Rome (/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma])
is the capital of
Italy and a special comune (named
Comune di Roma
Rome also serves as the capital of the
Lazio region. With
2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it
is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most
populous city in the
European Union by population within city limits.
It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a
population of 4.3 million residents.
Rome is located in the
central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio
(Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The
Vatican City is an
independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only
existing example of a country within a city: for this reason
been often defined as capital of two states.
Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While
Roman mythology dates the
Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for
much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites
in Europe. The city's early population originated from a mix of
Latins, Etruscans, and Sabines. Eventually, the city successively
became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the
Roman Republic and the
Roman Empire, and is regarded as the birthplace of Western
civilisation and by some as the first ever metropolis. It was first
called The Eternal City (Latin: Urbs Aeterna; Italian: La Città
Eterna) by the Roman poet
Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the
expression was also taken up by Ovid, Virgil, and Livy.
also called the "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World).
After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of
the Middle Ages,
Rome slowly fell under the political control of the
Papacy, which had settled in the city since the 1st century AD, until
in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which
lasted until 1870.
Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all the popes since Nicholas V
(1447–1455) pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural
and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural
centre of the world. In this way,
Rome became first one of the
major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and then the birthplace
of both the
Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters,
sculptors and architects made
Rome the centre of their activity,
creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871
Rome became the
capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which in 1946 became the Italian
Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016,
as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the
European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy.
Its historic centre is listed by
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Monuments and museums such as the
Vatican Museums and the Colosseum
are among the world's most visited tourist destinations with both
locations receiving millions of tourists a year.
Rome hosted the 1960
Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations' Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO). The city hosts the headquarters of
many international business companies, such as Eni, Enel, TIM and
national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL. Its
business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved
in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry and financial
Rome is also an important fashion and design centre thanks
to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's
Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning
2.1 Earliest history
Legend of the founding of Rome
2.2 Monarchy, republic, empire
2.3 Middle Ages
2.4 Early modern
2.5 Late modern and contemporary
3.1 Local government
3.1.1 Administrative and historical subdivisions
3.2 Metropolitan and regional government
3.3 National government
6.1 Ethnic groups
7.1 Vatican City
8.1.1 Ancient Rome
Renaissance and Baroque
8.1.5 Fascist architecture
8.2 Parks and gardens
8.3 Fountains and aqueducts
8.5 Obelisks and columns
11.1 Entertainment and performing arts
14 International entities, organisations and involvement
15 International relations
15.1 Twin towns and sister cities
15.2 Other relationships
17 See also
20 External links
Roman representation of
Tiber as a god,
Capitoline Hill in Rome
According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans
themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma
is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king,
However, it is a possibility that the name
Romulus was actually
Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have
been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma.
Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots
which however remain uncertain:
from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the
same root as the Greek verb ῥέω (rhéō) and the
Latin verb ruo,
which both mean "flow";
from the Etruscan word 𐌓𐌖𐌌𐌀 (ruma), whose root is *rum-
"teat", with possible reference either to the totem wolf that adopted
and suckled the cognately named twins
Romulus and Remus, or to the
shape of the Palatine and Aventine Hills;
from the Greek word ῥώμη (rhṓmē), which means strength.
History of Rome
History of Rome and Timeline of the city of Rome
Roman Kingdom c. 753–509 BC
Roman Republic 509–27 BC
Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD
Roman Empire 285–476
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Roman Empire 553–754
Papal States 754–1870
Vatican City 1929–present
Main article: Founding of Rome
There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the
from approximately 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much
younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. Evidence
of stone tools, pottery and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years
of human presence. Several excavations support the view that
from pastoral settlements on the
Palatine Hill built above the area of
the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the
beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol
was topped by a village (on the Capitol Hill, a village is attested
since the end of the 14th century BC). However, none of them had
yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the
city developed gradually through the aggregation ("synoecism") of
several villages around the largest one, placed above the
Palatine. This aggregation was facilitated by the increase of
agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which also
allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These
in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of
Ischia and Cumae). These developments,
which according to archaeological evidence took place during the
mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the
city. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view
Rome was founded deliberately in the middle of the eighth century
BC, as the legend of
Romulus suggests, remains a fringe
Legend of the founding of Rome
Capitoline Wolf, sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the
Romulus and Remus
Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves
explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and
myth. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of
all Roman myths, is the story of
Romulus and Remus, the twins who were
suckled by a she-wolf. They decided to build a city, but after an
Romulus killed his brother and the city took his name.
According to the Roman annalists, this happened on 21 April 753
BC. This legend had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set
earlier in time, that had the Trojan refugee
Aeneas escape to Italy
and found the line of Romans through his son Iulus, the namesake of
the Julio-Claudian dynasty. This was accomplished by the Roman
Virgil in the first century BC.
Monarchy, republic, empire
Main articles: Ancient Rome, Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and Roman
After the legendary foundation by Romulus,
Rome was ruled for a
period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns
Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition
handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius,
Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus,
Servius Tullius and Tarquinius
Augustus, the first Emperor
In 509 BC the Romans expelled the last king from their city and
established an oligarchic republic.
Rome then began a period
characterized by internal struggles between patricians (aristocrats)
and plebeians (small landowners), and by constant warfare against the
populations of central Italy: Etruscans, Latins, Volsci, Aequi,
Marsi. After becoming master of Latium,
Rome led several wars
(against the Gauls, Osci-
Samnites and the Greek colony of Taranto,
allied with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus) whose result was the conquest of
the Italian peninsula, from the central area up to Magna Graecia.
The third and second century BC saw the establishment of Roman
hegemony over the Mediterranean and the East, through the three Punic
Wars (264–146 BC) fought against the city of
Carthage and the three
Macedonian Wars (212–168 BC) against Macedonia. Then were
established the first Roman provinces: Sicily,
Sardinia and Corsica,
Hispania, Macedonia, Achaea and Africa.
From the beginning of the 2nd century BC, power was contested between
two groups of aristocrats: the optimates, representing the
conservative part of the Senate, and the populares, which relied on
the help of the plebs (urban lower class) to gain power. In the same
period, the bankruptcy of the small farmers and the establishment of
large slave estates provoked the migration to the city of a large
number of people. The continuous warfare made necessary a professional
army, which was more loyal to its generals than to the republic.
Because of this, in the second half of the second century and during
the first century BC there were conflicts both abroad and internally:
after the failed attempt of social reform of the populares Tiberius
and Gaius Gracchus, and the war against Jugurtha, there was a
first civil war between
Gaius Marius and Sulla. To this followed a
major slave revolt under Spartacus, and then the establishment of
the first Triumvirate with Caesar,
Pompey and Crassus.
The conquest of
Gaul made Caesar immensely powerful and popular, which
led to a second civil war against the Senate and Pompey. After his
victory, Caesar established himself as dictator for life. His
assassination led to a second Triumvirate among
grandnephew and heir),
Mark Antony and Lepidus, and to another civil
Octavian and Antony. The former in 27 BC became
princeps civitatis and got the title of Augustus, founding the
principate, a diarchy between the princeps and the senate. Rome
was established as a de facto empire, which reached its greatest
expansion in the second century under the
confirmed as caput Mundi, i.e. the capital of the world, an expression
which had already been given in the Republican period. During its
first two centuries, the empire saw as rulers, emperors of the
Julio-Claudian, Flavian (who also built eponymous amphitheatre,
known as the Colosseum) and Antonine dynasties. This time was
also characterised by the spread of the
Christian religion, preached
Jesus Christ in
Judea in the first half of the first century (under
Tiberius) and popularized by his apostles through the empire and
beyond. The Antonine age is considered the apogee of the Empire,
whose territory ranged from the
Atlantic Ocean to the
from Britain to Egypt.
Roman Empire at its greatest extent controlled approximately
6.5 million square kilometres (2.5 million square miles)
of land surface.
After the end of the Severan Dynasty in 235 the Empire entered into
50-year period known as the
Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century during which
there were numerous putsches by generals who sought to secure the
region of the empire they were entrusted with due to the weakness of
central authority in Rome. There was the so-called Gallic Empire from
260-274 and the revolts of Zenobia and her father from the mid-260s
which sought to fend off Persian incursions. Some regions - Britain,
Spain and North Africa - were hardly affected. Instability caused
economic deterioration, and there was a rapid rise in inflation as the
government debased the currency in order to meet expenses. The
Germanic tribes along the Rhine and north of the Balkans made serious,
uncoordinated incursions from the 250s-280s that were more like giant
raiding parties rather than attempts to settle. The Persian Empire in
the East invaded several times during the 230s to 260s but were
Diocletian (284) undertook the restoration of the State. He
Principate and introduced the so-called dominate which tried
to give the impression of absolute power. The most marked feature was
the unprecedented intervention of the State down to the city level:
whereas the State had submitted a tax demand to a city and allowed it
to allocate the charges, from his reign the State did this down to the
village level. In a vain attempt to control inflation he imposed price
controls which did not last. He or Constantine regionalized the
administration of the empire which fundamentally changed the way it
was governed by creating regional dioceses (the consensus seems to
have shifted from 297 to 313/14 as the date of creation due to the
argument of Constantin Zuckerman in 2002 "Sur la liste de Verone et la
province de grande armenie, Melanges Gilber Dagron). The existence of
regional fiscal units from 286 served as the model for this
unprecedented innovation. The emperor quickened the process of
removing military command from governors. Henceforth civilian
administration and military command would be separate. He gave
governors more fiscal duties and placed them in charge of the army
logistical support system as an attempt to control it by removing the
support system from its control.
Diocletian ruled the eastern half
(with residence in Nicomedia). In 296 he elevated
Maximian as Augustus
of the western half where he ruled mostly from
Mediolanum (Current day
Milan) when not on the move. In 292 he created two 'junior'
emeperors, the Caesars, one for each Augustus, Constantius for
Spain whose see was in Trier and Licinius in Srimium
in the Balkans. The appointment of a Caesar was not unknown:
Diocletian tried to turn into a system of non-dynastic succession.
Upon abdication in 305 Caesars succeeded and they in turn appointed to
colleagues for themselves. After the abdication of
Maximian in 305 and a series of civil wars between rival claimants to
imperial power during the years 306-313, the Tetrarchy was abandoned.
