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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
(293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The word province in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors. A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus
Augustus
after the death of Cleopatra: it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition. This exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings. The Latin
Latin
term provincia also had a more general meaning, 'jurisdiction'.

Contents

1 Republican provinces

1.1 List of Republican provinces

2 Imperial provinces during the Principate

2.1 List of provinces created during the Principate

3 Late Antiquity 4 Primary sources for lists of provinces

4.1 Early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
provinces 4.2 Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
provinces

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Republican provinces[edit] The Latin
Latin
word provincia originally meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Senate to an individual who held imperium ("right of command"), which was often a military command within a specified theater of operations.[1] Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, and those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command. The territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, in some cases entailing complete subjection (deditio). The formal annexation of a territory created a "province" in the modern sense of an administrative unit geographically defined. Republican provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium.[2] Rome started expanding beyond Italy
Italy
during the First Punic War. The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicily
Sicily
(Sicilia) in 241 BC and Sardinia
Sardinia
( Corsica
Corsica
et Sardinia) in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts.[3] The terms of provincial governors often had to be extended for multiple years (prorogatio), and on occasion the Senate awarded imperium even to private citizens (privati), most notably Pompey
Pompey
the Great.[4] Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, and the amassing of disproportionate wealth and military power by a few men through their provincial commands was a major factor in the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy.[5] List of Republican provinces[edit]

241 BC – Sicilia (Sicily) taken over from the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
and annexed at the end of the First Punic War. 237 BC – Corsica
Corsica
et Sardinia; these two islands were taken over from the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
and annexed soon after the Mercenary War, in 238 BC and 237 BC respectively. 197 BC – Hispania
Hispania
Citerior; along the east coast of the (Iberian Peninsula); part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians . 197 BC - Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior; along the southern coast of the (Iberian Peninsula); part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. 147 BC – Macedonia; mainland Greece. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa; modern day Tunisia
Tunisia
and western Libya; home territory of Carthage; annexed after the destruction of Carthage
Carthage
in the Third Punic War. 129 BC – Asia; formerly the Kingdom of Pergamon
Kingdom of Pergamon
in western Anatolia (modern Turkey) by its last king, Attalus III, in 133 BC. 120 BC – Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
(southern France); prior to its annexation it was called Gallia Transalpina
Gallia Transalpina
(Gallia the other side of the Alps) to distinguish it from Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
(Gaul this side of the Alps, in northern Italy). It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia (Marseille). 67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae; Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was bequeathed to Rome in 78 BC. However, it was not organised as a province. It was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete
Crete
was annexed in 67 BC. 63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia; the Kingdom of Bithynia
Kingdom of Bithynia
(in North-western Anatolia
Anatolia
- Turkey) was bequeathed to Rome by its last king, Nicomedes IV in 74 BC. It was organised as a Roman province
Roman province
at the end of the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
(73-63 BC) by Pompey
Pompey
who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
into it in 63 BC. 63 BC – Syria; Pompey
Pompey
annexed Syria
Syria
at the end of the Third Mithridatic War. 58 BC – Cilicia
Cilicia
et Cyprus; Cilicia
Cilicia
was created as a province in the sense of area of military command in 102 BC in a campaign against piracy. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia
Pamphylia
(to the east) were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia
Cilicia
came fully under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
- 73-63 BC. The province was reorganised by Pompey
Pompey
in 63 BC. Cyprus
Cyprus
was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC. 46 BC - Africa Nova (eastern Numidia
Numidia
- Algeria), Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
annexed eastern Numidia
Numidia
and the new province called Africa Nova (new Africa) to distinguish it from the older province of Africa, which become known as Africa Vetus (Old Africa).

Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
(in northern Italy) was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit. During Rome's expansion in Italy
Italy
the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of military command assigned to consuls or praetors (not proconsuls or propraetors as in the case of administrative provinces) due to risks of rebellions or invasions. This was applied to Liguria
Liguria
because there was a series of rebellions, Bruttium
Bruttium
and to (Calabria) because of perceived risks of rebellion. In the early days of Roman presence in Gallia Cisalpina the issue was rebellion. Later the issue was risk of invasions by warlike peoples east of Italy. The city of Aquileia
Aquileia
was founded to protect northern Italy
Italy
from invasions. Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
granted the inhabitants of this region Roman citizenship and incorporated the region into Italy. Imperial provinces during the Principate[edit]

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at its greatest extent, under Trajan
Trajan
(117); imperial provinces are shaded green, senatorial provinces are shaded pink, and client states are shaded gray

