Ancient Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical
Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but
differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style. The
two styles are often considered one body of classical architecture.
Roman architecture flourished in the
Roman Republic and even more so
under the Empire, when the great majority of surviving buildings were
constructed. It used new materials, particularly concrete, and newer
technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were
typically strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some
form across the empire, sometimes complete and still in use.
Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the
Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it
becomes reclassified as
Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. Almost
no substantial examples survive from before about 100 BC, and most of
the major survivals are from the later empire, after about 100 AD.
Roman architectural style continued to influence building in the
former empire for many centuries, and the style used in Western Europe
beginning about 1000 is called
Romanesque architecture to reflect this
dependence on basic Roman forms.
The Romans only began to achieve significant originality in
architecture around the beginning of the Imperial period, after they
had combined aspects of their original
Etruscan architecture with
others taken from Greece, including most elements of the style we now
call classical architecture. They moved from trabeated construction
mostly based on columns and lintels to one based on massive walls,
punctuated by arches, and later domes, both of which greatly developed
under the Romans. The classical orders now became largely decorative
rather than structural, except in colonnades. Stylistic developments
included the Tuscan and Composite orders; the first being a shortened,
simplified variant on the
Doric order and the Composite being a tall
order with the floral decoration of the Corinthian and the scrolls of
the Ionic. The period from roughly 40 BC to about 230 AD saw most of
the greatest achievements, before the
Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century and
later troubles reduced the wealth and organizing power of the central
The Romans produced massive public buildings and works of civil
engineering, and were responsible for significant developments in
housing and public hygiene, for example their public and private baths
and latrines, under-floor heating in the form of the hypocaust, mica
glazing (examples in Ostia Antica), and piped hot and cold water
Pompeii and Ostia).
1.2 Roman Architectural Revolution
2 Influence on later architecture
3.2 Roman brick
3.3 Roman concrete
4 City design
5 Building types
6 Decorative structures
6.3 Roman gardens
6.4 Triumphal arch
6.5 Victory columns
7.7 Defensive walls
8 Architectural features
8.3 Roman roofs
8.4 Spiral stairs
9 Significant buildings and areas
9.1 Public buildings
9.2 Private architecture
9.3 Civil engineering
9.4 Military engineering
10 See also
11.2 Works cited
12 Further reading
13 External links
Despite the technical developments of the Romans, which took their
buildings far away from the basic Greek conception where columns were
needed to support heavy beams and roofs, they were very reluctant to
abandon the classical orders in formal public buildings, even though
these had become essentially decorative. However, they did not feel
entirely restricted by Greek aesthetic concerns, and treated the
orders with considerable freedom.
Innovation started in the 3rd or 2nd century BC with the development
Roman concrete as a readily available adjunct to, or substitute
for, stone and brick. More daring buildings soon followed, with great
pillars supporting broad arches and domes. The freedom of concrete
also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns
in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture,
concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a
more free-flowing environment.
Factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced
the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their
own. The use of vaults and arches, together with a sound knowledge of
building materials, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in
the construction of imposing infrastructure for public use. Examples
include the aqueducts of Rome, the
Baths of Diocletian
Baths of Diocletian and the Baths
of Caracalla, the basilicas and Colosseum. These were reproduced at a
smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some
surviving structures are almost complete, such as the town walls of
Hispania Tarraconensis, now northern Spain. The administrative
structure and wealth of the empire made possible very large projects
even in locations remote from the main centres, as did the use of
slave labour, both skilled and unskilled.