Constantine called the Great undertook a major reform of the
bureaucracy not by changing the structure but by rationalizing the
competencies of the several ministries during the years 325-330 after
he defeated Licinius, emperor in the East at the end of 324.The
Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan of 313, actually a fragment of a Letter from
Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, granted freedom of
worship to everyone including to Christians and ordered the
restoration of confiscated church properties upon petition to the
newly created vicars of dioceses. He funded the building of several
churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits (a
measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much
later). He transformed the town of Byzantium into his new residence,
which however, was not officially anything more than an imperial
Milan or Trier or
Nicomedia until given a city prefect
in May 359 by Constantius II; Constantinople. The creation of
Constantinople would have a profound effect on Europe: it was the
bulwark against invasion and conquest from the East for 1000 years.
Emperor Constantine I, 4th century
Christianity in the form of the Nicene Creed became the official
religion of the empire in 380 via the
Edict of Thessalonica issued in
the name of three emperors - Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I
- with Theodosius clearly the driving force behind it. He was the last
emperor of a unified empire: after his death in 395 his sons, Arcadius
and Honorius divided the empire into a western and an eastern part.
The seat of government in the Western
Roman Empire was transferred to
Ravenna after the siege of
Milan in 402. During the 5th century the
emperors from the 430s mostly resided in the capital, Rome.
Rome, which had lost its central role in the administration of the
empire, was sacked in 410 by the
Visigoths led by Alaric I, but
very little physical damage was done, most of which was repaired. What
could not be so easily replaced were portable items such as art work
in precious metals and items for domestic use (loot). The popes
embellished the city with large basilicas, such as Santa Maria
Maggiore (with the collaboration of the emperors). The population of
the city had fallen from 800,000 to 450-500,000 by the time the city
was sacked in 455 by Genseric, king of the Vandals. The weak
emperors of the fifth century could not stop the decay, until the
Augustus on 22 August 476 marked the end of the
Roman Empire and, for many historians, the beginning of the
Middle Ages. The decline of the city's population was caused by
the loss of grain shipments from North Africa, from 440 on, and the
unwillingness of the senatorial class to maintain donations to support
a population that was too large for the resources available. Even so,
strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the
palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the
Gothic siege of 537. The large baths of Constantine on the Quirinale
were even repaired in 443; and the extent of the damage exaggerated
and dramatized (according to "Rome, An Urban History from Antiquity to
the Present", Rabun Taylor, Katherine W. Rinne and Spiro Kostof, 2016
pp. 160–179). However the city gave an appearance overall of
shabbiness and decay because of the large abandoned areas due to
population decline. Population declined to 500,000 by 452 and 100,000
by 500 AD (perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known).
After the Gothic siege of 537, population dropped to 30,000, but had
risen to 90,000 by the papacy of Gregory the Great. ("Rome, Profile of
a City": 321-1308, Richard Krautheimer, p. 165.). The population
decline coincided with the general collapse of urban life in the West
in the 5th and 6th centuries, with few exceptions. Subsidized state
grain distributions to the poorer members of society continued right
through the 6th century and probably prevented the population from
falling further ("Rome, Urban History", pp. 184–185.) The
figure of 450,000-500,000 is based on the amount of pork, 3,629,000
lbs. distributed to poorer Romans during five winter months at the
rate of 5 Roman lbs per person per month, enough for 145,000 persons
or 1/4 or 1/3 of the total population. (Novel 36, 2, Emperor
Valeninian III). Grain distribution to 80,000 ticket holders at the
same time suggests 400,000 (
Augustus set the number at 200,000 or
one-fifth of the population).
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of
The Bishop of Rome, called the Pope, was important since the early
days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles
Peter and Paul there. The Bishops of
Rome were also seen (and still
are seen by Catholics) as the successors of Peter; he being the first
Bishop of Rome. The city thus became of increasing importance as the
centre of the Catholic Church. After the fall of the Western Roman
Empire in 476 AD,
Rome was first under the control of
Odoacer and then
became part of the
Ostrogothic Kingdom before returning to East Roman
control after the Gothic War, which devastated the city. Its
population declined from more than a million in 210 AD to 500,000 in
273 to 35,000 after the Gothic War (535-554), reducing the
sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among
large areas of ruins, vegetation, vineyards and market gardens..
It is generally thought the population of the city until 300 A.D. was
1 million (estimates range from 2 million to 750,000) declining to
750-800,000 in 400 A.D., 450-500,000 in 450 A.D. and down to
80-100,000 in 500 A.D. (though it may have been twice this),
Late Antiquity, Bernard Lancon, 2001, pp. 14, 115-119;
Rome Profile of
a City, Richard Krautheimer, 2000, pp. 4, 65.
After the Lombard invasion of Italy, the city remained nominally
Byzantine, but in reality the popes pursued a policy of equilibrium
between the Byzantines, the
Franks and the Lombards. In 729, the
Lombard king Liutprand donated to the church the north
Latium town of
Sutri, starting the temporal power of the church. In 756, Pepin
the Short, after having defeated the Lombards, gave to the Pope
temporal jurisdiction over the Roman Duchy and the Exarchate of
Ravenna, thus creating the Papal States. Since this period three
powers tried to rule the city: the pope, the nobility, together with
the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace; and
the Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius and Emperor.
These three parties (theocratic, republican and imperial) were a
characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages. On the
Christmas night of 800,
Charlemagne was crowned in
Rome as emperor of
Roman Empire by
Pope Leo III: on that occasion the city
hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for the
universal power was to be a constant of the Middle Ages.
Detail view on an illustration by
Raphael portraying the crowning of
Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Muslim Arabs unsuccessfully stormed the city's walls, but
managed to loot St. Peter's and St. Paul's basilica, both outside the
city wall. After the decay of Carolingian power,
Rome fell prey to
feudal anarchy: several noble families kept fighting against the pope,
the emperor and each other. These were the times of Theodora and her
daughter Marozia, concubines and mothers of several popes, and of
Crescentius, a powerful feudal lord, who fought against the Emperors
Otto II and III. The scandals of this period pushed the papacy to
reform itself: the election of the pope was reserved to the cardinals,
and a reform of the clergy was attempted. The driving force behind
this renewal was the monk Ildebrando da Soana, who once elected pope
under the name of Gregory VII became involved into the Investiture
Emperor Henry IV. Subsequently,
sacked and burned by the
Robert Guiscard who had entered
the city in support of the Pope, who was besieged in Castel S.
During this period, the city was autonomously ruled by a senatore or
patrizio: in the 12th century. This administration, as often in the
Italian cities, evolved into the commune, a new form of social
organisation, expression of the new wealthy classes.
II had already to fight against the Roman commune, and the struggle
was continued by his successor pope Eugenius III: then the commune,
allied with the nobility, was supported by Arnaldo da Brescia, a monk
who was a religious and social reformer. After the pope's death,
Arnaldo was taken prisoner by Adrianus IV, which marked the end of the
comune's autonomy. Under
Pope Innocent III, whose reign marked the
apogee of the papacy, the commune liquidated the senate, and replaced
it with a Senatore, who was subject to the pope.
In this period the papacy played a role of secular importance in
Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between
and exercising additional political powers.
Statue of Charles of Anjou
In 1266 Charles of Anjou, who was heading south to fight the
Hohenstaufen on behalf of the pope, was appointed Senator. Charles
founded the Sapienza, the university of Rome. In that period the
pope died, and the cardinals, summoned in Viterbo, could not agree on
his successor: the people of the city, angered, unroofed the building
where they had met, imprisoning them until they had nominated the new
pope: this happening marked the birth of the conclave. In this
period the city was also shattered by continuous fights among the
noble families: Annibaldi, Caetani, Colonna, Orsini, Conti, nested in
their fortresses built above ancient Roman edifices, fought each other
to control the papacy.
Pope Boniface VIII, born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the
church's universal domain: he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna
and in 1300, called for the first Jubilee of Christianity, which
Rome millions of pilgrims. However, his hopes were
crushed by the French king Philip the Fair, who took him prisoner and
slashed him in Anagni, causing his death. Afterwards, a new pope
faithful to the French was elected, and the papacy was briefly
Avignon (1309–1377). During this period the city
was neglected, until the power fell in the hand of a plebeian man,
Cola di Rienzo. An idealist and a lover of ancient Rome, Cola
dreamed about a rebirth of the Roman Empire: after assuming the power
with the title of Tribuno, his reforms were rejected by the
populace. Forced to flee, Cola could come back among the suite of
cardinal Albornoz, in charge of restoring the church power in
Italy. Back in power for a short time, he was lynched by the
populace, and Albornoz could take possession of the city, that in 1377
Gregory XI became again the seat of the papacy. The return
of the pope to
Rome in that year unleashed the western Schism
(1377–1418), and during the next forty years, the city was prey of
the fights which shattered the church.
Main article: Roman Renaissance
Ponte Sisto on the
Tiber — an excellent example of Italian
Renaissance architecture (built between 1473 and 1479)
In 1418, the
Council of Constance
Council of Constance settled the Western Schism, and a
Roman pope, Martin V, was elected. This brought to
Rome a century
of internal peace, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance.
The ruling popes until the first half of the 16th century, from
Nicholas V, founder of the Vatican Library, to Pius II, humanist and
literate, from Sixtus IV, a warrior pope, to Alexander VI, immoral and
nepotist, from Julius II, soldier and patron, to Leo X, who gave his
name to this period ("the century of Leo X"), all devoted their energy
to the greatness and the beauty of the Eternal City, to the power of
their stock[clarification needed], and to the patronage of the
During those years the centre of the Italian
Renaissance moved to Rome
from Florence. Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter's Basilica, the
Sistine Chapel and
Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across
Tiber since antiquity, although on Roman foundation) were created.
To accomplish that, the Popes engaged the best artists of the time,
including Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca
Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli.
Castel Sant'Angelo, where
Alexander VI secluded himself
The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes
fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. The
corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building
projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the
Counter-Reformation. Alexander VI, for example, was well known for his
decadence, extravagance and immoral life. Under extravagant and
Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music,
literature, education and culture.
Rome became able to compete with
other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur,
the arts, learning and architecture.
Renaissance period changed Rome's face dramatically, with works
like the Pietà by
Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Borgia
Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope
Julius II (1503–1513) and his successors
Leo X and Clement VII, both
members of the Medici family.
Michelangelo's ceiling in the
Sistine Chapel painted in 1508.
Rome in 1642
Rome circa 1650
In this twenty-year period,
Rome became one of the greatest centres of
art in the world. The old
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor
Constantine the Great (which by then was in a dilapidated state)
was demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like
Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli and Bramante, who built the temple
San Pietro in Montorio
San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the
Vatican. Raphael, who in
Rome became one of the most famous painters
of Italy, created frescoes in the
Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's
Rooms, plus many other famous paintings.
