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ROSH HASHANAH ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה‎, literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year") is the Jewish New Year . The biblical name for this holiday is YOM TERUAH (יוֹם תְּרוּעָה‎), literally "day shouting/blasting". It is the first of the Jewish High Holy Days
High Holy Days
(יָמִים נוֹרָאִים‎ Yamim Nora'im, lit. "Days Awe") specified by Leviticus 23:23–32, which usually occur in the early autumn of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
.

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is a two-day celebration, which begins on the first day of Tishrei . Tishrei is the first month of the Jewish civil year, but the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year .

According to Judaism, Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
marks the beginning of the year because it is held on the traditional anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
, the first man and woman according to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and their inauguration of humanity's role in God 's world. According to one secular opinion, the holiday owes its timing to the beginning of the economic year in Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, marking the start of the agricultural cycle.

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
customs include sounding the shofar (a hollowed-out ram's horn), as prescribed in the Torah
Torah
, following the prescription of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
to "raise a noise" on Yom Teruah; and among its rabbinical customs is attending synagogue services and reciting special liturgy about teshuva , as also enjoying festive meals. Eating symbolic foods such as apples dipped in honey is now a tradition, hoping thereby to evoke a "sweet new year".

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Religious significance

* 4 Customs

* 4.1 Karaite Judaism
Judaism
* 4.2 Samaritanism

* 5 Shofar
Shofar
blowing * 6 Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
eve * 7 Duration and timing * 8 Prayer service * 9 Symbolic foods * 10 Tashlikh * 11 Greetings * 12 Gallery * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Bibliography * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

"Rosh" is the Hebrew
Hebrew
word for "head", "ha" is the definite article ("the"), and "shanah" means year. Thus "Rosh HaShanah" means 'head the year', referring to the Jewish day of new year.

The term "Rosh Hashanah" in its current meaning does not appear in the Torah
Torah
. Leviticus 23:24 refers to the festival of the first day of the seventh month as "Zikhron Teru'ah" (" memorial blowing "); it is also referred to in the same part of Leviticus as 'שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן‎' (shabbat shabbaton) or penultimate Sabbath or meditative rest day, and a "holy day to God". These same words are commonly used in the Psalms to refer to the anointed days. Numbers 29:1 calls the festival Yom Teru'ah, ("Day blowing "), and symbolizes a number of subjects, such as the Binding of Isaac whereby a ram was sacrificed instead of Isaac, and the animal sacrifices , including rams, that were to be performed. (The term Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
appears once in the Bible in Ezekiel 40:1 where it means generally the time of the "beginning of the year" or is possibly a reference to Yom Kippur , but the phrase may also refer to the Hebrew
Hebrew
month of Nisan
Nisan
in the spring, especially in light of Exodus 12:2, Exodus 13:3–4 where the spring month of Aviv , later renamed Nisan, is stated as being "the first month of the year" and Ezekiel 45:18 where "the first month" unambiguously refers to Nisan, the month of Passover
Passover
, as made plain by Ezekiel 45:21. )

In the Siddur and Machzor
Machzor
Jewish prayer-books Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is also called "Yom Hazikaron" ( day the remembrance), not to be confused with the modern Israeli holiday of the same name which falls in spring.

The Hebrew
Hebrew
Rosh HaShanah is etymologically related to the Arabic
Arabic
Ras as-Sanah , the name Muslims give for the Islamic New Year.

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
marks the start of a new year in the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar (one of four "new year" observances that define various legal "years" for different purposes as explained in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
). It is the new year for people, animals, and legal contracts. The Mishnah also sets this day aside as the new year for calculating calendar years, shmita and yovel years. Jews
Jews
are confident that Rosh Hashanah represents either figuratively or literally God's creation ex nihilo . However, according to Rabbi Eleazar ben Shammua , Rosh Hashanah commemorates the creation of man.

