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Coordinates: 36°44′46″N 5°9′40″W / 36.74611°N 5.16111°W / 36.74611; -5.16111

Ronda

Municipality

"El Tajo" of Ronda, with the Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
in the background

Flag

Coat of arms

Ronda

Location in Andalusia

Coordinates: 36°44′14″N 5°9′53″W / 36.73722°N 5.16472°W / 36.73722; -5.16472

Country  Spain

Autonomous community  Andalusia

Province Málaga

Comarca Serranía de Ronda

Government

 • Alcalde Teresa Valdenebro (PSOE)

Area

 • Total 481.31 km2 (185.83 sq mi)

Elevation 739 m (2,425 ft)

Population (2009)

 • Total 36,827

 • Density 77/km2 (200/sq mi)

Demonym(s) Rondeños

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 29400

Dialing code 95287, 95219

Website Official website

Ronda
Ronda
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈronda]) is a city in the Spanish province of Málaga. It is located about 100 km (62 mi) west of the city of Málaga, within the autonomous community of Andalusia. Its population is about 35,000 inhabitants.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Main sights 4 Cultural influence 5 Transportation 6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns – sister cities

7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Small street in Ronda

Around the city are remains of prehistoric settlements dating to the Neolithic Age, including the rock paintings of Cueva de la Pileta. Ronda
Ronda
was, however, first settled by the early Celts, who called it Arunda in the sixth century BC. Later Phoenician settlers established themselves nearby to found Acinipo, known locally as Ronda
Ronda
la Vieja, Arunda, or Old Ronda. The current Ronda
Ronda
is of Roman origins,[1] having been founded as a fortified post in the Second Punic War, by Scipio Africanus. Ronda
Ronda
received the title of city at the time of Julius Caesar. In the fifth century AD, Ronda
Ronda
was conquered by the Suebi, led by Rechila, being reconquered in the following century by the Eastern Roman Empire, under whose rule Acinipo
Acinipo
was abandoned. Later, the Visigoth king Leovigild
Leovigild
captured the city. Ronda
Ronda
was part of the Visigoth realm until 713, when it fell to the Berbers, who named it Hisn Ar-Rundah ("Castle of Rundah") and made it the capital of the Takurunna province. It was the hometown of the polymath Abbas Ibn Firnas (810–887), an inventor, engineer, alleged aviator, physician, Muslim poet, and Andalusian musician. After the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba, Ronda
Ronda
became the capital of a small kingdom ruled by the Berber Banu Ifran, the taifa of Ronda. During this period, Ronda
Ronda
gained most of its Islamic architectural heritage. In 1065, Ronda
Ronda
was conquered by the taifa of Seville led by Abbad II al-Mu'tadid. Both the poet Salih ben Sharif al-Rundi (1204–1285) and the Sufi
Sufi
scholar Ibn Abbad al-Rundi (1333–1390) were born in Ronda.

View in Ronda
Ronda
looking toward the Church of Santa Maria la Mayor

The Islamic domination of Ronda
Ronda
ended in 1485, when it was conquered by the Marquis of Cádiz after a brief siege. Subsequently, most of the city's old edifices were renewed or adapted to Christian roles, while numerous others were built in newly created quarters such as Mercadillo and San Francisco. The Real Maestranza de Caballería de Ronda
Ronda
was founded in the town in 1572. The Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
affected the Muslims living in Spain
Spain
greatly. Shortly after 1492, when the last outpost of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, Granada, was conquered, the Spanish decreed that all Muslims must either vacate the peninsula without their belongings or convert. Many people overtly converted to keep their possessions while secretly practicing their religion. Muslims who converted were called Moriscos. They were required to wear upon their caps and turbans a blue crescent. Traveling without a permit meant a death sentence. This systematic suppression forced the Muslims to seek refuge in mountainous regions of southern Andalusia; Ronda
Ronda
was one such refuge. On May 25, 1566, Philip II decreed the use of the Arabic language (written or spoken) illegal, required that doors to homes remain open on Fridays to verify that no Muslim Friday prayers were conducted, and levied heavy taxes on Morisco trades. This led to several rebellions, one of them in Ronda
Ronda
under the leadership of Al-Fihrey. Al-Fihrey's defeated the Spanish army sent to suppress them under the leadership of Alfonso de Aguilar. The massacre of the Spaniards prompted Phillip II to order the expulsion of all Moriscos
Moriscos
in Ronda. In the early 19th century, the Napoleonic invasion and the subsequent Peninsular War
Peninsular War
caused much suffering in Ronda, whose inhabitants were reduced from 15,600 to 5,000 in three years. Ronda's area became the base first of guerrilla warriors, then of numerous bandits, whose deeds inspired artists such as Washington Irving, Prosper Mérimée, and Gustave Doré. In the 19th century, the economy of Ronda
Ronda
was mainly based on agricultural activities. In 1918, the city was the seat of the Assembly of Ronda, in which the Andalusian flag, coat of arms, and anthem were designed. Ronda's Romero family—from Francisco, born in 1698, to his son Juan, to his famous grandson Pedro, who died in 1839—played a principal role in the development of modern Spanish bullfighting. In a family responsible for such innovations as the use of the cape, or muleta, and a sword especially designed for the kill, Pedro in particular transformed bullfighting into "an art and a skill in its own right, and not simply ... a clownishly macho preamble to the bull's slaughter."[2] Ronda
Ronda
was heavily affected by the Spanish Civil War, which led to emigration and depopulation[citation needed]. The scene in chapter 10 of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls, describing the 1936 execution of Fascist sympathisers in a (fictional) village who are thrown off a cliff, is considered to be modeled on actual events of the time in Ronda.[3] Geography[edit] Ronda
Ronda
is situated in a mountainous area about 750 m (2,460 ft) above mean sea level. The Guadalevín
Guadalevín
River runs through the city, dividing it in two and carving out the steep, 100-plus-meter-deep El Tajo canyon above which the city perches. The Spanish fir
Spanish fir
(Abies pinsapo) is endemic to the mountains surrounding Ronda. Main sights[edit]

The Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
bridge in Ronda

Three bridges, Puente Romano ("Roman Bridge", also known as the Puente San Miguel), Puente Viejo
Puente Viejo
("Old Bridge", also known as the Puente Árabe or "Arab Bridge"), and Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
("New Bridge"), span the canyon. The term nuevo is something of a misnomer, as the building of this bridge commenced in 1751 and took until 1793 to complete. The Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
is the tallest of the bridges, towering 120 m (390 ft) above the canyon floor, and all three serve as some of the city's most impressive features. The former town hall, which stands next to the Puente Nuevo, is the site of a parador and has a view of the Tajo canyon.

Outside the Ronda
Ronda
Bullring

The 'Corrida Goyesca' is a unique and historical bullfight that takes place once a year in Ronda
Ronda
in the Plaza de toros de Ronda, the oldest bullfighting ring in Spain.[4] It was built in 1784 in the Neoclassical style by the architect José Martin de Aldehuela, who also designed the Puente Nuevo. The partially intact Baños árabes ("Arab baths") are found below the city and date back to the 13th and 14th centuries.

Plaza del Socorro

Plaza del Socorro is the modern political centre of Ronda. It was here that Blas Infante
Blas Infante
showed the Andalusian flag and coat of arms for the first time in 1918. The parish church of Socorro (Parroquia de Nuestra Señora del Socorro) was only built in 1956. The building known as the Casino and Circulo de Artistas (Artists' Society) is located on the north side of Ronda's Plaza del Socorro.[5]

Palacio of the Marqués de Salvatierra

The Palacio of the Marqués de Salvatierra opens irregularly as a small museum of Renaissance art and artefacts. The Palacio is an 18th-century renovation of an earlier 16th century building gifted to the family of Don Vasco Martín de Salvatierra by the Catholic Monarchs when they redistributed the spoils of the Reconquest. In 1994, Madonna obtained permit to shoot inside the palace of the Marquis of Salvatierra for the music video of Take a Bow.[6]

Casa del Rey Moro

The Casa del Rey Moro is to some extent a fraud, since the house was never the home of a Moorish king. It was built in the 18th century, when Moorish Spain
Spain
was already a distant memory. Its apparently Moorish gardens are even more recent, having been designed by the French landscape gardener Jean Claude Forestier in 1912. But the house does incorporate one genuine and important relic of Ronda's Moorish era: the so-called Water Mine, a set of steps down to the river carved into the cliff wall.[7]