In the so-called Augustan Settlement of 27 BC, which established the Roman Empire, the governance of the provinces was regulated. Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Octavianus, having emerged from the Roman civil wars as the undisputed victor and master of the Roman state, officially laid down his powers, and in theory restored the authority of the Roman Senate. Octavian himself assumed the title "Augustus" and was given to govern, in addition to Egypt, the strategically important provinces of Gaul, Hispania
Hispania
and Syria
Syria
(including Cilicia
Cilicia
and Cyprus). Under Augustus, Roman provinces were classified as either public or imperial, meaning that their governors were appointed by either the Senate or by the emperor. Generally, the older provinces that existed under the Republic were public. Public provinces were, as before under the Republic, governed by a proconsul, who was chosen by lot among the ranks of senators who were ex-consuls or ex-praetors, depending on which province was assigned. The major imperial provinces were under a legatus Augusti pro praetore, also a senator of consular or praetorian rank. Egypt and some smaller provinces where no legions were based were ruled by a procurator (praefectus in Egypt), whom the emperor selected from non-senators of equestrian rank. The status of a province could change from time to time. In AD 68, of a total 36 provinces, 11 were public and 25 imperial. Of the latter, 15 were under legati and 10 under procuratores or praefecti. During the Principate, the number and size of provinces also changed, either through conquest or through the division of existing provinces. The larger or more heavily garrisoned provinces (for example Syria
Syria
and Moesia) were subdivided into smaller provinces to prevent any single governor from holding too much power. List of provinces created during the Principate[edit]