ORIGINS

The earliest origins of the Hebrew
Hebrew
New Year
New Year
are connected to the beginning of the economic year in the agricultural societies of the ancient Near East . The New Year
New Year
was the beginning of the cycle of sowing, growth, and harvest, the latter marked by its own set of major agricultural festivals. The Semites in general set the beginning of the new year in autumn, while other ancient civilizations such as the Persians or Greeks chose spring for that purpose, in both cases the primary reason being agricultural – the time of sowing the seed and of bringing in the harvest.

In Jewish law, four major New Years are observed, each one marking a beginning of sorts; the lunar month Nisan
Nisan
(usually corresponding to the months March–April in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
) being when a new year is added to the reign of Jewish kings, as also the month marking the start of the year for the three Jewish pilgrimages. Its injunction is expressly stated in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible: "This month shall be unto you the beginning of months" (Exo. 12:2). However, the start of the calendric year, that is to say, when reckoning ordinary years, Sabbatical years , Jubilees and dates inscribed on legal deeds and contracts, the commencement of such years begins on the first day of the lunar month Tishri (usually corresponding to the months September–October in the Gregorian calendar), and whose injunction is expressly stated in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible: "Three times in the year you shall keep a feast unto me... the feast of unleavened bread (Passover )... the feast of harvest ( Shavuot )... and the feast of ingathering ( Sukkot
Sukkot
) which is at the departing of the year" (Exo. 23:14–16). By saying, "at the departing of the year," it is implied that the year's beginning also starts there.

The reckoning of Tishri as the beginning of the Jewish year began with the early Egyptians and was preserved by the Hebrew
Hebrew
nation, being also alluded to in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Genesis 7:11) when describing the Great Deluge at the time of Noah, and which was said to have begun during the "second month" ( Marheshvan ), counting from Tishri, a view that has largely been accepted by the Sages of Israel.

RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE

The Mishnah
Mishnah
contains the second known reference to Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
as the "day of judgment". In the Talmud
Talmud
tractate on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
, it states that three books of account are opened on Rosh Hashanah, wherein the fate of the wicked, the righteous, and those of an intermediate class are recorded. The names of the righteous are immediately inscribed in the book of life and they are sealed "to live". The intermediate class are allowed a respite of ten days, until Yom Kippur, to reflect, repent and become righteous; the wicked are "blotted out of the book of the living forever".

In Jewish liturgy , Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
leads to Yom Kippur, which is described as "the day of judgment" (Yom ha-Din) and "the day of remembrance" (Yom ha-Zikkaron). Some midrashic descriptions depict God as sitting upon a throne , while books containing the deeds of all humanity are opened for review, and each person passes in front of Him for evaluation of his or her deeds. The Talmud
Talmud
provides three central ideas behind the day:

"The Holy One said, 'on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
recite before Me Sovereignty, Remembrance, and Shofar
Shofar
blasts (malchuyot, zichronot, shofrot): Sovereignty so that you should make Me your King; Remembrance so that your remembrance should rise up before Me. And through what? Through the Shofar.' ( Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
16a, 34b)" This is reflected in the prayers composed by the classical rabbinic sages for Rosh Hashanah found in all machzorim where the theme of the prayers is the strongest theme is the "coronation" of God as King of the universe in preparation for the acceptance of judgments that will follow on that day, symbolized as "written" into a Divine book of judgments, that then hang in the balance for ten days waiting for all to repent, then they will be "sealed" on Yom Kippur . The assumption is that everyone was sealed for life and therefore the next festival is Sukkot (Tabernacles) that is referred to as "the time of our joy" (z'man simchateinu).

CUSTOMS

The Yamim Nora'im are preceded by the month of Elul , during which Jews
Jews
are supposed to begin a self-examination and repentance, a process that culminates in the ten days of the Yamim Nora'im known as beginning with Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and ending with the holiday of Yom Kippur .

The shofar is traditionally blown each morning for the entire month of Elul , the month preceding Rosh Hashanah. The sound of the shofar is intended to awaken the listeners from their "slumbers" and alert them to the coming judgment. The shofar is not blown on Shabbat
Shabbat
.

In the period leading up to the Yamim Nora'im ( Hebrew
Hebrew
, "days of awe"), penitential prayers, called selichot , are recited.

