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Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask
Damask
rose,[1][2] or sometimes as the rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata.[3] Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.[4] The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". The flower petals are also edible. They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand.

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Varieties

2 History of cultivation 3 Cultivation 4 Culinary uses 5 Pharmacological properties 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Description[edit] The Damask
Damask
rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2.2 metres (7 ft 3 in) tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with five (rarely seven) leaflets. The roses are a light to moderate pink to light red. The relatively small flowers grow in groups. The bush has an informal shape. It is considered an important type of Old Rose, and also important for its prominent place in the pedigree of many other types. Varieties[edit] The hybrid is divided in two varieties:[3]

Summer Damasks (R. × damascena nothovar. damascena) have a short flowering season, only in the summer. Autumn Damasks (R. × damascena nothovar. semperflorens (Duhamel) Rowley) have a longer flowering season, extending into the autumn; they are otherwise not distinguishable from the summer damasks.

A still popular example of R. × damascena is the Ispahan rose. The hybrid Rosa × centifolia
Rosa × centifolia
is derived in part from Rosa × damascena, as are Bourbon, Portland and hybrid perpetual roses. The cultivar known as Rosa gallica
Rosa gallica
forma trigintipetala or Rosa damascena 'Trigintipetala' is considered to be a synonym of Rosa × damascena.[5] 'Celsiana' is a flowering semi-double variety. History of cultivation[edit]

Rosa × damascena
Rosa × damascena
is a cultivated flower that is no longer found growing wild. Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent.[6] The french Crusader Robert de Brie, who took part in the Siege of Damascus
Damascus
in 1148 at the second crusade, is sometimes credited for bringing the Damask
Damask
rose from Syria
Syria
to Europe. The name of the rose refers to the city of Damascus
Damascus
in Syria, known for its steel (Damask steel), fabrics (Damask) and roses. Other accounts state that the ancient Romans brought it to their colonies in England, and a third account is that the physician of King Henry VIII gifted him one circa 1540.[7] There is a history of fragrance production in Kabul Province
Kabul Province
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from the Damask
Damask
rose.[8] An attempt has been made to restore this industry as an alternative for farmers who produce opium.[8] Cultivation[edit] Rosa × damascena
Rosa × damascena
is optimally cultivated in hedge rows to help protect the blooms from wind damage and to facilitate harvesting them. Gathering the flowers is intense manual labor. There are about 20–40 days per year when harvesting occurs, depending on the cultivar cultivated. The roses are gathered by hand and brought to a central location for steam distillation.

Bulgarian rose, rose Otto, or Kazanlak
Kazanlak
rose)

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Turkey
Turkey
are the most prolific producers of rose oil from the different cultivars of Rosa × damascena. France
France
and India
India
also contribute significantly to the world market. Morocco, Tunisia, and some other Middle Eastern nations also historically produced it, but their modern contribution is negligible. The town of Kazanlak, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was founded in 1420. Most historians assume that the cultivation of the " Kazanlak
Kazanlak
rose", as Rosa × damascena is denominated in that region, commenced around that time. It was reputedly brought to the town by a Turkish judge who introduced them from Tunisia
Tunisia
and cultivated them in his fragrant garden. It is now cultivated for commercial use in an area in the vicinity of Kazanlak
Kazanlak
denominated the "Valley of Roses". The distillate from these roses is sold as "Bulgarian Rose
Rose
Oil" and "Bulgarian Rose
Rose
Otto". Turkish rose oil is sold as " Rose
Rose
Oil", "Turkish Rose
Rose
Otto", and "Rosa Damascena Attar", or "Ittar" in similar languages. While families still operate their own small distilleries and produce what is denominated "village oil", the commercialization of rose oil as a high quality product is carefully regulated by a state cooperative in the Isparta
Isparta
region of Turkey. The roses are still grown by the small family farms but the flowers are brought to stills established and regulated by the cooperative for distillation and quality control. India
India
has also developed an industry producing rose oil, both "Rose Attar" and " Rose
Rose
Absolutes", as well as " Rose
Rose
Concrete". Perhaps due to the low labor cost, these products from India
India
are less expensive than those from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Turkey.[citation needed] The city of Taif
Taif
in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is also famous for cultivation of the flower, which there is denominated "Ward Taifi".[9] Culinary uses[edit]

Nougat with Damask
Damask
rose and pistachio

Damask
Damask
roses are used in cooking as a flavouring ingredient or spice. They are an ingredient in the Moroccan spice mixture denominated "ras el hanout". Rose
Rose
water and powdered roses are used in Persian, Indian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Rose
Rose
water is often sprinkled on meat dishes, while rose powder is added to sauces. Chicken with rose is a popular dish in Persian cuisine. Whole flowers, or petals, are also used in the herbal tea "zuhurat". The most popular use, however, is in the flavoring of desserts such as ice cream, jam, Turkish delights, rice pudding, yogurt, etc. For centuries, the Damask
Damask
rose has symbolized beauty and love. The fragrance of the rose has been captured and preserved in the form of rose water by a method that can be traced to ancient times in the Middle East
Middle East
and later to the Indian subcontinent. Modern western cookery does not use roses or rose water much. However, it was a popular ingredient in ancient times and continued to be popular well into the Renaissance. It was most commonly used in desserts, and still is a flavour in traditional desserts such as marzipan or turrón. It has seen some revival in television cooking in the twenty-first century. Pharmacological properties[edit] Pharmacological effects of extracts from flowers from Rosa × damascena have been the subject a number of scientific studies. A review article published in 2011 summarised these studies.[10] See also[edit]

Miracle of the roses

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rosa × damascena.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Rosa × damascena

^ "Rosa ×damascena". Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan.  ^ *Harkness, P. (2003). The Rose: An Illustrated History. Firefly ^ " Rosa gallica
Rosa gallica
f. trigintipetala". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ Triparental Origin of Damask
Damask
Roses, Iwata H1, Kato T, Ohno S., Gene, Vol. 259, Issues 1-2, 23 December 2000, pages 53-9. ^ Putnam, G. P.; Perkins, F. B. (1877). The World's Progress; A Dictionary of Dates: Being a Chronological and Alphabetical Record of All Essential Facts in the Progress of Society, from the Creation of the World to the Present Time with a Chart. G. P. Putnam.  ^ a b Afghan Rose
Rose
Oil, An Attractive Fragrance for International Markets ^ 2006-2010 Magazine Online de Parfumuri article on the Taif
Taif
rose. ^ Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Zahra Saberi and Somayeh Amini (Jul–Aug 2011). "Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena". Iran J Basic Med Sci. 14 (4): 295–307. PMC 3586833 . PMID 23493250. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Gernot Katzer's Spice
Spice
Dictionary - Damask
Damask
Rose Rosa harvesting in Meimand; Photos.

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q578904 APDB: 152843 EoL: 622606 EPPO: ROSDM GBIF: 3008478 GRIN: 5328 iNaturalist: 167979 IPNI: 732237-1 ITIS: 24824 Plant
Plant
List: rjp-51644 PLANTS: RODA Tropicos: 27801141 V

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