HOME
        TheInfoList






The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, usually based on those used by West Slavic languages, but none has caught on.

Romanization systems

Part of a table of letters of the alphabet for the Ruthenian language, from Ivan Uzhevych's Hrammatyka Slovenskaja (1645). Columns show the letter names printed, in manuscript Cyrillic and Latin, common Cyrillic letterforms, and the Latin transliteration. Part 2, part 3.

Transliteration

Transliteration is the letter-for-letter representation of text using another writ

In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, usually based on those used by West Slavic languages, but none has caught on.

Transliteration is the letter-for-letter representation of text using another writing system. Rudnyckyj classified transliteration systems into the scholarly system, used in academic and especially linguistic works, and practical systems, used in administration, journalism, in the postal system, in schools, etc.[1] The scholarly or scientific system is used internationally, with very little variation, while the various practical methods of transliteration are adapted to the orthographical conventions of other languages, like English, French, German, etc.

Depending on the purpose of the transliteration it may be necessary to be able to reconstruct the original text, or it may be preferable to have a transliteration which sounds like the original language when read aloud.

International scholarly system

Also called scientific transliteration, this system is most often seen in linguistic publications on Slavic languages. It is purely phonemic, meaning each character represents one meaningful unit of sound, and is based on the Croatian Latin alphabet.[2] It was codified in the 1898 Prussian Instructions for libraries, or Preußische Instruktionen (PI). It was later adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, with minor differences, as ISO/R 9.

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, Latin-2, Latin-4, or Latin-7 encoding. Other Slavic based romanizations occasionally seen are those based on the Slovak alphabet or the Polish alphabet, which include symbols for palatalized consonants.

Library of Congress system

The ALA-LC Romanization Tables were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885,[3] and published in 1904 and 1908,[4] including rules for romanizing Church Slavic, the pre-reform Russian alphabet, and Serbo-Croatian.[5] Revised tables including Ukrainian were published in 1941,[6], and remain in use virtually unchanged according to the latest 2011 release.[7] This system is used to represent bibliographic information by US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975,[8] and in North American publications.

Many publications use “modified ALA-LC romanization” in running text, omitting the diacritics and tie bars, and modifying initial iotated vowels and endings, for example, the name Віктор Єленський would be precisely romanized Viktor I͡elens′kyĭ for library cataloguing, but might appear as Viktor Ielenskyi or Victor Yelensky in body copy of a popular book.

Requires Unicode for connecting diacritics, but only plain ASCII characters for a simplified version.

British Standard

British Standard 2979:1958, from BSI, is used by the Oxford University Press.[9] A variation is used by the British Museum and British Library, but since 1975 their new acquisitions have been catalogued using Library of Congress transliteration.[8]

BGN/PCGN

BGN/PCGN romanization is a series of standards approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. Pronunciation is intuitive for English-speakers. For Ukrainian, the former BGN/PCGN system was

Depending on the purpose of the transliteration it may be necessary to be able to reconstruct the original text, or it may be preferable to have a transliteration which sounds like the original language when read aloud.

Also called scientific transliteration, this system is most often seen in linguistic publications on Slavic languages. It is purely phonemic, meaning each character represents one meaningful unit of sound, and is based on the Croatian Latin alphabet.[2] It was codified in the 1898 Prussian Instructions for libraries, or Preußische Instruktionen (PI). It was later adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, with minor differences, as ISO/R 9.

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, Latin-2, Latin-4, or Latin-7 encoding. Other Slavic based romanizat

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, Latin-2, Latin-4, or Latin-7 encoding. Other Slavic based romanizations occasionally seen are those based on the Slovak alphabet or the Polish alphabet, which include symbols for palatalized consonants.

The ALA-LC Romanization Tables were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885,[3] and published in 1904 and 1908,[4] including rules for romanizing Church Slavic, the pre-reform Russian alphabet, and Serbo-Croatian.[5] Revised tables including Ukrainian were published in 1941,[6], and remain in use virtually unchanged according to the latest 2011 release.[7] This system is used to represent bibliographic information by US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975,[8] and in North American publications.

Many publications use “modified ALA-LC romanization” in running text, omitting the diacritics and tie bars, and modifying initial iotated vowels and endings, for example, the name Віктор Єленський would be precisely romanized Viktor I͡elens′kyĭ for library cataloguing, but might appear as Viktor Ielenskyi or Victor YelenskyMany publications use “modified ALA-LC romanization” in running text, omitting the diacritics and tie bars, and modifying initial iotated vowels and endings, for example, the name Віктор Єленський would be precisely romanized Viktor I͡elens′kyĭ for library cataloguing, but might appear as Viktor Ielenskyi or Victor Yelensky in body copy of a popular book.

Requires Unicode for connecting diacritics, but only plain ASCII characters for a simplified version.

British Standard 2979:1958, from BSI, is used by the Oxford University Press.[9] A variation is used by the British Museum and British Library, but since 1975 their new acquisitions have been catalogued using Library of Congress transliteration.[8]

BGN/PCGN<

BGN/PCGN romanization is a series of standards approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. Pronunciation is intuitive for English-speakers. For Ukrainian, the former BGN/PCGN system was adopted in 1965, but superseded there by the Ukrainian National System in 2019.[10] A modified version is also mentioned in the Oxford Style Manual.[9]

Requires only ASCII characters if optional separators are not used.