Especially under the empire, architecture often served a political
function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state in general, and
of specific individuals responsible for building. Roman architecture
perhaps reached its peak in the reign of Hadrian, whose many
achievements include rebuilding the Pantheon in its current form and
leaving his mark on the landscape of northern Britain with Hadrian's
While borrowing much from the preceding Etruscan architecture, such as
the use of hydraulics and the construction of arches, Roman prestige
architecture remained firmly under the spell of Ancient Greek
architecture and the classical orders. This came initially from
Magna Graecia, the Greek colonies in southern Italy, and indirectly
from Greek influence on the Etruscans, but after the Roman conquest of
Greece directly from the best classical and
Hellenistic examples in
the Greek world. The influence is evident in many ways; for example,
in the introduction and use of the
Triclinium in Roman villas as a
place and manner of dining. Roman builders employed Greeks in many
capacities, especially in the great boom in construction in the early
Roman Architectural Revolution
The Roman Pantheon was the largest dome in the world for more than a
millennium. It is the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome to
The Roman Architectural Revolution, also known as the Concrete
Revolution, was the widespread use in Roman architecture of
the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault, and
dome. For the first time in history, their potential was fully
exploited in the construction of a wide range of civil engineering
structures, public buildings, and military facilities. These included
amphitheatres, aqueducts, baths, bridges, circuses, dams, domes,
harbours, temples, and theatres.
A crucial factor in this development, which saw a trend toward
monumental architecture, was the invention of
Roman concrete (opus
caementicium), which led to the liberation of shapes from the dictates
of the traditional materials of stone and brick.
These enabled the building of the many aqueducts throughout the
empire, such as the Aqueduct of Segovia, the Pont du Gard, and the
eleven aqueducts of Rome. The same concepts produced numerous bridges,
some of which are still in daily use, for example the Puente Romano at
Mérida in Spain, and the
Pont Julien and the bridge at
Vaison-la-Romaine, both in Provence, France.
The dome permitted construction of vaulted ceilings without crossbeams
and made possible large covered public space such as public baths and
basilicas, such as Hadrian's Pantheon, the
Baths of Diocletian
Baths of Diocletian and the
Baths of Caracalla, all in Rome.
The Romans first adopted the arch from the Etruscans, and implemented
it in their own building. The use of arches that spring directly from
the tops of columns was a Roman development, seen from the 1st century
AD, that was very widely adopted in medieval Western, Byzantine and
Main article: History of Roman and Byzantine domes
Further information: List of Roman domes
Dome of the Pantheon, inner view
The Romans were the first builders in the history of architecture to
realize the potential of domes for the creation of large and
well-defined interior spaces.
Domes were introduced in a number of
Roman building types such as temples, thermae, palaces, mausolea and
later also churches. Half-domes also became a favoured architectural
element and were adopted as apses in Christian sacred architecture.
Monumental domes began to appear in the 1st century BC in
Rome and the
provinces around the Mediterranean Sea. Along with vaults, they
gradually replaced the traditional post and lintel construction which
makes use of the column and architrave. The construction of domes was
greatly facilitated by the invention of concrete, a process which has
been termed the Roman Architectural Revolution. Their enormous
dimensions remained unsurpassed until the introduction of structural
steel frames in the late 19th century (see List of the world's largest
Influence on later architecture
Palladian Stowe House, by William Kent
Roman architecture supplied the basic vocabulary of
Romanesque architecture, and spread across Christian Europe well
beyond the old frontiers of the empire, to
example. In the East,
Byzantine architecture developed new styles of
churches, but most other buildings remained very close to Late Roman
forms. The same can be said in turn of Islamic architecture, where
Roman forms long continued, especially in private buildings such as
houses and the Turkish bath, and civil engineering such as
fortifications and bridges.
In Europe the
Italian Renaissance saw a conscious revival of correct
classical styles, initially purely based on Roman examples. Vitruvius
was respectfully reinterpreted by a series of architectural writers,
and the Tuscan and Composite orders formalized for the first time, to
give five rather than three orders. After the flamboyance of Baroque
Neoclassical architecture of the 18th century
revived purer versions of classical style, and for the first time
added direct influence from the Greek world.
Numerous local classical styles developed, such as Palladian
Georgian architecture and
Regency architecture in the
Federal architecture in the United States, and
Stripped Classicism and PWA Moderne.
