano. Geology and Seismic Stratigraphy of the Antarctic Margin. American Geophysical Union. pp. 1–24. doi:10.1029/ar068p0001. ISBN 9781118669013.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20150423115646/http://www.rosssea.info/sub-antarctic-bird-life.html ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ Ballard, Grant; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Veloz, Samuel D.; Ainley, David G. (1 November 2012). "Coexistence of mesopredators in an intact polar ocean ecosystem: The basis for defining a Ross Sea
Sea
marine protected area". Biological Conservation. 156: 72–82. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.017.  ^ (dead link) Archived 25 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Antarctic and Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
Coalition. "The Ross Sea" (PDF). The Ross Sea
Sea
- Antarctic and Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
Coalition. ASOC. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ http://www.lastocean.org/Ross-Sea/Antarctic-wildlife-animals-Adelie-penguin-Emperor-penguin-__I.2431 ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20150423115646/http://www.rosssea.info/sub-antarctic-bird-life.html ^ "World's largest squid landed in NZ - Beehive (Govt of NZ)". 2007-02-22. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ "NZ fishermen land colossal squid - BBC News". 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ "Colossal squid's headache for science - BBC News". 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ "Size matters on 'squid row' (+photos, video) - The New Zealand Herald". 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ "Colossal squid's big eye revealed - BBC News". 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2013-06-11.  ^ Marine Stewardship Council. "Ross Sea
Sea
toothfish longline — Marine Stewardship Council". www.msc.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ DeVries, Arthur L.; Ainley, David G.; Ballard, Grant. "Decline of the Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
and its predators in McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
and the southern Ross Sea, and recommendations for restoration" (PDF). CCAMLR. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ "Ross descendant wants sea protected". 3 News NZ. 29 October 2012.  ^ "Peeping in on the Mile Deep Club Hakai Magazine". Hakai Magazine. Retrieved 2017-08-16.  ^ Delegation of the United States. "A PROPOSAL FOR THE ROSS SEA REGION MARINE PROTECTED AREA" (PDF). Proposed Marine Protected Area
Marine Protected Area
in Antarctica's Ross Sea. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ "Antarctic Oceans Alliance". www.antarcticocean.org. Retrieved 2017-08-16.  ^ NewScientist, No. 2926, 20 July, "Fight to preserve last pristine ecosystem fails" ^ Mathiesen, Karl (31 October 2014). "Russia accused of blocking creation of vast Antarctic marine reserves". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ The Pew Charitable Trusts. "Pew: Nations Miss Historic Opportunity to Protect Antarctic Waters". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ Slezak, Michael (26 October 2016). "World's largest marine park created in Ross Sea
Sea
in Antarctica
Antarctica
in landmark deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 

External links[edit] Media related to Ross Sea
Sea
at Wikimedia Commons

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, New Zealand and United States Delegation, 2015. A proposal for the establishment of a Ross Sea
Sea
Region Marine Protected Area J.Glausiusz, 2007, Raw Data: Beacon Bird
Bird
of Climate Change. Discover Magazine. Gunn, B., nd, Geology The Ross Sea
Sea
Dependency including Victoria-Land Ross Sea, Antarctica, Including the Ross Sea
Sea
Dependency, the Sub-Antarctic Islands and sea, up to New Zealand from the Pole. K.Hansen, 2007, Paleoclimate: Penguin poop adds to climate picture. Geotimes. International Polar Foundation, 2007, Interview with Dr. Steven Emslie: The Adélie Penguins' Diet Shift. SciencePoles website. C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Ross Sea. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC Locarnini, R.A., 1995, the Ross Sea. Quarterdeck, vol. 1, no. 3.(Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.) "Nth Korean boats caught fishing in conservation area". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 7 April 2011.  http://www.antarcticocean.org/. International campaign to establish Marine Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean. [1] The Last Ocean, documentary film on the Ross Sea
Sea
and the international debate over its fate.

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