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is also the day of "Yom Hadin", known as Judgment day. On Yom Hadin, 3 books are opened, the book of life, for the righteous among the nations, the book of death, for the most evil who receive the seal of death, and the third book for the ones living in doubts with non-evil sins.

KARAITE JUDAISM

Unlike the denominations of Rabbinical Judaism, Karaite Judaism believes the Jewish New Year
New Year
starts with the 1st month and celebrate this holiday only as it is mentioned in the Torah, that is as a day of rejoicing and shouting. Additionally, Karaites believe the adoption of "Rosh Hashanah" in place of Yom Teruah "is the result of pagan Babylonian influence upon the Jewish nation. The first stage in the transformation was the adoption of the Babylonian month names. In the Torah
Torah
the months are numbered as First Month, Second Month, Third Month, etc (Leviticus 23; Numbers 28). During their sojourn in Babylonia our ancestors began to use the pagan Babylonian month names, a fact readily admitted in the Talmud. As the Jewish People became more comfortable with the Babylonian month names they became more susceptible to other Babylonian influences." "Karaites allow no work on the day except what is needed to prepare food (Leviticus 23:23, 24)."

SAMARITANISM

Samaritans , in their strict interpretation of the Torah, preserve the biblical name of the festival celebrated on the first day of the seventh month ( Tishrei ), namely Yom Teruah, and in accordance with the Torah
Torah
do not consider it to be a New Year
New Year
's day.

SHOFAR BLOWING

Main article: Shofar
Shofar
blowing Yemenite-style shofar Shofar
Shofar
blowing for Rosh Hashana, Ashkenaz version

Laws on the form and use of the shofar and laws related to the religious services during the festival of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
are described in Rabbinic literature such as the Mishnah
Mishnah
that formed the basis of the tractate "Rosh HaShanah" in both the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
and the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
. This also contains the most important rules concerning the calendar year.

The shofar is blown in long, short, and staccato blasts that follow a set sequence:

* Teki'ah (long sound) Numbers 10:3; * Shevarim (3 broken sounds) Numbers 10:5; * Teru'ah (9 short sounds) Numbers 10:9; * Teki'ah Gedolah (very long sound) Exodus 19:16,19; * Shevarim Teru'ah (3 broken sounds followed by 9 short sounds).

The shofar is blown at various instances during the Rosh Hashanah prayers, and the total number of blasts over the day is 100.

ROSH HASHANAH EVE

The evening before Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
day is known as Erev Rosh Hashanah (" Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
eve"). As with Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
day, it falls on the 1st day of the Hebrew
Hebrew
month of Tishrei , since days of the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar begin at sundown. Some communities perform Hatarat nedarim (a nullification of vows) after the morning prayer services during the morning on the 29th of the Hebrew
Hebrew
month of Elul , which ends at sundown, when Erev Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
commences. The mood becomes festive but serious in anticipation of the new year and the synagogue services. Many Orthodox men immerse in a mikveh in honor of the coming day.

DURATION AND TIMING

See also: Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
occurs 163 days after the first day of Passover (Pesach). In terms of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
, the earliest date on which Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
can fall is September 5, as happened in 1899 and again in 2013. The latest Gregorian date that Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
can occur is October 5, as happened in 1967 and will happen again in 2043. After 2089, the differences between the Hebrew calendar and the Gregorian calendar will result in Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
falling no earlier than September 6.

Although the Jewish calendar is based on the lunar cycle, so that the first day of each month originally began with the first sighting of a new moon, since the fourth century it has been arranged so that Rosh Hashanah never falls on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday.