30 BC - Aegyptus; Taken over by Augustus
Augustus
after his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII of Egypt in 30 BC. It was the first imperial province in that it was Augustus' own domain as the Egyptians recognised him as their new pharaoh. Its proper initial name was Alexandrea et Aegyptus. It was governed by Augustus' praefectus Alexandreae et Aegypti. 27 BC – Achaia (southern and central Greece), Augustus
Augustus
separated it from Macedonia (senatorial propraetorial province). 27 BC – Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis; former Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
(northern, central and eastern Spain) created with the reorganisation of the provinces in Hispania
Hispania
by Augustus
Augustus
(imperial proconsular province). 27 BC - Hispania
Hispania
Baetica; former Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
(southern Spain); created with the reorganisation of the provinces in Hispania
Hispania
by Augustus
Augustus
(senatorial propraetorial province). 27 BC - Lusitania
Lusitania
( Portugal
Portugal
and Extremadura
Extremadura
in Spain), created with the reorganisation of the provinces in Hispania
Hispania
by Augustus
Augustus
(imperial proconsular province). 27 BC - Illyricum, Augustus
Augustus
conquered Illyria
Illyria
and southern Pannonia
Pannonia
in 35-33 BC. Created as a senatorial province in 27 BC. Northern Pannonia was conquered during the Pannonian War (14-10 BC). Subdivided into Dalmatia (a new name for Illyria) and Pannonia, which were officially called Upper and Lower Illyricum respectively in 9 BC, towards the end of the Batonian War
Batonian War
- initially a senatorial province; it became an imperial propraetorial province in 11 BC, during the Pannonian war. It was dissolved and the new provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia
Pannonia
were created during the reign of Vespasian
Vespasian
(79-79). In 107 Pannonia
Pannonia
was divided into Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior and Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior - imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively). 27 BC or 16-13 BC – Aquitania
Aquitania
(south-western France) province created in the territories in Gaul conquered by Julius Caesar; there is uncertainty as to whether it was created with Augustus’ first visit and the first census on Gaul or during Augustus’ visit in 16-13 (imperial proconsular province). 27 BC or 16-13 BC - Gallia Lugdunensis
Gallia Lugdunensis
(central and part of northern France) province created in the territories in Gaul conquered by Julius Caesar; there is uncertainty as to whether it was created with Augustus’ first visit and the first census on Gaul or during Augustus’ visit in 16-13 (imperial proconsular province). 27 BC or 16-13 BC - Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
(the Netherlands
Netherlands
south of the River Rhine, Belgium, Luxembourg, part of northern France and Germany west of the Rhine; there is uncertainty as to whether it was created with Augustus’ first visit and the first census on Gaul or during Augustus’ visit in 16-13 (imperial proconsular province). 25 BC – Galatia (central Anatolia, Turkey), formerly a client kingdom, it was annexed by Augustus
Augustus
when Amyntas, its last king died. (imperial propraetorial province) 15 BC – Raetia
Raetia
(imperial procuratorial province). 12 BC – Germania
Germania
Magna, lost after three Roman legions were routed in 9 AD. 6 AD? - Moesia
Moesia
(on the east and south bank of the River Danube part of modern Serbia, the north of the Republic of Macedonia, northern Bulgaria), Conquered in 28 BC, originally it was a military district under the province of Macedonia. The first mention of a provincial governor was for 6 AD, at the beginning of the Batonian war. In 85 Moesia
Moesia
was divided into Moesia
Moesia
Superior and Moesia
Moesia
Inferior (imperial proconsular provinces). 6 AD – Judaea, imperial procuratorial province (renamed Syria Palaestina by Hadrian, and upgraded to proconsular province). 17 AD – Cappadocia (central Anatolia
Anatolia
- Turkey). Imperial propraetorial (later proconsular) province. 42 AD – Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
(northern Morocco), after the death of Ptolemy, the last king of Mauretania in 40 AD his kingdom was annexed. It was begun by Caligula and was completed by Claudius
Claudius
with the defeat of the rebels. In 42 AD Claudius
Claudius
divided it into two provinces (imperial procuratorial province). 42 AD - Mauretania Caesariensis, (western and central Algeria), after the death of Ptolemy, the last king of Mauretania in 40 his kingdom was annexed. It was begun by Caligula and was completed by Claudius with the defeat of the rebels. In 42 AD Claudius
Claudius
divided it into two provinces( imperial procuratorial province). 41/53 AD – Noricum
Noricum
(central Austria, north-eastern Slovenia
Slovenia
and part of Bavaria), it was incorporated into the Empire in 16 BC. It was called a province, but it remained a client kingdom under the control of an imperial procurator. It was turned into a proper province during the reign of Claudius
Claudius
(41–54) (imperial propraetorial province). 43 AD – Britannia. Claudius
Claudius
initiated the invasion of Britannia. Up to 60 AD the Romans controlled the area south a line from the River Humber to the Severn Estuary. Wales was finally subdued in 78. In 78–84 Agricola conquered the north of England and Scotland. Scotland was then abandoned (imperial proconsular province). In 197 Septimius Severus divided Britannia into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. Imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively). 46 AD – Thracia
Thracia
(Thrace, north-eastern Greece, south-eastern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and European Turkey), it was annexed by Claudius
Claudius
(imperial procuratorial province). 47 AD? - Alpes Atrectianae et Poeninae (between Italy
Italy
and Switzerland), Augustus
Augustus
subdued its inhabitants, the Salassi, in 15 BC. It was incorporated into Raetia. The date of the creation of the province is uncertain. It is usually set at the date of Claudius' foundation of Forum Claudii Vallensium (Martigny), which became its capital (imperial procuratorial province). 63 AD? - Alpes Maritimae
Alpes Maritimae
(on the French Alps), created as a protectorate by Augustus, it probably became a province under Nero when Alpes Cottiae
Alpes Cottiae
became a province (imperial procuratorial province). 63 AD – Alpes Cottiae
Alpes Cottiae
(between France and Italy), in 14 BC it became a nominal prefecture which was run by the ruling dynasty of the Cotii. It was named after the king Marcus Julius Cottius. It became a province in 63 (imperial procuratorial province). 72 AD – Commagene, its client king was deposed and Commagene
Commagene
was annexed to Syria. 74 AD – Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia, in 43 AD the emperor Claudius
Claudius
had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia
Pamphylia
had been a part of the province of Galatia. Vespasian
Vespasian
(reigned AD 69 - 79) merged Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia. 83/84 AD – Germania
Germania
Superior (southern Germany) The push into southern Germany up to the Agri Decumates
Agri Decumates
by Domitian created the necessity to create this province, which had been a military district in Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
when it was restricted to the west bank of the River Rhine
Rhine
(imperial proconsular province). 83/84 AD - Germania
Germania
Inferior (the Netherlands
Netherlands
south of the River Rhine, part of Belgium, and part of Germany west of the Rhine) originally a military district under Gallia Belgica, Created when Germania
Germania
Superior was created (imperial proconsular province). 106 AD – Arabia, formerly the Kingdom of Nabataea, it was annexed without resistance by Trajan
Trajan
(imperial propraetorial province). 107 AD – Dacia "Trajana" (the Romanian regions of south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat, and Oltenia), conquered by Trajan
Trajan
in his Dacian Wars (imperial proconsular province). Divided into Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior
Dacia Inferior
in 158 by Antoninus Pius. Divided into three provinces (Tres Daciae) in 166 by Marcus Aurelius: Porolissensis, Apulensis and Malvensis (imperial procuratorial provinces). Abandoned by Aurelian
Aurelian
in 271. 103/114 AD Epirus Nova
Epirus Nova
(in western Greece and southern Albania), Epirus
Epirus
was originally under the province of Macedonia. It was placed under Achaia in 27 BC except for its northernmost part, which remained part of Macedonia. It became a separate province under Trajan, sometime between 103 and 114 AD and was renamed Epirus Nova
Epirus Nova
(New Epirus) (imperial procuratorial province). 114 AD - Armenia, annexed by Trajan, who deposed its client king. In 118 Hadrian
Hadrian
restored this client kingdom. 116 AD - Mesopotamia (Iraq) seized from the Parthians and annexed by Trajan, who invaded the Parthian Empire in late 115. Given back to the Parthians by Hadrian
Hadrian
in 118. In 198 Septimius Severus conquered a small area in the north and named it Mesopotamia. It was attacked twice by the Persians (imperial praefectorial province). 116 AD - Assyria, Trajan
Trajan
suppressed a revolt by Assyrians in Mesopotamia and created the province. Hadrian
Hadrian
relinquished it in 118. 193 AD - Numidia, was separated from Africa proconsularis
Africa proconsularis
by Septimius Severus (imperial propraetorial province). 194 AD - Syria
Syria
Coele and Syria
Syria
Phoenice, Septimius Severus divided Syria
Syria
into these two units in the north and the south respectively. Imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively). 214 AD - Osrhoene, this kingdom (in northern Mesopotamia, in parts of today's Iraq, Syria
Syria
and Turkey) was annexed. 271 AD - Dacia Aureliana
Dacia Aureliana
(most of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Serbia) created by Aurelian
Aurelian
in the territory of the former Moesia
Moesia
Superior after his evacuation of Dacia Trajana beyond the River Danube.