Michelangelo started the
decoration of the ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel and executed the
famous statue of the
Moses for the tomb of Julius II.
Rome lost in
part its religious character, becoming increasingly a true Renaissance
city, with a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties,
intrigues and licentious episodes.
Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers,
including Agostino Chigi, who was a friend of
Raphael and a patron of
arts. Before his early death,
Raphael also promoted for the first time
the preservation of the ancient ruins. The fight between
Europe caused the first plunder of the city in less than five
hundred years after the previous sack. In 1527, the Landsknechts of
Emperor Charles V sacked the city, putting to an abrupt end the golden
age of the
Renaissance in Rome.
Beginning with the Council of Trent in 1545, the Church began the
Counter-Reformation as an answer to the Reformation, a large-scale
questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and
governmental affairs. (This loss of confidence then led to major
shifts of power away from the Church.) Under the popes from Pius
IV to Sixtus V,
Rome became the centre of the reformed Catholicism and
saw the instalment of new monuments which celebrated the papacy's
restored greatness. The popes and cardinals of the 17th and early
18th centuries continued the movement by having the city's landscape
enriched with baroque buildings.
This was another nepotistic age: the new noble families (Barberini,
Pamphili, Chigi, Rospigliosi, Altieri, Odescalchi) were protected by
their respective popes, who built for their relatives huge baroque
buildings. During the Age of Enlightenment, new ideas reached also
the Eternal City, where the papacy supported archaeological studies
and improved the people's welfare. But not everything went well
for the Church during the Counter-Reformation. There were setbacks in
the attempts to restrain the anti-Church policies of European powers
of the time, the most notable setback perhaps being in 1773 when Pope
Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order
Late modern and contemporary
The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman
Republic (1798–1800), which was built under the influence of the
French Revolution. The
Papal States were restored in June 1800, but
during Napoleon's reign
Rome was annexed as a Département of the
French Empire: first as Département du Tibre (1808–1810) and then
Rome (1810–1814). After the fall of Napoleon, the
Church State under the pope was reinstated through the Congress of
Vienna of 1814.
In 1849 another
Roman Republic arose within the framework of the
revolutions of 1848. Two of the most influential figures of the
Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought
for the short-lived republic.
Italian soldiers enter
Rome on 20 September 1870
Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification, as the
Italy was reunited as the Kingdom of Italy, with a temporary
capital at Florence. In 1861
Rome was declared capital of
though it was still under the Pope's control. During the 1860s, the
last vestiges of the
Papal States were under French protection, thanks
to the foreign policy of
Napoleon III. It was only when this was
lifted in 1870, owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, that
Italian troops were able to capture
Rome entering the city through a
breach near Porta Pia. Afterwards,
Pope Pius IX declared himself as
prisoner in the Vatican, and in 1871 the capital of
Italy was finally
Florence to Rome.
Rome by Allied troops, 1943
Soon after World War I,
Rome witnessed the rise of Italian Fascism,
led by Benito Mussolini, who marched on the city in 1922, eventually
declaring a new Italian Empire and allying
Italy with Nazi Germany.
Mussolini pulled down large parts of the city centre in order to build
wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist
regime and the resurgence of classical Rome. The interwar period
saw a rapid growth in the city's population, which surpassed one
million inhabitants. In World War II, due to its art treasuries and
the presence of the Vatican,
Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny
of other European cities. However, on 19 July 1943 the San Lorenzo
district was bombed by Anglo-American forces, resulting in about 3,000
immediate deaths and 11,000 wounded of which another 1,500 died. After
the fall of Mussolini and the Italian Armistice on 8 September 1943,
the city was occupied by the Germans and declared an open city until
its liberation on 4 June 1944.
Rome developed momentously after the war, as one of the driving forces
behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and
modernisation in the 1950s and early 1960s. During this period, the
years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"),
Rome became a fashionable
city, with popular classic films such as Ben Hur, Quo Vadis, Roman
La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita filmed in the city's iconic
studios. The rising trend in population growth continued until the
mid-1980s, when the comune had more than 2.8 million residents. After
that, population started to decline slowly as inhabitants began to
move to nearby suburbs of Rome.
Mayor of Rome
Mayor of Rome and Administrative subdivision of Rome
Palazzo Senatorio with the
Rome City Hall
Rome constitutes a comune speciale, named "Roma Capitale", and is
the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8,101
comuni of Italy. It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The
seat of the comune is the
Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill,
the historic seat of the city government. The local administration in
Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio", the Italian name of the
Administrative and historical subdivisions
The municipi of Rome
Since 1972 the city has been divided into administrative areas, called
municipi (sing. municipio) (until 2001 named circoscrizioni). They
were created for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation
in the city. Each municipio is governed by a president and a council
of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five
years. The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the
traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city.
The municipi were originally 20, then 19. In 2013 their number has
been reduced to 15.
Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units.
The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni, all of which are located
Aurelian Walls except
Prati and Borgo.
These originate from the Regiones of ancient Rome, which evolved in
Middle Ages into the medieval rioni. In the Renaissance, under
Pope Sixtus V, they reached again the number of fourteen, and their
boundaries were finally defined under
Pope Benedict XIV in 1743.
A new subdivision of the city under
Napoleon was ephemeral, and there
were no sensible changes in the organisation of the city until 1870,
Rome became the third capital of Italy. The needs of the new
capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the
population within and outside the
Aurelian walls. In 1874 a fifteenth
rione, Esquilino, was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. At
the beginning of the 20th century other rioni where created (the last
Prati – the only one outside the Walls of
Pope Urban VIII
– in 1921). Afterward, for the new administrative subdivisions of
the city the name "quartiere" was used. Today all the rioni are part
of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the
historical city (Centro Storico).
Metropolitan and regional government
Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome, operative
since 1 January 2015. The Metropolitan City replaced the old province,
which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north
until Civitavecchia. The
Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by
area in Italy. At 5,352 square kilometres (2,066 sq mi), its
dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria. Moreover, the city
is also the capital of the
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian
Rome is the national capital of
Italy and is the seat of the Italian
Government. The official residences of the President of the Italian
Republic and the Italian Prime Minister, the seats of both houses of
the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court
are located in the historic centre. The state ministries are spread
out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
which is located in
Palazzo della Farnesina
Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.
Rome is in the
Lazio region of central
Italy on the
Tevere) river. The original settlement developed on hills that faced
onto a ford beside the
Tiber Island, the only natural ford of the
river in this area. The
Rome of the Kings was built on seven hills:
the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Capitoline Hill, the
Esquiline Hill, the Palatine Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal
Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene, which
flows into the
Tiber north of the historic centre.
Although the city centre is about 24 kilometres (15 mi) inland
from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the shore,
where the south-western district of Ostia is located. The altitude of
the central part of
Rome ranges from 13 metres (43 ft) above sea
level (at the base of the Pantheon) to 139 metres (456 ft) above
sea level (the peak of Monte Mario). The
Rome covers an
overall area of about 1,285 square kilometres (496 sq mi),
including many green areas.
Satellite view of Rome
Rome from the dome of St. Peter's Basilica
Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were
considered to be the area within the city’s walls. Originally, these
consisted of the Servian Wall, which was built twelve years after the
Gaulish sack of the city in 390 BC. This contained most of the
Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five.
Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed
until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD,
Aurelian Walls. These were almost 19 kilometres
(12 mi) long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom
Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870. The city's urban
area is cut in two by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare
("GRA"), finished in 1962, which circles the city centre at a distance
of about 10 km (6 mi). Although when the ring was completed
most part of the inhabited area lay inside it (one of the few
exceptions was the former village of Ostia, which lies along the
Tyrrhenian coast), in the meantime quarters have been built which
extend up to 20 km (12 mi) beyond it.
The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within
the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan
Milan and Naples, and to an area six times the size of the
territory of these cities. It also includes considerable areas of
abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for
As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its
territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas
designated as parks, nature reserves, and for agricultural use.
Main article: Climate of Rome
Rome has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification:
Csa), with cool, humid winters and warm, dry summers.
Its average annual temperature is above 20 °C (68 °F)
during the day and 10 °C (50 °F) at night. In the coldest
month – January, the average temperature is 12 °C
(54 °F) during the day and 3 °C (37 °F) at night. In
the warmest months – July and August, the average temperature is
30 °C (86 °F) during the day and 18 °C (64 °F)
December, January and February are the coldest months, with a daily
mean temperature of 8 °C (46 °F).Temperatures during these
months generally vary between 10 and 15 °C (50 and 59 °F)
during the day and between 3 and 5 °C (37 and 41 °F) at
night, with colder or warmer spells occurring frequently. Snowfall is
rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring almost
every winter, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls
approximately once every 5 years (most recently in 2018, previously
The average relative humidity is 75%, varying from 72% in July to 77%
in November. Sea temperatures vary from a low of 13 °C
(55 °F) in February and March to a high of 24 °C
(75 °F) in August.
Climate data for
Rome Ciampino Airport
Rome Ciampino Airport (altitude: 105 m sl, 13 km
(8 mi) south-east from
Colosseum satellite view)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Servizio Meteorologico, data of sunshine hours
Main article: Demographics of Italy
Source: ISTAT, 2001
Rome aerial view
In 550 BC
Rome was the second largest city in Italy, with Tarentum
being the largest. It had an area of about 285 hectares (700 acres)
and an estimated population of 35,000. Other sources suggest the
population was just under 100,000 from 600–500 BC. When the
Republic was founded in 509 BC the census recorded a population of
130,000. The republic included the city itself and the immediate
surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of 150,000 in 500 BC.
It surpassed 300,000 in 150 BC.
The size of the city at the time of the
Augustus is a matter
of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain
imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census
reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women,
children and slaves providing a very wide range. Glenn Storey
estimates 450,000 people, Whitney Oates estimates 1.2 million, Neville
Morely provides a rough estimate of 800,000 and excludes earlier
suggestions of 2 million.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city's population
declined to less than 50,000 people. It continued to stagnate or
shrink until the Renaissance. When the Kingdom of
Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 200,000. This
increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. The Fascist regime of
Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city,
but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early
1930s.[clarification needed] Population growth
continued after the Second World War, helped by a post-war economic
boom. A construction boom also created a large number of suburbs
during the 1950s and 1960s.