Roman influences may be found around us today, in banks, government
buildings, great houses, and even small houses, perhaps in the form of
a porch with Doric columns and a pediment or in a fireplace or a
mosaic shower floor derived from a Roman original, often from Pompeii
or Herculaneum. The mighty pillars, domes and arches of
Rome echo in
New World too, where in
Washington DC we see them in the Capitol
Building, the White House, the
Lincoln Memorial and other government
buildings. All across the US the seats of regional government were
normally built in the grand traditions of Rome, with vast flights of
stone steps sweeping up to towering pillared porticoes, with huge
domes gilded or decorated inside with the same or similar themes that
were popular in Rome.
In Britain, a similar enthusiasm has seen the construction of
thousands of neo-Classical buildings over the last five centuries,
both civic and domestic, and many of the grandest country houses and
mansions are purely Classical in style, an obvious example being
Frigidarium of Baths of Diocletian, today Santa Maria degli Angeli
Marble is not found especially close to Rome, and was only rarely used
there before Augustus, who famously boasted that he had found Rome
made of brick and left it made of marble, though this was mainly as a
facing for brick or concrete. The
Temple of Hercules Victor
Temple of Hercules Victor of the
late 2nd century BC is the earliest surviving exception in Rome. From
Augustus' reign the quarries at
Carrara were extensively developed for
the capital, and other sources around the empire exploited,
especially the prestigious Greek marbles like Parian. Travertine
limestone was found much closer, around Tivoli, and was used from the
end of the Republic; the
Colosseum is mainly built of this stone,
which has good load-bearing capacity, with a brick core. Other
more or less local stones were used around the empire.
The Romans were extremely fond of luxury imported coloured marbles
with fancy veining, and the interiors of the most important buildings
were very often faced with slabs of these, which have usually now been
removed even where the building survives. Imports from Greece for this
purpose began in the 2nd century BC.
Main article: Roman brick
Close-up view of the wall of the Roman shore fort at Burgh Castle,
Norfolk, showing alternating courses of flint and brickwork.
The Romans made fired clay bricks from about the beginning of the
Empire, replacing earlier sun-dried mud-brick.
Roman brick was almost
invariably of a lesser height than modern brick, but was made in a
variety of different shapes and sizes. Shapes included square,
rectangular, triangular and round, and the largest bricks found have
measured over three feet in length. Ancient Roman bricks had a
general size of 1½ Roman feet by 1 Roman foot, but common variations
up to 15 inches existed. Other brick sizes in ancient
24" x 12" x 4", and 15" x 8" x 10". Ancient Roman bricks found in
France measured 8" x 8" x 3". The Constantine
constructed from Roman bricks 15" square by 1½" thick. There is
often little obvious difference (particularly when only fragments
survive) between Roman bricks used for walls on the one hand, and
tiles used for roofing or flooring on the other, so archaeologists
sometimes prefer to employ the generic term ceramic building material
The Romans perfected brick-making during the first century of their
empire and used it ubiquitously, in public and private construction
alike. The Romans took their brickmaking skills everywhere they went,
introducing the craft to the local populations. The Roman legions,
which operated their own kilns, introduced bricks to many parts of the
empire; bricks are often stamped with the mark of the legion that
supervised their production. The use of bricks in southern and western
Germany, for example, can be traced back to traditions already
described by the Roman architect Vitruvius. In the British Isles, the
Roman brick by the ancient Romans was followed by a
600–700 year gap in major brick production.
Example of opus caementicium on a tomb on the ancient
Appian Way in
Rome. The original covering has been removed.
Main article: Roman concrete
Concrete quickly supplanted brick as the primary building
material, and more daring buildings soon followed,
with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense
lines of columns suspending flat architraves. The freedom of concrete
also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns
in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture,
concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a
more free-flowing environment. Most of these
developments are described by Vitruvius, writing in the first century
AD in his work De Architectura.