The Torah
Torah
defines Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
as a one-day celebration, and since days in the Hebrew calendar begin at sundown, the beginning of Rosh Hashanah is at sundown at the end of 29 Elul . The rules of the Hebrew calendar are designed such that the first day of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
will never occur on the first, fourth, or sixth day of the Jewish week (i.e., Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday). Since the time of the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE and the time of Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai
Yohanan ben Zakkai
, normative Jewish law appears to be that Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is to be celebrated for two days, because of the difficulty of determining the date of the new moon . Nonetheless, there is some evidence that Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
was celebrated on a single day in Israel
Israel
as late as the thirteenth century CE . Orthodox and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
now generally observe Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
for the first two days of Tishrei , even in Israel
Israel
where all other Jewish holidays dated from the new moon last only one day. The two days of Rosh Hashanah are said to constitute "Yoma Arichtah" (Aramaic: "one long day"). In Reform Judaism
Judaism
, some communities observe only the first day of Rosh Hashanah, while others observe two days. Karaite Jews
Jews
, who do not recognize Rabbinic Jewish oral law and rely on their own understanding of the Torah, observe only one day on the first of Tishrei, since the second day is not mentioned in the Written Torah
Torah
.

PRAYER SERVICE

On Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
day, religious poems, called piyyuttim , are added to the regular services . A special prayer book, the mahzor , is used on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur (plural mahzorim). A number of additions are made to the regular service, most notably an extended repetition of the Amidah prayer for both Shacharit and Mussaf . The Shofar
Shofar
is blown during Mussaf at several intervals. (In many synagogues, even little children come and hear the Shofar
Shofar
being blown.) Biblical verses are recited at each point. According to the Mishnah
Mishnah
, 10 verses (each) are said regarding kingship, remembrance, and the shofar itself, each accompanied by the blowing of the shofar. A variety of piyyutim , medieval penitential prayers, are recited regarding themes of repentance. The Alenu prayer is recited during the repetition of the Mussaf Amidah .

SYMBOLIC FOODS

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
meals usually include apples dipped in honey to symbolize a sweet new year. Other foods with a symbolic meaning may be served, depending on local minhag ("custom"), such as the head of a fish (to symbolize the prayer "let us be the head and not the tail").

Many communities hold a " Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
seder" during which blessings are recited over a variety of symbolic dishes. The blessings have the incipit "Yehi ratzon", meaning "May it be Thy will." In many cases, the name of the food in Hebrew
Hebrew
or Aramaic represents a play on words (a pun). The Yehi Ratzon platter may include apples (dipped in honey, baked or cooked as a compote called mansanada); dates; pomegranates; black-eyed peas; pumpkin-filled pastries called rodanchas; leek fritters called keftedes de prasa; beets; and a whole fish with the head intact. It is also common to eat stuffed vegetables called legumbres yaprakes.

Some of the symbolic foods eaten are dates , black-eyed peas , leek , spinach and gourd , all of which are mentioned in the Talmud
Talmud
: “Let a man be accustomed to eat on New Year's Day
New Year's Day
gourds (קרא), and fenugreek (רוביא), leeks (כרתי), beet (סילקא), and dates ( תמרי).” Pomegranates are used in many traditions, to symbolize being fruitful like the pomegranate with its many seeds. The use of apples dipped in honey, symbolizing a sweet year, is a late medieval Ashkenazi addition, though it is now almost universally accepted. Typically, round challah bread is served, to symbolize the cycle of the year. From ancient to quite modern age, lamb head or fish head were served. Nowadays, gefilte fish and Lekach are commonly served by Ashkenazic Jews
Jews
on this holiday. On the second night, new fruits are served to warrant inclusion of the shehecheyanu blessing.

*

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
jams prepared by Libyan Jews
Jews
*

Traditional Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
foods: Apples dipped in honey, pomegranates, wine for kiddush

TASHLIKH

Main article: Tashlikh Hasidic Jews
Jews
performing tashlikh on Rosh Hashanah, painting by Aleksander Gierymski , 1884

The ritual of tashlikh is performed on the afternoon of the first day of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
by Ashkenazic and most Sephardic Jews
Jews
(but not by Spanish ">

GREETINGS

The Hebrew
Hebrew
common greeting on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is Shanah Tovah ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: שנה טובה‎‎) (pronounced ), which translated from Hebrew means " a good year". Often Shanah Tovah Umetukah ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: שנה טובה ומתוקה‎‎), meaning "A Good and Sweet Year", is used. In Yiddish the greeting is אַ גוט יאָר "a gut yor" ("a good year") or אַ גוט געבענטשט יאָר "a gut gebentsht yor" ("a good blessed year"). The formal Sephardic greeting is Tizku Leshanim Rabbot ("may you merit many years"), to which the answer is Ne'imot VeTovot ("pleasant and good ones"). Less formally, people wish each other "many years" in the local language.