GOST (1971, 1983)/Derzhstandart (1995)

ISO 9 is a standard from the ISO 9 is a standard from the International Organization for Standardization. It supports most national Cyrillic alphabets in a single transliteration table. Each Cyrillic character is represented by exactly one unique Latin character, so the transliteration is reliably reversible. This was originally derived from the Scholarly system in 1954, and is meant to be usable by readers of most European languages.

The 1995 revision considers only graphemes and disregards phonemic differences. So, for example, г (Ukrainian He or Russian Ge) i

The 1995 revision considers only graphemes and disregards phonemic differences. So, for example, г (Ukrainian He or Russian Ge) is always represented by the transliteration g; ґ (Ukrainian letter Ge) is represented by .

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, and a few characters are rarely present in computer fonts, for example g-grave: g̀.

This is the official system of Ukraine, also employed by the United Nations and many countries' foreign services. It is currently widely used to represent Ukrainian geographic names, which were almost exclusively romanized from Russian before Ukraine's independence in 1991, and for personal names in passports. It is based on English orthography, and requires only ASCII characters with no diacritics.

Its first version was codified in Decision No. 9 of the Ukrainian Committee on Issues of Legal Terminology on April 19, 1996,[11][12] stating that the system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names in English in l

Its first version was codified in Decision No. 9 of the Ukrainian Committee on Issues of Legal Terminology on April 19, 1996,[11][12] stating that the system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names in English in legislative and official acts.

A new official system was introduced for transliteration of Ukrainian personal names in Ukrainian passports in 2007.

An updated 2010 version became the system is used for transliterating all proper names and was approved as Resolution 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010.[13][14] This modified earlier laws and brought together a unified system for official documents, publication of cartographic works, signs and indicators of inhabited localities, streets, stops, subway stations, etc.

It has been adopted internationally. The 27th session of the UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) held in New York 30 July and 10 August 2012 after a report by the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine (now known as Derzhheokadastr: Ukraine State Service of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre) experts[15] approved the Ukrainian system of romanization.[16] The BGN/PCGN jointly adopted the system in 2020.[17]

Official geographic names are romanized directly from the original Ukrainian and not translated. For example, Kyivska oblast not Kyiv Oblast, Pivnichnokrymskyi kanal not North Crimean Canal.[18]

Romanization intended for readers of other languages than English is usually transcribed phonetically into the familiar orthography. For example, y, kh, ch, sh, shch for anglophones may be transcribed j, ch, tsch, sch, schtsch for German readers (for letters й, х, ч, ш, щ), ir it may be rendered in Latin letters according to the normal orthography of another Slavic language, such as Polish or Croatian (such as the established scholarly system, which is described above).

Ad hoc romanization

Users of public-access computers or mobile text messaging services sometimes improvise informal romanization due to limitations in keyboard or character set. These may include both sound-alike and look-alike letter substitutions. Example: YKPAIHCbKA ABTOPKA for "УКРАЇНСЬКА АВТОРКА". See also Volapuk encoding.

This system uses the available character set.

Ukrainian telegraph code

Transcription is the representation of the spoken word. Phonological, or phonemic, transcription represents the phonemes, or meaningful sounds of a language, and is useful to describe the general pronunciation of a word. Phonetic transcription represents every single sound, or phone, and can be used to compare different dialects of a language. Both methods can use the same sets of symbols, but linguists usually denote phonemic transcriptions by enclosing them in slashes / ... /, while phonetic transcriptions are enclosed in square brackets [ ... ].

IPA

The International Phonetic Alphabet precisely represents pronunciation. Requires a special Unicode font.

Conventional romanization of proper names

Notes

  1. ^ Rudnyckyj 1948, p. 1.
  2. ^ Transliteration Timeline on the website of the University of Arizona Library
  3. ^ Cutter, Charles Ammi (1885). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee, 1885". Library Journal. 10: 302–309.
  4. ^ Cutter, Charles Ammi (1908). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee". Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association and the (British) Library Association. pp. 65–73.
  5. ^ Gerych, G. (1965). Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets (master's dissertation). Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
  6. ^ Gjelsness, Rudolph, ed. (1941). A.L.A. Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. pp. 335–36.
  7. ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". The Library of Congress. 2011. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  8. ^ a b Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
  9. ^ a b Oxford Style Manual (2003), "Slavonic Languages", s 11.41.2, p 350. Oxford University Press.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "Official Ukrainian-English transliteration system adopted by the Ukrainian Legal Terminology Commission (in English)". Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  12. ^ Рішення Української Комісії з питань правничої термінології (in Ukrainian)
  13. ^ a b Resolution no. 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010
  14. ^ Romanization system in Ukraine, paper presented on East Central and South-East Europe Division of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
  15. ^ The document prepared for the UNGEGN session by Ukrainian Experts.
  16. ^ "UNGEGN WGRS. Resolution X/9". www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  17. ^ "Guidance on the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN)/Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) romanization systems". GOV.UK. 2020-04-24. Retrieved 2020-09-08.