Cultural influence[edit] American artists Ernest Hemingway
Hemingway
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
spent many summers in Ronda
Ronda
as part-time residents of Ronda's old-town quarter called La Ciudad. Both wrote about Ronda's beauty and famous bullfighting traditions. Their collective accounts have contributed to Ronda's popularity over time. In the first decades of the 20th century, the famous German poet Rainer Maria Rilke
Rainer Maria Rilke
spent extended periods in Ronda, where he kept a permanent room at the Hotel Reina Victoria (built in 1906); his room remains to this day as he left it, a minimuseum of Rilkeana. According to the hotel's publicity, Rilke wrote (though probably not in Spanish) He buscado por todas partes la ciudad soñada, y al fin la he encontrado en Ronda
Ronda
and No hay nada más inesperado en España que esta ciudad salvaje y montañera ("I have sought everywhere the city of my dreams, and I have finally found it in Ronda" and "Nothing is more startling in Spain
Spain
than this wild and mountainous city.") Hemingway's novel For Whom the Bell Tolls
For Whom the Bell Tolls
describes the execution of Nationalist sympathizers early in the Spanish Civil War. The Republicans murder the Nationalists by throwing them from cliffs in an Andalusian village, and Hemingway
Hemingway
allegedly based the account on killings that took place in Ronda
Ronda
at the cliffs of El Tajo. Orson Welles
Orson Welles
said he was inspired by his frequent trips to Spain
Spain
and Ronda
Ronda
(e.g. his unfinished film about Don Quixote). After he died in 1985, his ashes were buried in a well on the rural property of his friend, retired bullfighter Antonio Ordoñez. English writer George Eliot's book Daniel Deronda
Daniel Deronda
("Daniel of Ronda") tells the story of a Spanish Jew brought up as an Englishman. Some speculation existed that Eliot's ancestors had lived in Ronda
Ronda
prior to the expulsion of the Jews from Spain
Spain
in 1492. In the fashion world, Italian designer Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani
specially designed the bullfighting costume called ‘Goyesco’ for famed bullfighter Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez
Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez
on the occasion of the Corrida Goyesca that took place on September 6, 2009, in Ronda. Cayetano's suit of lights was in the Goyaesque style, comprising a jacket, trousers, and cloak in techno-satin. The three pieces were embroidered with sequins, small glitter stones, and thread, all matching the colour of the background fabric.[4][8] Ronda
Ronda
was used as the setting for the flower market in the 2017 animated movie Ferdinand. Transportation[edit] Ronda
Ronda
is accessible via highways and by rail from Algeciras
Algeciras
and from Córdoba. A direct train from Madrid to Ronda
Ronda
operates twice daily. The single-track railway between Ronda
Ronda
and Algeciras
Algeciras
was built between 1890 and 1892 by the Algeciras
Algeciras
Gibraltar Railway Company. It enabled the British military officers to escape the summer heat of Gibraltar. The railway was built by James Morrison, an engineer, in partnership with Alexander Henderson, 1st Baron Faringdon, a financier. The station at Ronda
Ronda
was opened in 1892. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Ronda
Ronda
is twinned with:

Cuenca, Spain Chefchaouen, Morocco
Morocco
[9] Castiglion Fiorentino, Italy Ontinyent, Spain

References[edit]

^ Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia - on Spain, Books 3 & 4 ^ Andalucia.com ^ Ramon Buckley, "Revolution in Ronda: The facts in Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls", the Hemingway
Hemingway
Review, Fall 1997 ^ a b GIORGIO ARMANI DESIGNS COSTUME FOR CAYETANO RIVERA ORDONEZ FOR ‘THE CORRIDA GOYESCA’ Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Ronda
Ronda
- Casino and Circulo de Artistas". Andalucia.com. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ "Mainsites - Palacio del Marqués de Salvatierra". Andalucia.com. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ "Mainsites - Casa del Rey Moro". Andalucia.com. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ "Armani brindó en Ronda". El País. 2009-09-06.  ^ Asociación Senderista Pasos Largos - Chefchaouen, Morocco. Archived 2007-05-03 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Comprehensive tourist information about Ronda
Ronda
in English Ronda
Ronda
Tourist Board Ronda
Ronda
images

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ronda.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ronda.

v t e

Municipalities of the province of Málaga

Alameda Alcaucín Alfarnate Alfarnatejo Algarrobo Algatocín Alhaurín de la Torre Alhaurín el Grande Almáchar Almargen Almogía Álora Alozaina Alpandeire Antequera Árchez Archidona Ardales Arenas Arriate Atajate Benadalid Benahavís Benalauría Benalmádena Benamargosa Benamocarra Benaoján Benarrabá Campillos Canillas de Aceituno Canillas de Albaida Cañete la Real Carratraca Cartajima Cártama Casabermeja Casarabonela Casares Coín Colmenar Comares Cómpeta Cortes de la Frontera Cuevas Bajas Cuevas de San Marcos Cuevas del Becerro Cútar El Borge El Burgo Estepona Faraján Frigiliana Fuengirola Fuente de Piedra Gaucín Genalguacil Guaro Humilladero Igualeja Istán Iznate Jimera de Líbar Jubrique Júzcar Macharaviaya Málaga Manilva Marbella Mijas Moclinejo Mollina Monda Montejaque Nerja Ojén Parauta Periana Pizarra Pujerra Rincón de la Victoria Riogordo Ronda Salares Sayalonga Sedella Sierra de Yeguas Teba Tolox Torremolinos Torrox Totalán Valle de Abdalajís Vélez-Málaga Villanueva de Algaidas Villanueva de la Concepción Villanueva de Tapia Villanueva del Rosario Villanueva del Trabuco

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