In mid-2010, there were 2,754,440 residents in the city proper, while
some 4.2 million people lived in the greater
Rome area (which can
be approximately identified with its administrative metropolitan city,
with a population density of about 800 inhab./km² stretching over
more than 5,000 km²). Minors (children ages 18 and younger)
totalled 17.00% of the population compared to pensioners who number
20.76%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and
19.94% (pensioners). The average age of a Roman resident is 43
compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002
and 2007, the population of
Rome grew by 6.54%, while
Italy as a whole
grew by 3.56%. The current[when?] birth rate of
Rome is 9.10
births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45
The urban area of
Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits
with a population of around 3.9 million. Between 3.2 and 4.2
million people live in the
Rome metropolitan area.
The Esquilino rione.
According to the latest statistics conducted by ISTAT,
approximately 9.5% of the population consists of non-Italians. About
half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other
European origins (chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian)
numbering a combined total of 131,118 or 4.7% of the population. The
remaining 4.8% are those with non-European origins, chiefly Filipinos
(26,933), Bangladeshis (12,154), and Chinese (10,283).
The Esquilino rione, off Termini Railway Station, has evolved into a
largely immigrant neighbourhood. It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown.
Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there.
A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many
kinds of international cuisine. There are wholesale clothes shops. Of
the 1,300 or so commercial premises operating in the district 800 are
Chinese-owned; around 300 are run by immigrants from other countries
around the world; 200 are owned by Italians.
Main article: Religion in Rome
Papal Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral
Much like the rest of Italy,
Rome is predominantly Roman Catholic, and
the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for
centuries, the base of the ancient Roman Religion with the pontifex
maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope. Before the
arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana (literally, the
"Roman Religion") was the major religion of the city in classical
antiquity. The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter, the
most high, and Mars, god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders,
Romulus and Remus, according to tradition. Other gods and goddesses
such as Vesta and
Minerva were honoured.
Rome was also the base of
several mystery cults, such as Mithraism. Later, after St Peter and St
Paul were martyred in the city, and the first Christians began to
Rome became Christian, and the Old
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica was
constructed in 313 AD. Despite some interruptions (such as the Avignon
Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic
Church and the Bishop of Rome, otherwise known as the Pope.
Mosque of Rome, the largest mosque in Western Europe
Despite the fact that
Rome is home to the
Vatican City and St. Peter's
Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran,
located to the south-east of the city-centre. There are around 900
Rome in total, aside from the cathedral itself, some
others of note include: the
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the
Basilica di San
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and the Church of the Gesù.
There are also the ancient
Catacombs of Rome
Catacombs of Rome underneath the city.
Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also
in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University, Pontifical
Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, and Pontifical
In recent years, there has been a significant growth in Rome's Muslim
community, mainly due to immigration from North African and Middle
Eastern countries into the city.[clarification needed] As a result of
this increase of the local practitioners of the Islamic faith, the
comune promoted the building of the Mosque of Rome, which is the
largest mosque in Western Europe, that was designed by architect Paolo
Portoghesi and inaugurated on 21 June 1995. Since the end of the Roman
Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish
community, which was once based in Trastevere, and later in the
Roman Ghetto. There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio
Main article: Vatican City
St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square in Vatican City.
The territory of
Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus (Vatican
Hill), and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Peter's
Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were
built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the
Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city on the
west bank of the Tiber, the area was a suburb that was protected by
being included within the walls of Leo IV, later expanded by the
current fortification walls of Paul III/Pius IV/Urban VIII.
Lateran Treaty of 1929 that created the Vatican state was
being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were
influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this
loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line
of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small
part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.
The territory includes Saint Peter's Square, separated from the
Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square,
where it borders
Piazza Pio XII.
St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square is reached through
the Via della Conciliazione, which runs from the
Tiber to St. Peter's.
This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and
Spaccarelli, for want of
Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the
church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the
Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the
Holy See located in Italian
territory, most notably the
Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo
Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the
major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica at night from
Via della Conciliazione
Via della Conciliazione in Rome
Rome has been a major
Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages.
People from all over the
Christian world visit Vatican City, within
the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. The
Pope was the most
influential figure during the Middle Ages. The city became a major
pilgrimage site during the
Middle Ages and the focus of struggles
Papacy and the Holy
Roman Empire starting with
Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in
Rome in 800 by Pope
Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the
Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for
centuries, even when the
Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon
(1309–1377). Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting
place of St. Peter.
Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites,
Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping
point is the Pilate's stairs: these are, according to the Christian
tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate
in Jerusalem, which
Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his
way to trial. The stairs were, reputedly, brought to
Rome by St.
Helena in the 4th Century. For centuries, the Scala Santa has
Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of
Jesus. Object of pilgrimage are also several catacombs built in the
Roman age, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed
worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches
San Luigi dei francesi
San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima), or
churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the
Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.
Traditionally, pilgrims in
Rome and Roman citizens thanking
God for a
grace should visit by foot the seven pilgrim churches (Italian: Le
sette chiese) in 24 hours. This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in
the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip
Neri. The seven churches are the four major Basilicas (St Peter in
Vatican, St Paul outside the Walls,
St John in Lateran
St John in Lateran and Santa Maria
Maggiore), while the other three are
San Lorenzo fuori le mura
San Lorenzo fuori le mura (a
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (a church
founded by Helena, the mother of Constantine, which hosts fragments of
wood attributed to the holy cross) and San Sebastiano fuori le mura
(which lies on the
Appian Way and is built above Roman catacombs).
List of tourist attractions in Rome
List of tourist attractions in Rome and List of streets in
Rome from the Via San Lucio
Main article: Architecture of Rome
Colosseum and the
Arch of Constantine
Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed,
especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern
Rome was for a period one of the world's main
epicentres of classical architecture, developing new forms such as the
arch, the dome and the vault. The Romanesque style in the 11th,
12th and 13th centuries was also widely used in Roman architecture,
and later the city became one of the main centres of Renaissance,
Baroque and neoclassic architecture.
List of ancient monuments in Rome
List of ancient monuments in Rome and Ancient Roman
One of the symbols of
Rome is the
Colosseum (70–80 AD), the largest
amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of
seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. A list
of important monuments and sites of ancient
Rome includes the Roman
Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan's Column, Trajan's
Market, the Catacombs, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla,
Castel Sant'Angelo, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Ara Pacis, the Arch
of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Bocca della Verità.
The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the
Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century
and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain.
Basilicas dating from the
Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major
and Saint Paul outside the Walls (the latter largely rebuilt in the
19th century), both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics. Notable
later notable medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the
churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santi Quattro Coronati, and
Santa Prassede. Secular buildings include a number of towers, the
largest being the
Torre delle Milizie
Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti, both
next the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the
basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.
Renaissance and Baroque
Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance, second only to
Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a
Renaissance architecture in
Rome is the
Campidoglio by Michelangelo. During this period, the great
aristocratic families of
Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the
Palazzo del Quirinale
Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian
Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo
Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister),
the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa
Panoramic view of
Piazza del Campidoglio, with the copy of the
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius.
Many of the famous city's squares – some huge, majestic and often
adorned with obelisks, some small and picturesque – got their
present shape during the
Renaissance and Baroque. The principal ones
Piazza di Spagna, Campo de' Fiori,
Piazza della Rotonda and
Piazza della Minerva. One of
the most emblematic examples of
Baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by
Nicola Salvi. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the
Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the
Italian Senate and the Palazzo
Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.
The Altare della Patria
Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy.
During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the
architecture of antiquity, became a predominant influence in Roman
architecture. During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical
styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing
agencies. One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the
Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of the Fatherland", where
the Grave of the Unknown Soldier, that represents the 650,000 Italians
that fell in World War I, is located.
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana
See also: Fascist architecture
The Fascist regime that ruled in
Italy between 1922 and 1943 had its
showcase in Rome. Mussolini allowed the construction of new roads and
piazzas, resulting in the destruction of roads, houses, churches and
palaces erected during the papal rule. The main activities during his
government were: the "isolation" of the Capitoline Hill; Via dei
Monti, later renamed Via del'Impero, and finally Via dei Fori
Imperiali; Via del Mare, later renamed Via del Teatro di Marcello; the
"isolation" of the Mausoleum of Augustus, with the erection of Piazza
Augusto Imperatore; Via della Conciliazione.
Fascism favored the most modern movements, such as
the Rationalism. Parallel to this, in the 1920s another style emerged,
named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman
architecture. One important construction in the latter style is the
Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico, by Enrico Del Debbio. Next to it,
the most important Fascist site in
Rome is the EUR district, designed
in 1938 by Marcello Piacentini. This new quarter emerged as a
compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former
being led by Giuseppe Pagano. The EUR was originally conceived for the
1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). The
most representative buildings of EUR are the Palazzo della Civiltà
Italiana (1938–1943), the iconic design of which has been labelled
the cubic of Square Colosseum, and the Palazzo dei Congressi, example
of Rationalist style. The world exhibition, however, never took place
Italy entered the Second World War in 1940, and the realised
buildings were partly destroyed in 1943 during the fighting between
Italian and German army after the armistice and later abandoned. The
quarter was restored in the 1950s, when the Roman authorities found
that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of
the type that other capitals were still planning (
London Docklands and
La Défense in Paris). Also the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current
seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was designed in 1935
in pure Fascist style.
Parks and gardens
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the gardens of the
Main article: List of parks and gardens in Rome
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the
city has one of the largest areas of green space among European
capitals. The most notable part of this green space is represented
by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the
Italian aristocracy. While most of the parks surrounding the villas
were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some
of them remain. The most notable of these are
Villa Borghese, Villa
Villa Doria Pamphili.
Villa Doria Pamphili
Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the
Gianicolo hill comprising some 1.8 square kilometres
(0.7 sq mi). Also on the Gianicolo hill there is Villa
Sciarra, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. In
the nearby area of
Trastevere the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is
a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus
Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees, but is
overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden ('roseto comunale').
Nearby is the lush
Villa Celimontana, close to the gardens surrounding
the Baths of Caracalla. The
Villa Borghese garden is the best known
large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded
Piazza del Popolo
Piazza del Popolo and the
Spanish Steps are the
Villa Medici. Noteworthy is also the Pine wood
of Castelfusano, near Ostia.
Rome also has a number of regional parks
of much more recent origin including the
Pineto Regional Park
Pineto Regional Park and the
Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at
Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.