A more formal greeting commonly used among religiously observant Jews is Ketivah VaChatimah Tovah ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: כְּתִיבָה וַחֲתִימָה טוֹבָה‎‎), which translates as "A good inscription and sealing ", or L'shanah tovah tikatevu v'tichatemu meaning "May you be inscribed and sealed for a good year". After Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
ends, the greeting is changed to G’mar chatimah tovah ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: גמר חתימה טובה‎‎) meaning "A good final sealing", until Yom Kippur . After Yom Kippur is over, until Hoshana Rabbah , as Sukkot
Sukkot
ends, the greeting is Gmar Tov ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: גְּמָר טוֹב‎‎), "a good conclusion".

The above describes three stages as the spiritual order of the month of Tishrei unfolds: On Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
Jewish tradition maintains that God opens the books of judgment of creation and all mankind starting from each individual person, so that what is decreed is first written in those books, hence the emphasis on the "ketivah" ("writing"). The judgment is then pending and prayers and repentance are required. Then on Yom Kippur, the judgment is "sealed " or confirmed (i.e. by the Heavenly Court), hence the emphasis is on the word "chatimah" ("sealed"). But the Heavenly verdict is still not final because there is still an additional hope that until Sukkot
Sukkot
concludes God will deliver a final, merciful judgment, hence the use of "gmar" ("end") that is "tov" ("good").

GALLERY

*

Russia, 1899 *

United States, 1900 *

Austria, 1904 *

United States, 1908 *

Germany, 1910 *

Germany, 1914 *

Tel Aviv, 1927 *

Poland, 1931 *

Montevideo
Montevideo
, 1932 *

Israel, 2012

SEE ALSO

* Jewish holidays * Jewish greetings * Rosh Hashana kibbutz * Unetanneh Tokef * Christian observances of Jewish holidays: Feast of Trumpets