Although concrete had been used on a minor scale in Mesopotamia, Roman
Roman concrete and used it in buildings where it
could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The first
use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of
Cosa sometime after
273 BC. Ancient
Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortar,
aggregate, pozzolana, water, and stones, and was stronger than
previously-used concretes. The ancient builders placed these
ingredients in wooden frames where they hardened and bonded to a
facing of stones or (more frequently) bricks. The aggregates used were
often much larger than in modern concrete, amounting to rubble.
When the framework was removed, the new wall was very strong, with a
rough surface of bricks or stones. This surface could be smoothed and
faced with an attractive stucco or thin panels of marble or other
coloured stones called revetment.
Concrete construction proved to be
more flexible and less costly than building solid stone buildings. The
materials were readily available and not difficult to transport. The
wooden frames could be used more than once, allowing builders to work
quickly and efficiently.
Concrete is arguably the Roman contribution
most relevant to modern architecture.
Temple of Claudius
Temple of Claudius to the south (left) of the
Colosseum (model of
Rome at the Museo della civiltà romana in Rome)
Further information: Centuriation, Decumanus Maximus, and Cardo
The ancient Romans employed regular orthogonal structures on which
they molded their colonies.  They probably were inspired
by Greek and Hellenic examples, as well as by regularly planned cities
that were built by the
Etruscans in Italy. (see Marzabotto)
The Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for
military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan consisted of a
central forum with city services, surrounded by a compact, rectilinear
grid of streets, and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel
times, two diagonal streets crossed the square grid, passing through
the central square. A river usually flowed through the city, providing
water, transport, and sewage disposal. Hundreds of towns and
cities were built by the Romans throughout their empire. Many European
towns, such as Turin, preserve the remains of these schemes, which
show the very logical way the Romans designed their cities. They would
lay out the streets at right angles, in the form of a square grid. All
roads were equal in width and length, except for two, which were
slightly wider than the others. One of these ran east–west, the
other, north–south, and they intersected in the middle to form the
center of the grid. All roads were made of carefully fitted flag
stones and filled in with smaller, hard-packed rocks and pebbles.
Bridges were constructed where needed. Each square marked off by four
roads was called an insula, the Roman equivalent of a modern city
Each insula was 80 yards (73 m) square, with the land within it
divided. As the city developed, each insula would eventually be filled
with buildings of various shapes and sizes and crisscrossed with back
roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a
Roman city, but each person had to pay to construct his own house.
The city was surrounded by a wall to protect it from invaders and to
mark the city limits. Areas outside city limits were left open as
farmland. At the end of each main road was a large gateway with
watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under
siege, and additional watchtowers were constructed along the city
walls. An aqueduct was built outside the city walls.
The development of Greek and Roman urbanization is relatively
well-known, as there are relatively many written sources, and there
has been much attention to the subject, since the Romans and Greeks
are generally regarded as the main ancestors of modern Western
culture. It should not be forgotten, though, that the
many considerable towns and there were also other cultures with more
or less urban settlements in Europe, primarily of Celtic origin.
Main article: Roman amphitheatre
Further information: List of Roman amphitheatres
The amphitheatre was, with the triumphal arch and basilica, the only
major new type of building developed by the Romans. Some of the
most impressive secular buildings are the amphitheatres, over 200
being known and many of which are well preserved, such as that at
Arles, as well as its progenitor, the
Colosseum in Rome. They were
used for gladiatorial contests, public displays, public meetings and
bullfights, the tradition of which still survives in Spain. Their
typical shape, functions and name distinguish them from Roman
theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape; from the
circuses (akin to hippodromes) whose much longer circuits were
designed mainly for horse or chariot racing events; and from the
smaller stadia, which were primarily designed for athletics and
The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first
century BC, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan
period (27 BC–14 AD) onwards. Imperial amphitheatres were built
throughout the Roman empire; the largest could accommodate
40,000–60,000 spectators, and the most elaborate featured
multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with
marble, stucco and statuary. After the end of gladiatorial games
in the 5th century and of animal killings in the 6th, most
amphitheatres fell into disrepair, and their materials were mined or
recycled. Some were razed, and others converted into fortifications. A
few continued as convenient open meeting places; in some of these,
churches were sited.