Fountains and aqueducts
List of fountains in Rome
List of fountains in Rome and List of aqueducts in the
city of Rome
The Trevi Fountain
The Fontana della Barcaccia
Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all
different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to
Neoclassical. The city has had fountains for more than two thousand
years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas
of Rome. During the Roman Empire, in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius
Frontinus, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian
of the water of the city,
Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39
monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water
supplied to the Imperial household, baths and owners of private
villas. Each of the major fountains was connected to two different
aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.
During the 17th and 18th century the Roman popes reconstructed other
ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their
termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. The fountains
of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens, were expressions of the new
Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and
filled with emotion and movement. In these fountains, sculpture became
the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and
decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual
representation of confidence and power".
See also: Talking statues of Rome
Bernini's statues at the
Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking
statues of Rome. These are usually ancient statues which have become
popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for
people to (often satirically) voice their opinions. There are two main
talking statues: the
Pasquino and the Marforio, yet there are four
other noted ones: il Babuino, Madama Lucrezia, il Facchino and Abbot
Luigi. Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most
of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary
Pasquino represents Menelaus,
Abbot Luigi is an unknown
Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus, Marforio
Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis, and il Facchino
is the only non-Roman statue, created in 1580, and not representing
anyone in particular. They are often, due to their status, covered
with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of
view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking
statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments
scattered across the city, such as that to
Giordano Bruno in the Campo
Obelisks and columns
Main article: List of obelisks in Rome
An ancient Egyptian obelisk in
Piazza del Popolo
The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks,
together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also
formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. The
city contains some of obelisks in piazzas, such as in
St Peter's Square,
Piazza Montecitorio, and
Piazza del Popolo, and
others in villas, thermae parks and gardens, such as in Villa
Celimontana, the Baths of Diocletian, and the Pincian Hill. Moreover,
the centre of
Rome hosts also Trajan's and Antonine Column, two
ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. The Column of Marcus
Aurelius is located in
Piazza Colonna and it was built around 180 AD
Commodus in memory of his parents. The Column of Marcus Aurelius
was inspired by
Trajan's Column at Trajan's Forum, which is part of
the Imperial Fora
Main article: List of bridges in Rome
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The city of
Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the
Tiber. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the
classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi, which connects the Isola
Tiberina with the left bank. The other surviving – albeit modified
– ancient Roman bridges crossing the
Tiber are Ponte Cestio, Ponte
Sant'Angelo and Ponte Milvio. Considering Ponte Nomentano, also built
during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene, currently there are
five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city. Other
noteworthy bridges are Ponte Sisto, the first bridge built in the
Renaissance above Roman foundations; Ponte Rotto, actually the only
remaining arch of the ancient Pons Aemilius, collapsed during the
flood of 1598 and demolished at the end of the 19th century; and Ponte
Vittorio Emanuele II, a modern bridge connecting Corso Vittorio
Emanuele and Borgo. Most of the city's public bridges were built in
Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and
Modern styles. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the finest
ancient bridge remaining in
Rome is the Ponte Sant'Angelo, which was
completed in 135 AD, and was decorated with ten statues of the angels,
designed by Bernini in 1688.
Catacombs of Rome
Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial
places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some
discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian
burials, they include pagan and
Jewish burials, either in separate
catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were
excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved
through tuff, a soft volcanic rock, outside the boundaries of the
Roman law forbade burial places within city limits.
Currently maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy
which has invested in the
Salesians of Don Bosco
Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of
Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome.
As the capital of Italy,
Rome hosts all the principal institutions of
the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government
(and its single Ministeri), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts,
and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states
Italy and Vatican City. Many international institutions are located
in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American
Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian
Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute. There are also
specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the FAO.
hosts major international and worldwide political and cultural
organisations, such as the International Fund for Agricultural
World Food Programme
World Food Programme (WFP), the NATO Defence
College and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation
and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM).
Panoramic view of EUR business district.
According to the GaWC study of world cities,
Rome is a beta+, ranking
Rome was ranked in 2014 as 32nd in the Global Cities
Index, the highest in Italy. With a 2005 GDP of
€94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion), the city produces
6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy),
and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and
2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the
European Union capital
Rome grows +4.4% annually and continues to grow at a
higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the
country. This means that were
Rome a country, it would be the
world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of
Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153 (US$37,412),
which was second in Italy, (after Milan), and is more than 134.1% of
the EU average GDP per capita. Rome, on the whole, has the
highest total earnings in Italy, reaching €47,076,890,463 in
2008, yet, in terms of average workers' incomes, the city places
itself 9th in Italy, with €24,509. On a global level, Rome's
workers receive the 30th highest wages in 2009, coming three places
higher than in 2008, in which the city ranked 33rd. The
had a GDP amounting to $167.8 billion, and $38,765 per capita.
Rome chamber of commerce in ancient Temple of Hadrian
Although the economy of
Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy
industry and it is largely dominated by services, high-technology
companies (IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications), research,
construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the
huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important
to its economy. Rome's international airport, Fiumicino, is the
largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast
majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters
of three of the world's 100 largest companies: Enel, Eni, and Telecom
Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in
Rome are also important parts of the economy:
Rome is also the hub of
the Italian film industry, thanks to the
Cinecittà studios, working
since the 1930s. The city is also a centre for banking and insurance
as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries.
Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government
ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located
in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale
Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana;
the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley
along the ancient Via Tiburtina.
Sapienza University of Rome
Sapienza University of Rome founded in 1303
Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher
education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities.
It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always
been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially
Ancient Rome and the Renaissance, along with Florence.
According to the City Brands Index,
Rome is considered the world's
second most historically, educationally and culturally interesting and
Rome has a large number of universities and colleges. Its first
university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is one of the largest in
the world, with more than 140,000 students attending; in 2005 it
ranked as Europe's 33rd best university and in 2013 the Sapienza
Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in
Italy in its World University Rankings. and has been ranked among
Europe's 50 and the world's 150 best colleges. In order to
decrease the overcrowding of La Sapienza, two new public universities
were founded during the last decades: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma
Tre in 1992.
Rome hosts also the LUISS School of Government, Italy's
most important graduate university in the areas of international
affairs and European studies as well as LUISS Business School, Italy's
most important business school.
Rome ISIA was founded in 1973 by
Giulio Carlo Argan
Giulio Carlo Argan and is Italy's oldest institution in the field of
Rome contains also a large number of pontifical universities and other
institutes, including the British School at Rome, the French School in
Pontifical Gregorian University
Pontifical Gregorian University (the oldest Jesuit
university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design,
the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, the
Link Campus of Malta, and the
Università Campus Bio-Medico.
Rome is also the location of two
American Universities; The American University of Rome and John
Cabot University as well as St. John's University branch campus, John
Rome Center, a campus of
Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago and Temple
University Rome, a campus of Temple University. The Roman
Colleges are several seminaries for students from foreign countries
studying for the priesthood at the Pontifical Universities.
Examples include the Venerable English College, the Pontifical North
American College, the Scots College, and the Pontifical Croatian
College of St. Jerome.
National Central Library
Rome's major libraries include: the Biblioteca Angelica, opened in
1604, making it Italy's first public library; the Biblioteca
Vallicelliana, established in 1565; the Biblioteca Casanatense, opened
in 1701; the National Central Library, one of the two national
libraries in Italy, which contains 4,126,002 volumes; The Biblioteca
del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, specialised in diplomacy, foreign
affairs and modern history; the Biblioteca dell'Istituto
dell'Enciclopedia Italiana; the Biblioteca Don Bosco, one of the
largest and most modern of all Salesian libraries; the Biblioteca e
Museo teatrale del Burcardo, a museum-library specialised in history
of drama and theatre; the Biblioteca della Società Geografica
Italiana, which is based in the
Villa Celimontana and is the most
important geographical library in Italy, and one of Europe's most
important; and the Vatican Library, one of the oldest and most
important libraries in the world, which was formally established in
1475, though in fact much older and has 75,000 codices, as well as 1.1
million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. There are
also a large number of specialist libraries attached to various
foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American
Academy in Rome, the
French Academy in Rome
French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca
Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History, a German library,
often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences;
Main article: Culture in Rome
Entertainment and performing arts
Music of Rome and Events in Rome
Teatro dell'Opera di Roma
Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the
Piazza Beniamino Gigli
Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical
scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and
theatres. It hosts the
Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia
Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded
in 1585), for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco
della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome
also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, as well as
several minor musical institutions. The city also played host to the
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV
Europe Music Awards in
Rome has also had a major impact in music history. The Roman School
was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were
active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore
spanning the late
Renaissance and early
Baroque eras. The term also
refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct
connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at
several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the
Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much
more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School
is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated
for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection.
However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety
of styles and forms.
Main article: Tourism in Rome
Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the
Holy See in that City
Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cultural: i, ii, iii, iv, vi
1980 (4th Session)
The Spanish Steps
Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the
world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and
artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions,
the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent
"villas" (parks). Among the most significant resources are the many
museums – Musei Capitolini, the
Vatican Museums and the Galleria
Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art –
aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the
monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs.
Rome is the
third most visited city in the EU, after
London and Paris, and
receives an average of 7–10 million tourists a year, which
sometimes doubles on holy years. The
Colosseum (4 million
tourists) and the
Vatican Museums (4.2 million tourists) are the
39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world,
according to a recent study.
Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main
centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and
research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy
in Rome, and The Swedish Institute at Rome.
numerous ancient sites, including the Forum Romanum, Trajan's Market,
Trajan's Forum, the Colosseum, and the Pantheon, to name but a
few. The Colosseum, arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological
sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world.
Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture,
fountains, mosaics, frescos, and paintings, from all different
Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient
Rome, with forms of important
Roman art such as architecture,
painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work, coin die and gem
engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book
illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman
Rome later became a major centre of
since the popes spent vast sums of money for the constructions of
grandiose basilicas, palaces, piazzas and public buildings in general.
Rome became one of Europe's major centres of
second only to Florence, and able to compare to other major cities and
cultural centres, such as
Paris and Venice. The city was affected
greatly by the baroque, and
Rome became the home of numerous artists
and architects, such as Bernini, Caravaggio, Carracci, Borromini and
Cortona. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, the
city was one of the centres of the Grand Tour, when wealthy,
young English and other European aristocrats visited the city to learn
about ancient Roman culture, art, philosophy and architecture. Rome
hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as
Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic
centre, with numerous art institutes and museums.
