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Coordinates: 31°24′N 30°25′E / 31.400°N 30.417°E / 31.400; 30.417

Rosetta ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ رشيد Rashid

Rosetta

Rosetta

Location in Egypt

Coordinates: 31°24′16″N 30°24′59″E / 31.40444°N 30.41639°E / 31.40444; 30.41639

Country  Egypt

Governorate Beheira

Population (1996)

 • Total 58,432

Time zone EET (UTC+2)

 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Rosetta
Rosetta
(/roʊˈzɛtə/; Arabic: رشيد‎ Rašīd  IPA: [ɾɑˈʃiːd]; French: Rosette  [ʁo.zɛt]; Coptic: ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located 65 km (40 mi) east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate. Founded around in the 9th century, Rosetta
Rosetta
boomed with the decline of Alexandria
Alexandria
following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 1517, only to wane in importance after Alexandria's revival. During the 19th century, it was a popular British tourist destination, known for its charming Ottoman mansions, citrus groves and comparative cleanliness.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Climate 4 Population 5 Gallery 6 References

6.1 Bibliography 6.2 Notes

7 External links

Etymology[edit] Both the Arabic name Rašīd (meaning "guide") and the western name Rosetta
Rosetta
or Rosette ("little rose" in Italian and French respectively) are corruptions (or folk etymologies) of a Coptic toponym, Trashit.[1] Rosetta
Rosetta
or Rosette was the name used by the French at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt
Egypt
and thus became eponymous of the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
(French: Pierre de Rosette), which was found by French soldiers at the nearby Fort Julien
Fort Julien
in 1799. History[edit] The site of Rosetta
Rosetta
was inhabited throughout the history of Ancient Egypt, then known as Khito[citation needed], a hieratic word meaning "the populace", under Menes
Menes
reign. In the Ptolemaic era, the town was renamed to Bolbitine (Bolbitinum, Bolbitinon, the name of one of the seven mouths of the Nile in Herodotus).[2] In Christian Egypt, the town was again known by the vernacular (Coptic) name, now in the form (t-)Rashit/Rakhit/Rexi[clarification needed] In the 850s, the Abbassid caliph ordered a fort to be built on the site of the Ptolemaic city, and the medieval city grew around this fort. During the Seventh Crusade, Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France
briefly occupied the town in 1249.[3] Under the Mamelukes, the city became an important commercial center, and remained so throughout Ottoman rule, until the eventual resurgence of the importance of Alexandria
Alexandria
following the construction of the Mahmoudiyah canal
Mahmoudiyah canal
in 1820. Rosetta
Rosetta
witnessed the defeat of the British Fraser campaign, on 19 September 1807. Climate[edit] Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh), but blowing winds from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
greatly moderate the temperatures, typical to the Egypt's north coast, making its summers moderately hot and humid while its winters mild and moderately wet when sleet and hail are also common. Rafah, Alexandria, Abu Qir, Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar and Mersa Matruh are the wettest places in Egypt.

Climate data for Rosetta

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 18.9 (66) 20.9 (69.6) 24 (75) 27.2 (81) 29.3 (84.7) 30.7 (87.3) 31.5 (88.7) 30.5 (86.9) 28.8 (83.8) 25 (77) 20.8 (69.4) 25.53 (77.93)

Daily mean °C (°F) 14.5 (58.1) 14.4 (57.9) 16 (61) 18.6 (65.5) 21.8 (71.2) 24.4 (75.9) 26.2 (79.2) 26.9 (80.4) 25.9 (78.6) 23.9 (75) 20.3 (68.5) 16.4 (61.5) 20.78 (69.4)

Average low °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 10 (50) 11.2 (52.2) 13.2 (55.8) 16.4 (61.5) 19.5 (67.1) 21.7 (71.1) 22.4 (72.3) 21.3 (70.3) 19 (66) 15.7 (60.3) 12 (54) 16.05 (60.92)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 50 (1.97) 26 (1.02) 13 (0.51) 4 (0.16) 3 (0.12) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (0.35) 25 (0.98) 51 (2.01) 181 (7.12)

Source: climate-data.org[4]

Population[edit] The population of Rashid has increased since the 1980s, as follows:

1983: 36,711 (approximate); 1986: 51,789; and 1996: 58,432

Gallery[edit]

Pea-green boats in Rosetta

An identical copy of the Rosetta
Rosetta
Stone

Abou Mandour Mosque

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

"Rosetta," Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, 1983.

Notes[edit]

^ Sir Richard Francis Burton, A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments, Kamashastra Society, 1885, p. 288[unreliable source?] ^ James Talboys Wheeler, The geography of Herodotus, 1854, p. 363 ^ Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254: Sources and Documents, Volume 16 of Crusade Texts in Translation, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009, p. 72 ^ "Climate: Rosetta
Rosetta
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rosetta.

Thomas Brinkhoff: City Population, http://www.citypopulation.de Egypt statistics  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
(1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  Detailed map of Egypt
Egypt
(with many ancient temples): UniMaps-Egypt.

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