Architecturally, they are typically an example of the Roman use of the
classical orders to decorate large concrete walls pierced at
intervals, where the columns have nothing to support. Aesthetically,
however, the formula is successful.
Northern aisle of the
Basilica of Maxentius in Rome
Aula Palatina of Trier,
Germany (then part of the Roman province
of Gallia Belgica), built during the reign of
Constantine I (r.
The Roman basilica was a large public building where business or legal
matters could be transacted. They were normally where the magistrates
held court, and used for other official ceremonies, having many of the
functions of the modern town hall. The first basilicas had no
religious function at all. As early as the time of Augustus, a public
basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that
considered itself a city, used in the same way as the late medieval
covered market houses of northern Europe, where the meeting room, for
lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although
their form was variable, basilicas often contained interior colonnades
that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both
sides, with an apse at one end (or less often at each end), where the
magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais. The central aisle
tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that
light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the
Basilica Porcia, was built in
184 BC by
Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other
early examples include the basilica at
Pompeii (late 2nd
century BC). After
Christianity became the official religion, the
basilica shape was found appropriate for the first large public
churches, with the attraction of avoiding reminiscences of the
Roman temple form.
The Roman circus was a large open-air venue used for public events in
the ancient Roman Empire. The circuses were similar to the ancient
Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and
differed in design and construction. Along with theatres and
amphitheatres, Circuses were one of the main entertainment sites of
the time. Circuses were venues for chariot races, horse races, and
performances that commemorated important events of the empire were
performed there. For events that involved re-enactments of naval
battles, the circus was flooded with water.
The performance space of the Roman circus was normally, despite its
name, an oblong rectangle of two linear sections of race track,
separated by a median strip running along the length of about two
thirds the track, joined at one end with a semicircular section and at
the other end with an undivided section of track closed (in most
cases) by a distinctive starting gate known as the carceres, thereby
creating a circuit for the races.
Roman Forum and List of monuments of the Roman
The Roman Forum
A forum was a central public open space in a Roman municipium, or any
civitas, primarily used as a marketplace, along with the buildings
used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls. Other large public
buildings were often sited at the edges or close by. Many forums were
constructed at remote locations along a road by the magistrate
responsible for the road, in which case the forum was the only
settlement at the site and had its own name, such as Forum Popili or
During the years of the Republic,
Augustus claimed he "found the city
in brick and left it in marble". While chances are high that this
was an exaggeration, there is something to be said for the influx of
marble use in
Roman Forum from 63 BC onwards. During
the Forum was described to have been "a larger, freer space than was
the Forum of imperial times." The Forum began to take on even more
changes upon the arrival of Julius Casear who drew out extensive plans
for the market hub. While Casear's death came prematurely, the ideas
himself, as well as
Augustus had in regards to the Forum proved to be
the most influential for years to come. According to Walter Dennison's
Roman Forum As
Cicero Saw It, the author writes that "the
diverting of public business to the larger and splendid imperial fora
erected in the vicinity resulted in leaving the general design of the
Every city had at least one forum of varying size. In addition to its
standard function as a marketplace, a forum was a gathering place of
great social significance, and often the scene of diverse activities,
including political discussions and debates, rendezvous, meetings,
etc. Much the best known example is the Roman Forum, the earliest of
several in Rome.
In new Roman towns the forum was usually located at, or just off, the
intersection of the main north-south and east-west streets (the cardo
and decumanus). All forums would have a Temple of Jupiter at the north
end, and would also contain other temples, as well as the basilica; a
public weights and measures table, so customers at the market could
ensure they were not being sold short measures; and would often have
the baths nearby.
A panoramic view of the Forum Trajanum, with the Trajan's
the far left.