Internal view of the Colosseum
Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and
architecture. The National Gallery of Modern Art has works by Balla,
Morandi, Pirandello, Carrà, De Chirico, De Pisis, Guttuso, Fontana,
Burri, Mastroianni, Turcato, Kandisky and Cézanne on permanent
exhibition. 2010 saw the opening of Rome's newest arts foundation, a
contemporary art and architecture gallery designed by acclaimed Iraqi
architect Zaha Hadid. Known as MAXXI – National Museum of the 21st
Century Arts it restores a dilapidated area with striking modern
architecture. Maxxi features a campus dedicated to culture,
experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study
and research. It is one of Rome's most ambitious modern architecture
projects alongside Renzo Piano's Auditorium Parco della Musica
and Massimiliano Fuksas'
Rome Convention Center, Centro Congressi
Italia EUR, in the EUR district, due to open in 2016. The
convention centre features a huge translucent container inside which
is suspended a steel and teflon structure resembling a cloud and which
contains meeting rooms and an auditorium with two piazzas open to the
neighbourhood on either side.
Via dei Condotti
Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although
not as important as Milan,
Rome is the fourth most important centre
for fashion in the world, according to the 2009 Global Language
Monitor after Milan, New York and Paris, and beating London.
Major luxury fashion houses and jewelry chains, such as Valentino,
Bulgari, Fendi, Laura Biagiotti, Brioni and Renato Balestra, are
headquartered or were founded in the city. Also, other major labels,
such as Chanel, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana,
luxury boutiques in Rome, primarily along its prestigious and upscale
Via dei Condotti.
Spaghetti alla Carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, example of Roman-
Main article: Roman cuisine
Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social,
cultural, and political changes.
Rome became a major gastronomical
centre during the ancient Age. Ancient
Roman cuisine was highly
influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous
expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and
cooking techniques. Later, during the Renaissance,
Rome became well
known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the
time, worked for the popes. An example of this could be Bartolomeo
Scappi, who was a chef, working for
Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen,
and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del
cucinare was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000
recipes of the
Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques
and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.
In the modern age, the city developed its own peculiar cuisine, based
on products of the nearby Campagna, as lamb and vegetables (globe
artichokes are common). In parallel, Roman Jews -present in the
city since the 1st century BC- developed their own cuisine, the cucina
giudaico-romanesca. Examples of Roman dishes include "
Romana" – a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage
and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla romana" –
artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint,
garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Carciofi alla giudia" – artichokes
fried in olive oil, typical of Roman
Jewish cooking; outer leaves
removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised;
Spaghetti alla carbonara" – spaghetti with bacon, eggs and
pecorino, and "
Gnocchi di semolino alla romana" – semolina dumpling,
Roman-style, to name but a few.
List of films set in Rome and List of films set in
Roman Holiday with
Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck
Rome hosts the
Cinecittà Studios, the largest film and
television production facility in continental
Europe and the centre of
the Italian cinema, where a large number of today's biggest box office
hits are filmed. The 99-acre (40 ha) studio complex is 9.0
kilometres (5.6 mi) from the centre of
Rome and is part of one of
the biggest production communities in the world, second only to
Hollywood, with well over 5,000 professionals – from period costume
makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have
been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the
Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO's Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De
Laurentiis' Decameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra,
and the films of Federico Fellini.
Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the
Western Allies during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà
was the filming location for several large American film productions,
and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with
Federico Fellini. Today
Cinecittà is the only studio in the world
with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities
on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their
script and "walk out" with a completed film.
Roman dialect and Latin
Latin inscription, in the National Roman Museum
Although associated today only with Latin, ancient
Rome was in fact
multilingual. In highest antiquity
Sabine tribes shared the area of
what is today
Latin tribes. The
Sabine language was one of
the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan,
which would have been the main language of the last three kings who
ruled the city till the founding of the
Republic in 509 BC. Urganilla,
or Plautia Urgulanilla, wife of
Emperor Claudius, is thought to have
been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according
to Suetonius' entry on Claudius. However Latin, in various evolving
forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had
immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the
world it was also multilingual. Many educated Romans also spoke Greek,
and there was a large Greek, Syriac and
Jewish population in parts of
Rome from well before the Empire.
Latin evolved during the
Middle Ages into a new language, the
"volgare". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional
dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the
Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The
Romanesco spoken during the
Middle Ages was more like a southern
Italian dialect, very close to the
Neapolitan language in Campania.
The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and
above all, the immigration to
Rome of many Florentines following the
two Medici Popes (
Leo X and Clement VII), caused a major shift in the
dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This
remained largely confined to
Rome until the 19th century, but then
expanded to other zones of
Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina and others),
from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising
Rome and to improving transportation systems. As a
consequence of education and media like radio and television,
Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian. Dialectal
literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of
such authors as
Giuseppe Gioachino Belli
Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (one of the most important
Italian poets altogether),
Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella. It is worth
remembering though that Romanesco was a "lingua vernacola" (vernacular
language), meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form
but it was only spoken by the population.
Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors and
actresses, such as Alberto Sordi, Aldo Fabrizi, Anna Magnani. Carlo
Verdone, Enrico Montesano,
Gigi Proietti and Nino Manfredi.
Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much
more extensive however. Through the process of Romanization, the
peoples of Italy, Gallia, the
Iberian Peninsula and
languages which derive directly from
Latin and were adopted in large
areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonization and
migration. Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman
Conquest, borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin
language. The Roman or
Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing
system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.
Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident
communities and a large number of foreign religious students or
pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city. Today because of
mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially
English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts
large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant
Stadio Olimpico, one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over
Association football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest
of the country. The city hosted the final games of the 1934 and 1990
FIFA World Cup. The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium, which is
also the shared home stadium for local
Serie A clubs S.S. Lazio,
founded in 1900, and A.S. Roma, founded in 1927, whose rivalry in the
Derby della Capitale
Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture.
Footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city
tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players
Francesco Totti and
Daniele De Rossi
Daniele De Rossi (both for A.S. Roma), and
Alessandro Nesta (for S.S. Lazio).
Atletico Roma is a minor team that
played in First Division until 2012; its home stadium was Stadio
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics, with great success, using many
ancient sites such as the
Villa Borghese and the
Thermae of Caracalla
as venues. For the Olympic Games many new structures were created,
notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was also enlarged and
renewed to host qualification and the final match of the 1990 FIFA
World Cup), the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village, created to host
the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential
Rome made a bid to host the
2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics but
it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files.
Rome hosted the
1991 EuroBasket and is home to the
internationally recognized basketball team Virtus Roma.
Rugby union is
gaining wider acceptance. Until 2011 the
Stadio Flaminio was the home
stadium for the
Italy national rugby union team, which has been
playing in the
Six Nations Championship
Six Nations Championship since 2000. The team now plays
home games at the
Stadio Olimpico because the
Stadio Flaminio needs
works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.
Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma (founded in
1930 and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in
Unione Rugby Capitolina
Unione Rugby Capitolina and S.S.
Lazio 1927 (rugby union
branch of the multisport club S.S. Lazio).
Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the
clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was popular in the post-World
War II period, although its popularity has faded.
Rome has hosted the
final portion of the
Giro d'Italia three times, in 1911, 1950, and
Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball
(M. Roma Volley), handball or waterpolo.
Main article: Transport in Rome
Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in
Port of Civitavecchia
Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly
follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the
Capitoline Hill and connected
Rome with its empire. Today
circled, at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi) from the
Capitol, by the ring-road (the
Grande Raccordo Anulare
Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA).
Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula,
the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway
station, Termini, is one of the largest railway stations in
the most heavily used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers
passing through every day. The second-largest station in the city,
Roma Tiburtina, has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail
terminus.. As well as frequent high speed day trains to all major
Rome is linked nightly by 'boat train' sleeper
services to Sicily, and internationally by overnight sleeper services
Vienna by ÖBB Austrian railways.
Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da
Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport, is located
within the nearby Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome
Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is
commonly referred to as "
Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside
Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the
is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km (4 mi)
north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private
Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea (Lido
di Ostia), this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for
fishing boats. The main harbour which serves
Rome is Port of
Civitavecchia, located about 62 kilometres (39 miles) northwest of the
The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial
street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the
vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the
historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped
by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other
cities of similar size. In addition,
Rome has only 21 taxis for every
10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.
Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to
restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre
during the hours of daylight. Areas where these restriction apply are
known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL) in
Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere,
Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs
in those districts.
Roma Metrorail and Underground 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome.
Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s. The line had
been planned to quickly connect the main railway station with the
newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World
Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of
war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR
(Esposizione Universale di Roma:
Rome Universal Exhibition) in the
1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally
opened in 1955, and it is now the south part of the B Line.
The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later
extended in stages (1999–2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an
extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This
underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very
congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as
it is relatively short.
The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of
the B line (B1) opened on 13 June 2012 after an estimated building
cost of €500 million. B1 connects to line B at
and has four stations over a distance of 3.9 km (2 mi).
A third line, the C line, is under construction with an estimated cost
of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of
25.5 km (16 mi). It will partly replace the existing
Termini-Pantano rail line. It will feature full automated, driverless
trains. The first section with 15 stations connecting Pantano
with the quarter of Centocelle in the eastern part of the city, opened
on 9 November 2014. The end of the work was scheduled in 2015,
but archaeological findings often delay underground construction work.
A fourth line, D line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over
a distance of 20 km (12 mi). The first section was projected
to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035, but due to the
city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold.
Above-ground public transport in
Rome is made up of a bus, tram and
urban train network (FR lines). The bus, tram, metro and urban
railways network is run by Atac S.p.A. (which originally stood for the
Municipal Bus and Tramways Company, Azienda Tramvie e Autobus del
Comune in Italian). The bus network has in excess of 350 bus lines and
over eight thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system
has 39 km (24 mi) of track and 192 stops. There is
also one trolleybus line, opened in 2005, and additional trolleybus
lines are planned.
International entities, organisations and involvement
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Among the global cities,
Rome is unique in having two sovereign
entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See,
represented by the
Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller
Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Vatican is an enclave of the
Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the
Holy See which
is the Diocese of
Rome and the supreme government of the Roman
Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian
government, to the Holy See, to the Order of
Malta and to certain
international organizations. Several international
Roman Colleges and
Pontifical Universities are located in Rome.
Pope is the
Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome and its official seat is the
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (of which the President of the French
Republic is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon", a title
held by the heads of the French state since King Henry IV of France).