Epirus
Epirus
(in western Greece and southern Albania), it was placed under Achaia in 27 BC except for its northernmost part, which remained part of Macedonia.

Many of the above provinces were under Roman military control or under the rule of Roman clients for a long time before being officially constituted as civil provinces. Only the date of the official formation of the province is marked above, not the date of conquest.

Late Antiquity[edit] See also: List of Late Roman provinces

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and its administrative divisions, c. 395

Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
introduced a radical reform known as the Tetrarchy (284–305), with a western and an eastern Augustus
Augustus
or senior emperor, each seconded by a junior emperor (and designated successor) styled Caesar, and each of these four defending and administering a quarter of the Empire. In the 290s, Diocletian
Diocletian
divided the Empire anew into almost a hundred provinces, including Italy. Their governors were hierarchically ranked, from the proconsuls of Africa proconsularis
Africa proconsularis
and Asia through those governed by consulares and correctores to the praesides. These last were the only ones recruited from the equestrian class. The provinces in turn were grouped into (originally twelve) dioceses, headed usually by a vicarius, who oversaw their affairs. Only the proconsuls and the urban prefect of Rome (and later Constantinople) were exempt from this, and were directly subordinated to the tetrarchs. Although the Caesars were soon eliminated from the picture, the four administrative resorts were restored in 318 by Emperor Constantine I, in the form of praetorian prefectures, whose holders generally rotated frequently, as in the usual magistracies but without a colleague. Constantine also created a new capital, known after him as Constantinople, which was sometimes called 'New Rome' because it became the permanent seat of the government. In Italy itself, Rome had not been the imperial residence for some time and 286 Diocletian
Diocletian
formally moved the seat of government to Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(modern Milan), while taking up residence himself in Nicomedia. During the 4th century, the administrative structure was modified several times, including repeated experiments with Eastern-Western co-emperors. Provinces and dioceses were split to form new ones, the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was abolished and reformed. In the end, with the rise of Odoacer
Odoacer
in 476 and the death of Julius Nepos
Julius Nepos
in 480, administration of the effectively reduced Empire was permanently unified in Constantinople. Detailed information on the arrangements during this period is contained in the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
(Record of Offices), a document dating from the early 5th century. Most data is drawn from this authentic imperial source, as the names of the areas governed and titles of the governors are given there. There are however debates about the source of some data recorded in the Notitia, and it seems clear that some of its own sources are earlier than others. It is interesting to compare this with the list of military territories under the duces, in charge of border garrisons on so-called limites, and the higher ranking Comites rei militaris, with more mobile forces, and the later, even higher magistri militum. Justinian I made the next great changes in 534–536 by abolishing, in some provinces, the strict separation of civil and military authority that Diocletian
Diocletian
had established. This process was continued on a larger scale with the creation of extraordinary Exarchates in the 580s and culminated with the adoption of the military theme system in the 640s, which replaced the older administrative arrangements entirely. Some scholars use the reorganization of the empire into themata in this period as one of the demarcations between the Dominate period and the Byzantine (or "Later Roman") period. (As a matter of scholarly convenience, the medieval phase of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
is today conventionally referred to as Byzantine, after the original name of the city Constantine rebuilt into the new capital.) Primary sources for lists of provinces[edit] Early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
provinces[edit]