The Horrea Epagathiana et Epaphroditiana, a horreum in Ostia built c.
A horreum was a type of public warehouse used during the ancient Roman
period. Although the
Latin term is often used to refer to granaries,
Roman horrea were used to store many other types of consumables; the
Horrea Galbae in
Rome were used not only to store grain but also
olive oil, wine, foodstuffs, clothing and even marble. By the end
of the imperial period, the city of
Rome had nearly 300 horrea to
supply its demands. The biggest were enormous, even by modern
Horrea Galbae contained 140 rooms on the ground floor
alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet
The first horrea were built in
Rome towards the end of the 2nd century
BC, with the first known public horreum being constructed by the
Gaius Gracchus in 123 BC. The word came to be
applied to any place designated for the preservation of goods; thus it
was often used refer to cellars (horrea subterranea), but it could
also be applied to a place where artworks were stored, or even to
a library. Some public horrea functioned somewhat like banks,
where valuables could be stored, but the most important class of
horrea were those where foodstuffs such as grain and olive oil were
stored and distributed by the state.
The word itself is thought to have linguist roots tied to the word
hordeum which in
Latin means 'barley'. In the John's Hopkin's
University Press, The Classical Weekly states that "Pliny the Elder
does indeed make a distinction between the two words6. He describes
the horreum as a structure made of brick, the walls of which were not
less than three feet thick; it had no windows or openings for
ventilation". Furthermore, the storehouses would also host oil and
wine and also utilize large jars that could serve as cache's for large
amounts of products.These storehouses were also used to house keep
large sums of money and were used much like personal storage units
today are. Romans were "These horrea were divided and subdivided, so
that one could hire only so much space as one wanted, a whole room
(cella), a closet (armarium), or only a chest or strong box (arca,
arcula, locus, loculus)."
Main article: Insula (building)
Insula in Ostia Antica
Multi-story apartment blocks called insulae catered to a range of
residential needs. The cheapest rooms were at the top owing to the
inability to escape in the event of a fire and the lack of piped
water. Windows were mostly small, facing the street, with iron
Insulae were often dangerous, unhealthy, and prone to
fires because of overcrowding and haphazard cooking
arrangements. There are examples in the Roman port
town of Ostia, that date back to the reign of Trajan, but they seem to
have been found only in
Rome and a few other places. Elsewhere writers
report them as something remarkable, but
Livy and Vituvius refer to
them in Rome. External walls were in "Opus Reticulatum" and
interiors in "Opus Incertum", which would then be plastered and
To lighten up the small dark rooms, tenants able to afford a degree of
painted colourful murals on the walls. Examples have been found of
jungle scenes with wild animals and exotic plants. Imitation windows
(trompe l'oeil) were sometimes painted to make the rooms seem less
Rome had elaborate and luxurious houses owned by the elite.
The average house, or in cities apartment, of a commoner or plebe did
not contain many luxuries. The domus, or single-family residence, was
only for the well-off in Rome, with most having a layout of the closed
unit, consisting of one or two rooms. Between 312 and 315 A.D. Rome
had 1781 domus and 44,850 of insulae.
Insulae have been the subject of great debate for historians of Roman
culture, defining the various meanings of the word. Insula was a
word used to describe apartment buildings, or the apartments
themselves, meaning apartment, or inhabitable room, demonstrating
just how small apartments for Plebes were. Urban divisions were
originally street blocks, and later began to divide into smaller
divisions, the word insula referring to both blocks and smaller
divisions. The insula contained cenacula, tabernae, storage rooms
under the stairs, and lower floor shops. Another type of housing unit
for Plebes was a cenaculum, an apartment, divided into three
individual rooms: cubiculum, exedra, and medianum. Common Roman
apartments were mainly masses of smaller and larger structures, many
with narrow balconies that present mysteries as to their use, having
no doors to access them, and they lacked the excessive decoration and
display of wealth that aristocrats’ houses contained. Luxury in
houses was not common, as the life of the average person did not
consist of being in their houses, as they instead would go to public
baths, and engage in other communal activities.