Another body, the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), took
Rome in 1834, due to the conquest of
1798. It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not
claim any territory in
Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute
over its actual sovereign status.
Rome is the seat of the so-called Polo Romano made up by three
main international agencies of the United Nations: the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO), the
World Food Programme
World Food Programme (WFP) and the
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European
political integration. The
Treaties of the EU
Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo
della Farnesina, seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, due the fact
that the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties. In 1957
the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome, which established
European Economic Community
European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union),
and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European
Constitution in July 2004.
Rome is the seat of the
European Olympic Committee
European Olympic Committee and of the NATO
Defense College. The city is the place where the Statute of the
International Criminal Court and the European Convention on Human
Rights were formulated.
The city hosts also other important international entities such as the
IDLO (International Development Law Organisation), the ICCROM
(International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and
Restoration of Cultural Property) and the
Institute for the Unification of Private Law).
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Column dedicated to
Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
Rome is since 9 April 1956 exclusively and reciprocally twinned only
(in Italian) Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di
(in French) Seule
Paris est digne de Rome; seule
Rome est digne de
Paris is worthy of Rome; only
Rome is worthy of
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Rome's other partner cities are:
Cincinnati, United States
London, United Kingdom
Multan, Pakistan
Mumbai, India
Marbella, Spain
Montreal, Canada
New Delhi, India
New York City, United States
Seoul, South Korea
Washington, D.C., United States
Scam City – Season 1 (2012)
The Holy Cities:
Rome produced by Danae Film Production, distributed
by HDH Communications; 2006.
European Union portal
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
List of museums in Rome
List of shopping areas and markets in Rome
List of tallest buildings in Rome
List of theatres and opera houses in Rome
Outline of Italy
Outline of Rome
^ a b "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Archived from the original on
22 September 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
^ a b Bilancio demografico Anno 2014 (dati provvisori). Provincia:
Roma Archived 5 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. –
^ "Discorsi del Presidente Ciampi". Presidenza della Repubblica.
Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 17 May
^ "Le istituzioni salutano Benedetto XVI". La Repubblica. Archived
from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
^ a b Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and De Rita, D. (2005), The Seven
Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton
^ "Old Age in
Ancient Rome – History Today". Archived from the
original on 20 March 2018.
^ Stephanie Malia Hom, "Consuming the View: Tourism, Rome, and the
Topos of the Eternal City", Annali d'Igtalianistica 28:91–116
^ Andres Perez, Javier (2010). "APROXIMACIÓN A LA ICONOGRAFÍA DE
ROMA AETERNA" (PDF). El Futuro del Pasado. pp. 349–363.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 28
^ Giovannoni, Gustavo (1958). Topografia e urbanistica di Roma (in
Italian). Rome: Istituto di Studi Romani. pp. 346–47.
^ "Rome, city, Italy". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). 2009. Archived
from the original on 24 March 2010.
^ a b "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2012". Lboro.ac.uk. 13
January 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 2
^ "The Global City Competitiveness Index" (PDF). The Economist. 12
March 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved
9 May 2017.
^ a b "2014 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook". Archived
from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ "World's most visited cities". Archived from the original on 7 March
^ "Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the
Holy See in that
City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura".
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 24
February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
^ a b
Livy (1797). The history of Rome. George Baker (trans.). Printed
Romulus and Remus". Britannica.com. 25 November 2014. Archived from
the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
^ Cf. Jaan Puhvel: Comparative mythology. The Johns Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore and
London 1989, p. 287.
^ Claudio Rendina: Roma Ieri, Oggi, Domani. Newton Compton, Roma,
2007, p. 17.
^ This hypothesis originates from the Roman Grammarian Maurus Servius
^ This hypothesis originates from Plutarch.
^ a b c d e Coarelli (1984) p. 9
^ Wilford, John Nobel (12 June 2007). "More Clues in the
Legend (or Is
It Fact?) of Romulus". New York Times. Archived from the original on
17 April 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2008.
^ a b Hermann & Hilgemann(1964), p.73
Livy (26 May 2005). The Early History of Rome. Penguin Books Ltd.
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.73
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.77
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.79
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.81-83
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.81-85
^ a b c Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.89
^ a b c Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.91
^ a b Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.93
^ a b Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.97
^ a b Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.99
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.107
^ Parker, Philip, "The Empire Stops Here". p.2.
^ a b c Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.101
^ a b c Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.103
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.115
^ Hermann & Hilgemann (1964), p.117
^ Editors, Mandatory (24 January 2013). "travel, history,
civilizations, greatest cities, largest cities, Rome". Mandatory.
Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March
^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and
geographical perspective Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback
Machine.". PUQ. p.185. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5
^ Norman John Greville Pounds. An Historical Geography of
B.C.-A.D. 1330. p. 192.
^ a b c d e f Bertarelli (1925), p.19
^ Italian Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D. Archived 5 December 2008 at the
Wayback Machine., The Metropolitan Museum of Art
^ a b c d Bertarelli (1925), p.20
^ a b c d e f g h Bertarelli (1925), p.21
^ Faus, José Ignacio Gonzáles. "Autoridade da Verdade – Momentos
Obscuros do Magistério Eclesiástico". Capítulo VIII: Os papas
repartem terras – Pág.: 64–65 e Capítulo VI: O papa tem poder
temporal absoluto – Pág.: 49–55. Edições Loyola.
ISBN 85-15-01750-4. Embora Faus critique profundamente o poder
temporal dos papas ("Mais uma vez isso salienta um dos maiores
inconvenientes do status político dos sucessores de Pedro" – pág.:
64), ele também admite um papel secular positivo por parte dos papas
("Não podemos negar que intervenções papais desse gênero evitaram
mais de uma guerra na Europa" – pág.: 65).
^ Jarrett, Bede (1913). "Papal Arbitration". In Herbermann,
Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
^ Such as regulating the colonization of the New World. See Treaty of
Tordesillas and Inter caetera.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bertarelli (1925), p.22
Pope Alexander VI". Nndb.com. Archived from the original on 12
February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
Basilica of St. Peter". Catholic Encyclopedia. Newadvent.org. 1
February 1912. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010.
Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ a b c Bertarelli (1925), p.23
Pope Pius IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. Newadvent.org. Archived from
the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ Cederna, Antonio (1979). Mussolini urbanista (in Italian). Bari:
Laterza. pp. passim.
^ "Roma diventa Capitale" (in Italian). Archived from the original on
5 February 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
^ "Territorio" (in Italian).
Comune di Roma. Retrieved 5 October
2009. [dead link]
^ In 1992 after a referendum the XIX Circoscrizione became the Comune
^ "Roma, sì all'accorpamento dei municipi: il Consiglio li riduce da
19 a 15". Il Messaggero. 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on
16 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
^ "The "Rioni" of Rome". Romeartlover.it. Archived from the original
on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ Ravaglioli, Armando (1997). Roma anno 2750 ab Urbe condita (in
Italian). Rome: Tascabili Economici Newton.
^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived
from the original on 6 September 2010.
^ "Storia della neve a Roma". Archived from the original on 27 July
2013. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
Rome Climate Archived 24 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine..
Retrieved 9 June 2017
^ "Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di
Ciampino Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000" (PDF).
Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare. Archived from the
original (PDF) on July 27, 2017.
^ "Visualizzazione tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages
Listed for the station Roma Ciampino". Archived from the original on
July 27, 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
^ Cornell (1995) 204–5
^ Gregory S. Aldrete (30 January 2007). Floods of the
Tiber in Ancient
Rome. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 13
^ P. M. G. Harris. The History of Human Populations: Forms of growth
and decline. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved
13 July 2014.
^ Herreros, Francisco. "Size and Virtue". Academia. Archived from the
original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Ward, Lorne H. (1 January 1990). "Roman Population, Territory,
Tribe, City, and Army Size from the Republic's Founding to the
Veientane War, 509 B.C.-400 B.C.". The American Journal of Philology.
111 (1): 5–39. doi:10.2307/295257. JSTOR 295257.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13
February 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
^ Paul Bairoch (18 June 1991). Cities and Economic Development: From
the Dawn of History to the Present. Archived from the original on 1
January 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
Metropolis and Hinterland (Cambridge, 1996) 33–9
^ Duiker, 2001. page 149.
^ Abstract of The population of ancient Rome. Archived 1 May 2011 at
the Wayback Machine. by Glenn R. Storey. HighBeam Research. Written 1
December 1997. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
^ The Population of
Rome by Whitney J. Oates. Originally published in
Classical Philology. Vol. 29, No. 2 (April 1934), pp 101–116.
Retrieved 22 April 2007.
^ P. Llewellyn,
Rome in the Dark Ages (
London 1993), p. 97.
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the
original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ Demographia: World Urban Areas Archived 17 May 2017 at the Wayback
Machine., January 2015
^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban
Functions (Project 1.4.3) Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback
Machine., Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
^ Eurostat, Total population in Urban Audit cities, Larger Urban Zone
Archived 14 October 2012 at WebCite, accessed on 23 June 2009. Data
for 2009 unless otherwise noted.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World
Urbanization Prospects (2009 revision), (United Nations, 2010), Table
A.12. Data for 2007.
^ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Competitive
Cities in the Global Economy Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback
Machine., OECD Territorial Reviews, (OECD Publishing, 2006), Table 1.1
^ Thomas Brinkoff, Principal Agglomerations of the World Archived 24
July 2010 at WebCite, accessed on 12 March 2009. Data for 1 April
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the
original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
Rome Post – what's happening in
Rome Archived 2 April 2015 at the
^ Coarelli, p. 308.
^ Steps Jesus walked to trial restored to glory Archived 19 March 2008
at the Wayback Machine., Daily Telegraph, Malcolm Moore, 14 June 2007
^ a b Eyewitness Travel (2006), pg.36–37.
^ "Green Areas". RomaPerKyoto.org. Archived from the original on 4
February 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
^ Frontin, Les Aqueducs de la ville de Rome, translation and
commentary by Pierre Grimal, Société d'édition Les Belles Lettres,
^ Italian Gardens, a Cultural History, Helen Attlee. Francis Lincoln
^ "Chasing Obelisks in Rome". Initaly.com. Archived from the original
on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ "7 Free Things To Do In Rome". roundtheworldmagazin.com. Archived
from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 January
^ "The Bridges of Ancient Rome". Citrag.it. Archived from the original
on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ "Sant'Angelo Bridge". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the
original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ a b c "Rapporto Censis 2006". Censis.it. Archived from the original
on 18 April 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ Observatoribarcelona.org Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback
^ a b "La classifica dei redditi nei comuni capoluogo di provincia".