Germania
Germania
(book) (ca. 100) Geography (Ptolemy)
Geography (Ptolemy)
(ca. 140)

Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
provinces[edit]

Laterculus Veronensis (ca. 310) Notitia dignitatum
Notitia dignitatum
(ca. 400-420) Laterculus Polemii Silvii (ca. 430) Synecdemus (ca. 520)

See also[edit]

Roman Italy Local government (ancient Roman)

Notes[edit]

^ John Richardson, "Fines provinciae," in Frontiers in the Roman World. Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Durhan, 16–19 April 2009) (Brill, 2011), p. 2ff., and "The Administration of the Empire," in The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 1994), vol. 9, pp. 564–565, 580. ^ Clifford Ando, "The Administration of the Provinces," in A Companion to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Blackwell, 2010), p. 179. ^ Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 113ff.; T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 626–627. ^ Lintott, Constitution, p. 114; Brennan, Praetorship, p. 636. ^ Claude Nicolet, Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire (University of Michigan Press, 1991, originally published in French 1988), pp. 1, 15; Olivier Hekster and Ted Kaizer, preface to Frontiers in the Roman World, p. viii; Lintott, Constitution, p. 114; W. Eder, "The Augustan Principate as Binding Link," in Between Republic and Empire (University of California Press, 1993), p. 98.

References[edit]

Early Imperial Roman provinces, at livius.org Pauly-Wissowa Lintott, Andrew (1993). Imperium Romanum. London: Routledge. Mommsen, Theodor (1909). The Provinces of the Roman Empire. 2 vols. London: Ares Publishers. Scarre, Chris (1995). "The Eastern Provinces," The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. London: Penguin Books, 74–75. Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German) Loewenstein, Karl (1973). The Governance of Rome. Springer. ISBN 90-247-1458-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roman provinces.

Map of the Roman Empire Map of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the year 300

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania
Germania
Inferior Germania
Germania
Superior Hispania
Hispania
Baetica Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

Italy
Italy
was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania
Germania
I Germania
Germania
II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria
Liguria
et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis
Africa proconsularis
(Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia
Numidia
Cirtensis Numidia
Numidia
Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia
Pannonia
I Pannonia
Pannonia
II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia
Cilicia
I Cilicia
Cilicia
II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria
Syria
I Syria
Syria
II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya
Libya
Superior Libya
Libya
Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

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Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

English terms

Common English terms1

Area

Insular area Local government area Protected area Special
Special
area Statistical area

Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area

Urban area

Canton

Half-canton

Borough

County
County
borough Metropolitan borough

Capital

Federal capital Imperial capital

City

City
City
state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city

Community

Autonomous community Residential community

County

Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county

Non-metropolitan

Viscountcy

Country

Overseas country

Department

Overseas department

District

Capital district City
City
district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district

Non-metropolitan district

Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special
Special
district

Division

Census division Police division Subdivision

Municipality

City
City
municipality County
County
municipality

Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality

Direct-controlled municipality District
District
municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality

Prefecture

Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture

Province

Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province

Region

Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special
Special
administrative region Statistical region Subregion

Reserve

Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve

State

Federal state Free state Sovereign state

Territory

Capital territory

Federal capital territory

Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory

Town

Census town Market town

Township

Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township

Unit

Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit

Zone

Economic zone

Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special
Special
economic zone

Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone

Other English terms

Current

Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner

Autonomous

Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor

Royal

Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector

Autonomous

Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village

Administrative Summer

Ward

Historical

Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing

Non-English or loanwords

Current

Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun

Finland Sweden

Län Località Megye Muban Oblast

Autonomous

Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine

Historical

Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome

Egypt Greece

Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou

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Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

First-level

Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

Second / third-level

Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak)

City / township-level

Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

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French terms for country subdivisions

arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures

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Greek terms for country subdivisions

Modern

apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§

Historical

archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

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Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

Regional subdivisions

Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania

Local subdivisions

Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição

Settlements

Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

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Spanish terms for country subdivisions

National, Federal

Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región

Regional, Metropolitan

Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia

Ecuador Spain

Urban, Rural

Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento

Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes

Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad

Ciudad autónoma

Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village
Village
(Pueblito/Pueblo)

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Turkish terms for country subdivisions

Modern

il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

Historical

ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative di

.