Main article: Roman lighthouse
The Tower of Hercules, a
Roman lighthouse in Spain
Many lighthouses were built around the Mediterranean and the coasts of
the empire, including the
Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules at
A Coruña in northern
Spain, a structure which survives to this day. A smaller lighthouse at
Dover, England also exists as a ruin about half the height of the
original. The light would have been provided by a fire at the top of
Main article: Thermae
Further information: List of Roman public baths
All Roman cities had at least one thermae, a popular facility for
public bathing, exercising and socializing. Exercise might include
wrestling and weight-lifting, as well as swimming. Bathing was an
important part of the Roman day, where some hours might be spent, at a
very low cost subsidized by the government. Wealthier Romans were
often accompanied by one or more slaves, who performed any required
tasks such as fetching refreshment, guarding valuables, providing
towels, and at the end of the session, applying olive oil to their
masters' bodies which was then scraped off with a strigil, a scraper
made of wood or bone. Romans did not wash with soap and water as we do
Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas, town houses
and forts. They were normally supplied with water from an adjacent
river or stream, or by aqueduct. The design of thermae is discussed by
Vitruvius in De Architectura.
Main article: Roman temple
Temple of Bacchus
Temple of Bacchus at Baalbek, Lebanon
Roman temples were among the most important and richest buildings in
Roman culture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete
state. Their construction and maintenance was a major part of ancient
Roman religion, and all towns of any importance had at least one main
temple, as well as smaller shrines. The main room (cella) housed the
cult image of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated, and often a
small altar for incense or libations. Behind the cella was a room or
rooms used by temple attendants for storage of equipment and
Some remains of many Roman temples survive, above all in
but the relatively few near-complete examples were nearly all
converted to Christian churches (and sometimes subsequently to
mosques), usually a considerable time after the initial triumph of
Christianity under Constantine. The decline of Roman religion was
relatively slow, and the temples themselves were not appropriated by
the government until a decree of the Emperor Honorius in 415. Some of
the oldest surviving temples include the Temple of Hercules Victor
(mid 2nd century BC) and
Temple of Portunus
Temple of Portunus (120-80 BC), both standing
within the Forum Boarium.
The form of the
Roman temple was mainly derived from the Etruscan
model, but using Greek styles. Roman temples emphasised the front of
the building, which followed
Greek temple models and typically
consisted of wide steps leading to a portico with columns, a pronaos,
and usually a triangular pediment above, which was filled with
statuary in the most grand examples; this was as often in terracotta
as stone, and no examples have survived except as fragments. However,
unlike the Greek models, which generally gave equal treatment to all
sides of the temple, which could be viewed and approached from all
directions, the sides and rear of Roman temples might be largely
undecorated (as in the
Pantheon, Rome and Vic), inaccessible by steps
(as in the
Maison Carrée and Vic), and even back on to other
buildings. As in the Maison Carrée, columns at the side might be
half-columns, emerging from ("engaged with" in architectural
terminology) the wall. The platform on which the temple sat was
typically raised higher in Roman examples than Greek, with up ten or
twelve or more steps rather than the three typical in Greek temples;
Temple of Claudius
Temple of Claudius was raised twenty steps. These steps were
normally only at the front, and typically not the whole width of that.
The Greek classical orders in all their details were closely followed
in the façades of temples, as in other prestigious buildings. However
the idealized proportions between the different elements set out by
the only significant Roman writer on architecture to survive,
Vitruvius, and subsequent
Italian Renaissance writers, do not reflect
actual Roman practice, which could be very variable, though always
aiming at balance and harmony. Following a
Hellenistic trend, the
Corinthian order and its variant the
Composite order were most common
in surviving Roman temples, but for small temples like that at
Alcántara, a simple
Tuscan order could be used.