* Judaism
Judaism
portal

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Isidore Singer , J. F. McLaughlin, Wilhelm Bacher , Judah David Eisenstein (1901–1906). "New-Year". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Retrieved 2015-09-13. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ A B C Jacobs, Louis. "Rosh Ha-Shanah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 17. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 463–466. * ^ See Numbers 29:1 * ^ http://biblehub.com/exodus/34-18.htm * ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus+34%3A18&version=ISV * ^ Mulder, Otto (2003). Simon the High Priest in Sirach 50: An Exegetical Study of the Significance of Simon the High Priest As Climax to the Praise of the Fathers in Ben Sira's Concept of the History of Israel. BRILL. p. 170. ISBN 9789004123168 . * ^ "OU on Elul". Ou.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2006. Retrieved 2012-09-11. * ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
, Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
1:1 * ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
; Poskim * ^ Josephus, Antiquities (1.3.§ 3), where he writes concerning the "second month", when the flood of waters appeared in the days of Noah: "This calamity happened in the six-hundredth year of Noah's government, in the second month, called by the Macedonians Dius, but by the Hebrews Marchesuan; for so did they order their year in Egypt; but Moses appointed that Nisan, which is the same with Xanthicus, should be the first month for their festivals, because he brought them out of Egypt in that month: so that this month began the year as to all the solemnities they observed to the honour of God, ALTHOUGH HE PRESERVED THE ORIGINAL ORDER OF THE MONTHS AS TO SELLING AND BUYING, AND OTHER ORDINARY AFFAIRS." * ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
, Rosh Hashana 11b–12a (Rabbi Yehoshua saying that the flood was in the "second month" counting from Nisan, but Rabbi Eliezer saying that it was in the "second month" counting from Tishri, and the Sages agreeing with Rabbi Eliezer); Aramaic Targum of Pseudo-Jonathan ben Uzziel , on Genesis 7:11, where it says (translation): "In the six-hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, being the month of Marheshvan, for hitherto they did not count the months except from Tishri, insofar that it is the New Year for the completion of the universe." * ^ Tractate on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
I,2 * ^ Tractate on Rosh Hashanah, I,16b * ^ Psalms 69:29 * ^ ArtScroll Machzor, Rosh Hashanah. Overview, p. XV. * ^ Maimonides
Maimonides
, Yad , Laws of Repentance 3:4 * ^ Jewish Law permits the Shofar
Shofar
to be blown in the presence of a rabbinical court called the Sanhedrin , which had not existed since ancient times. A recent group of Orthodox rabbis in Israel
Israel
claiming to constitute a modern Sanhedrin held, for the first time in many years, an Orthodox shofar-blowing on Shabbat
Shabbat
for Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
in 2006. TheSanhedrin.net: Shofar
Shofar
Blowing on Shabbat
Shabbat
(translation of Haaretz article) * ^ A B C D "How Yom Teruah Became Rosh Hashanah". Nehemia's Wall. September 26, 2014. Retrieved 2015-09-14. * ^ "History". The Karaite Jews
Jews
of America. Retrieved 2015-09-14. * ^ Tractate Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
1:1 * ^ "Rosh HaShanah and the Gregorian calendar". Oztorah.com. Retrieved 2012-09-11. * ^ A B Tractate Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
20a * ^ A popular mnemonic is "lo adu rosh" ("Rosh is not on adu"), where adu has the numerical value 1-4-6 (corresponding to the numbering of days in the Jewish week, in which Saturday night and Sunday daytime make up the first day). * ^ Rav David Bar-Hayim. "Rosh HaShanna One day or Two?". Machon Shilo website. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
: Machon Shilo. Retrieved 2008-09-25. Includes link for Audio Shiur in English * ^ Exploring Sephardic Customs and Traditions, Marc Angel, p. 49 * ^ Maimon Family Yehi Ratzones * ^ The Orthodox Union Yehi Ratzones * ^ Sternberg, Robert The Sephardic Kitchen: The Healthful Food and Rich Culture of the Mediterranean Jews, Harper Collins, 1996, pp. 320–321, ISBN 0-06-017691-1 * ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(Keritot 6a) * ^ Rashi
Rashi
(ibid.) calls rubia by its Hebrew
Hebrew
name "tiltan" (Heb. תלתן), which word he explains elsewhere as being fenugreek . However, Rabbi Hai Gaon , in one of his responsum in "Otzar Ha-Geonim", seems to suggest that "rubia" (Heb. רוביא) means cowpeas, or what others call, "black-eyed peas" (פול המצרי). Rabbi Hai Gaon 's disciple, Rabbi Nissim ben Jacob (in his Commentary known as Ketav Hamafteah), thus explains the word לוביא, in our case spelled רוביא, as meaning non-other than cowpeas (פול המצרי), describing them as having a "dark eye in its center". Jews
Jews
of North-Africa traditionally make use of stringed beans in place of rubia. * ^ A B Spice and Spirit: The Complete Kosher Jewish Cookbook, 1990, New York, p. 508 * ^ A B Posner, Menachem. "What Is Shanah Tovah? New Year
New Year
Greeting Translation and More: The meaning of the traditional Rosh Hashanah wishes". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2014-09-21. * ^ A B Bottner, Lauren (September 21, 2011). "From Selichot to Simchat Torah". Jewish Journal. TRIBE Media. Retrieved 2014-09-21. * ^ "Jewish Holiday Greeting Chart". Patheos.com. July 26, 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-21.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Angel, Marc (2000). Exploring Sephardic Customs and Traditions. Hoboken, N.J.: KTAV Pub. House in association with American Sephardi Federation, American Sephardi Federation—South Florida Chapter, Sephardic House. ISBN 0-88125-675-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up ROSH HASHANAH in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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* DIY Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
Greeting cards * Rosh Hashana Prayers For Sephardic Jews * Rosh Hashanah