Il Sole 24 ORE. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved
14 June 2010.
^ "World's richest cities in 2009". City Mayors. 22 August 2009.
Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 14 June
Global city GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Archived from the
original on 4 June 2013.
^ DeCarlo, Scott (30 March 2006). "The World's 2000 Largest Public
Companies". Forbes. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007.
Retrieved 16 January 2007.
^ "Roman Academies". Catholic Encyclopedia. Newadvent.org. 1 March
1907. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 3
^ "How the world views its cities" – The Anholt City Brands Index
^ Arwu.org Archived 29 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "World University Rankings 2013". Center for World University
Rankings. 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved
17 July 2013.
^ Arwu.org Archived 21 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "The American University of Rome". The American University of Rome.
Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 4 February
Rome Study Abroad". Temple University. Archived from the
original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
^ "About the NAC". Pontifical North American College. Archived from
the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
^ Amedeo Benedetti, La Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana,
"Biblioteche oggi", n. 3, aprile 2009, p. 41.
^ Max Planck Gesellschaft e.V (17 May 2006). "Max Planck Society –
Hanno and Ilse Hahn Prize". Mpg.de. Archived from the original on 13
June 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
^ ITVnews.tv Archived 2 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "AIRC-HC Program in Archaeology, Classics, and Mediterranean
Culture". Romanculture.org. Archived from the original on 29 March
2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ "Isvroma.it". Isvroma.it. Archived from the original on 18 April
2008. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ James E. Packer (January–February 1998). "Trajan's Glorious
Forum". Archaeology. Vol. 51 no. 1. Archaeological Institute
of America. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. Retrieved
2 October 2010.
^ I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
(Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell,
1975), page 1163
^ Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft,
Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201 Google
Books Search Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Toynbee, J. M. C. (December 1971). "Roman Art". The Classical
Review. 21 (3): 439–442. doi:10.1017/S0009840X00221331.
Baroque Art of
Rome (ROME 211)". Trincoll.edu. Archived from the
original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ Matt Rosenberg. "
Grand Tour of Europe: The Travels of 17th &
18th Century Twenty-Somethings". About.com. Archived from the original
on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ "The Franca Camiz Memorial Field Seminar in Art History". Trinity
College, Hartford Connecticlt. Archived from the original on 30 May
2008. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^ "Maxxi_Museo Nazionale Delle Arti Del Xxi Secolo".
Maxxi.beniculturali.it. Archived from the original on 11 February
2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
^ "Auditorium Parco della Musica". Auditorium.com. Archived from the
original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
^ Pelati, Manuela (30 September 2015). "Eur spa, Diacetti: «La nuvola
di Fuksas sarà completata entro il 2016". Corriere della Sera (in
Italian). Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5
^ "The Global Language Monitor » Fashion". Languagemonitor.com.
20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved
17 October 2009.
^ "Fendi". fendi.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010.
Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ (Rolland 2006, p. 273).
^ Piras, 291.
^ Carnacina, Luigi; Buonassisi, Vincenzo (1975). Roma in Cucina (in
Italian). Milano: Giunti Martello.
^ "history of
Cinecittà Studios in Rome". Romefile.com. Archived from
the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ Ostler, N. (2007), Ad Infinitum: A Biography of Latin. London:
^ "Brief Guide to Olympic Stadium of
Rome SPOSTARE LA FINALE DA
ROMA? NO! GRAZIE". Maspostatevilaregina.com. 23 April 2009. Archived
from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
^ "Football First 11: Do or die derbies". CNN. 22 October 2008.
Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October
^ "Media". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011.
Retrieved 15 September 2011.
^ "Candidate Cities for Future Olympic Games". Bladesplace.id.au.
Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 17 October
^ – Entry on Roma Tiburtina station on the official website of the
Italian high-speed rail service (in Italian)
^ "Porti di Roma". Archived from the original on 7 March 2015.
Retrieved 6 March 2015.
^ Kiefer, Peter (30 November 2007). "Central
Rome Streets Blocked by
Taxi Drivers". New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April
2009. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
^ Kington, Tom (14 May 2007). "Roman remains threaten metro".
Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013.
Retrieved 10 August 2008.
^ "Metro C, apre la Pantano-Centocelle: folla di romani
all'inaugurazione". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 9 November 2014.
Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November
^ The figures are from the ATAC website Archived 6 January 2012 at the
Wayback Machine. (in Italian).
^ and from the information page of the iOS app In Arrivo! (in
^ Webb, Mary (ed.) (2009). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009–2010,
p. 195. Coulsdon (UK): Jane's Information Group.
^ parlamento.it Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Gemellaggio Roma – Parigi – (1955)" (PDF). Roma – Relazioni
Internazionali Bilaterali (in French). Paris: Commune Roma. 30 January
1956. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 10
^ "Dichiarazione congiunta Roma – Parigi – (2014)" (PDF). Roma –
Relazioni Internazionali Bilaterali (in French). Rome: Commune Roma. 1
October 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 10
^ "Twinning with Rome". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016.
Retrieved 27 May 2010.
^ "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération". Mairie de Paris. Archived
from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
^ "International relations: special partners". Mairie de Paris.
Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 14 October
^ "Sister Cities".
Beijing Municipal Government. Archived from the
original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
^ "Le jumelage avec Rome" (in French). Municipalité de Paris.
Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 9 July
Rome declares Kobane 'sister city'". Archived from the original on
21 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [
Kraków -Partnership Cities].
Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny
Kraków (in Polish). Archived
from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid.
Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 17 October
^ "NYC's Partner Cities". The City of New York. Archived from the
original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities".
Government. www.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 10 December
2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
Seoul -Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]".
Government (archived 2012-04-25). Archived from the original on 25
March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of
Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10
October 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana.
www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 25 January 2008.
^ "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). 2003–2009 City of Tunis
Portal. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 31 July
^ "Visita a Washington del Sindaco". Archived from the original on 25
November 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
See also: Bibliography of Rome (it)
Bertarelli, Luigi Vittorio (1925). Guida d'Italia (in Italian). IV.
Brilliant, Richard (2006). Roman Art. An American's View. Rome: Di
Renzo Editore. ISBN 88-8323-085-X.
Coarelli, Filippo (1984). Guida archeologica di Roma (in Italian).
Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore.
De Muro, P., Monni, S., Tridico, P. (2011), "Knowledge-based economy
and social exclusion: shadow and light in the Roman socioeconomic
model", in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Vol.
35 issue 6, pp. 1212–1238, November.
Rome – Eyewitness Travel. DK. 2006. ISBN 1-4053-1090-1.
Hughes, Robert (2011). Rome. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Kinder, Hermann; Hilgemann, Werner (1964). Dtv-atlas zur
Weltgeschichte (in German). 1. Zürich: Ex Libris.
Lucentini, Mario (2002). La Grande Guida di Roma (in Italian). Rome:
Newton & Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-053-8.
Rendina, Mario (2007). Roma ieri, oggi, domani (in Italian). Rome:
Newton & Compton Editori.
Spoto, Salvatore (1999). Roma Esoterica (in Italian). Rome: Newton
& Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-265-4.
Find more aboutRomeat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Rome (in Italian)
APT (official Tourist Office) of the City of
Rome (in English)
Rome Museums – Official site (in English)
Capitoline Museums (in English)
Municipi of Rome
Municipio I (List of Rioni)
Rioni of Rome
I - Monti
II - Trevi
III - Colonna
IV - Campo Marzio
V - Ponte
VI - Parione
VII - Regola
VIII - Sant'Eustachio
IX - Pigna
X - Campitelli
XI - Sant'Angelo
XII - Ripa
XIII - Trastevere
XIV - Borgo
XV - Esquilino
XVI - Ludovisi
XVII - Sallustiano
XVIII - Castro Pretorio
XIX - Celio
XX - Testaccio
XXI - San Saba
XXII - Prati
Landmarks of Rome
Basilicas and churches
St. Peter's Basilica
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Church of the Gesù
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri
Santa Maria in Cosmedin
Santa Maria in Trastevere
Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza
Santa Maria della Vittoria
Santa Maria del Popolo
San Pietro in Vincoli
Villa of Livia
Villa of the Quintilii
Villa of the sette bassi
Temple of Castor and Pollux
Temple of Hercules Victor
Temple of Portunus
Temple of Saturn
Temple of Vesta
Altare della Patria
Baths of Caracalla
Column of Marcus Aurelius
Largo di Torre Argentina
Mausoleum of Augustus
Pyramid of Cestius
Theatre of Marcellus
Theatre of Pompey
Torre dei Capocci
Torre delle Milizie
Augustus of Prima Porta
La Bocca della Verità
Laocoön and His Sons
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
Parks and gardens
Villa Borghese gardens
Villa Doria Pamphili
Parco degli Acquedotti
Piazzas and public spaces
Campo de' Fiori
Piazza del Popolo
Piazza della Minerva
Piazza della Repubblica
Piazza di Spagna
Via del Corso
Via della Conciliazione
Via dei Fori Imperiali
Doria Pamphilj Gallery
Museum of Roman Civilization
National Roman Museum
National Museum of Oriental Art
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Events and traditions
Festa della Repubblica
Rome Film Festival
St. Peter's Square
Comuni of the
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Campagnano di Roma
Castel San Pietro Romano
Castelnuovo di Porto
Cervara di Roma
Civitella San Paolo
Gallicano nel Lazio
Genzano di Roma
Monte Porzio Catone
Rocca Santo Stefano
Rocca di Cave
Rocca di Papa
San Gregorio da Sassola
San Polo dei Cavalieri
San Vito Romano
Capital cities of the member states of the European Union
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games host cities
1904: St. Louis
1932: Los Angeles
1984: Los Angeles
2016: Rio de Janeiro
2028: Los Angeles
[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II
Italy by population
Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of
Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and
Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Eurovision Song Contest
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Serbia and Montenegro
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Eurosong - A MAD Show
The Late Late Show
You're a Star
Serbia and Montenegro
Marcel Bezençon Awards
OGAE Video Contest
OGAE Second Chance Contest
Barbara Dex Award
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest Previews
Songs of Europe
Kvalifikacija za Millstreet
Congratulations: 50 Years of the
Eurovision Song Contest
Best of Eurovision
Eurovision Song Contest's Greatest Hits
ISNI: 0000 0001 2106 5979
BNF: cb12139445g (d