There was considerable local variation in style, as Roman architects
often tried to incorporate elements the population expected in its
sacred architecture. This was especially the case in
Egypt and the
Near East, where different traditions of large stone temples were
already millennia old. The
Romano-Celtic temple was a simple style for
small temples found in the Western Empire, and by far the most common
type in Roman Britain. It often lacked any of the distinctive
classical features, and may have had considerable continuity with
pre-Roman temples of the Celtic religion.
Roman Theatre (Mérida), Spain
Roman theatres were built in all areas of the empire from Spain, to
the Middle East. Because of the Romans' ability to influence local
architecture, we see numerous theatres around the world with uniquely
These buildings were semi-circular and possessed certain inherent
architectural structures, with minor differences depending on the
region in which they were constructed. The scaenae frons was a high
back wall of the stage floor, supported by columns. The proscaenium
was a wall that supported the front edge of the stage with ornately
decorated niches off to the sides. The
Hellenistic influence is seen
through the use of the proscaenium. The Roman theatre also had a
podium, which sometimes supported the columns of the scaenae frons.
The scaenae was originally not part of the building itself,
constructed only to provide sufficient background for the actors.
Eventually, it became a part of the edifice itself, made out of
concrete. The theatre itself was divided into the stage (orchestra)
and the seating section (auditorium). Vomitoria or entrances and exits
were made available to the audience.
Villa of the Mysteries
Villa of the Mysteries just outside Pompeii, seen from above
Main article: Roman villa
See also: Villa rustica, List of Roman villas in England, and List of
Roman villas in Belgium
Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class, while a
domus was a wealthy family's house in a town. The Empire contained
many kinds of villas, not all of them lavishly appointed with mosaic
floors and frescoes. In the provinces, any country house with some
decorative features in the Roman style may be called a "villa" by
modern scholars. Some were pleasure palaces such as those— like
Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli— that were situated in the cool hills
within easy reach of
Rome or— like the
Villa of the Papyri
Villa of the Papyri at
Herculaneum— on picturesque sites overlooking the Bay of Naples.
Some villas were more like the country houses of England or Poland,
the visible seat of power of a local magnate, such as the famous
palace rediscovered at Fishbourne in Sussex.
Suburban villas on the edge of cities were also known, such as the
Middle and Late Republican villas that encroached on the Campus
Martius, at that time on the edge of Rome, and which can be also seen
outside the city walls of Pompeii, including the Villa of the
Mysteries, famous for its frescos. These early suburban villas, such
as the one at Rome's
Auditorium site or at Grottarossa in Rome,
demonstrate the antiquity and heritage of the villa suburbana in
Central Italy. It is possible that these early, suburban villas were
also in fact the seats of power (maybe even palaces) of regional
strongmen or heads of important families (gentes).
A third type of villa provided the organizational center of the large
farming estates called latifundia; such villas might be lacking in
luxuries. By the 4th century, villa could simply mean an agricultural
estate or holding:
Jerome translated the
Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark (xiv, 32)
chorion, describing the olive grove of Gethsemane, with villa, without
an inference that there were any dwellings there at all (Catholic
With the colossal Diocletian's Palace, built in the countryside but
later turned into a fortified city, a form of residential castle
emerges, that anticipates the Middle Ages.
Further information: List of ancient watermills
The initial invention of the watermill appears to have occurred in the
hellenized eastern Mediterranean in the wake of the conquests of
Alexander the Great and the rise of
Hellenistic science and
technology. In the subsequent Roman era, the use of
water-power was diversified and different types of watermills were
introduced. These include all three variants of the vertical water
wheel as well as the horizontal water wheel. Apart from its
main use in grinding flour, water-power was also applied to pounding
grain, crushing ore, sawing stones and possibly
fulling and bellows for iron furnaces.
Further information: List of ancient Greek and Roman monoliths
In architecture, a monolith is a structure which has been excavated as
a unit from a surrounding matrix or outcropping of rock. Monoliths
are found in all types of Roman buildings. They were either: quarried
without being moved; or quarried and moved; or quarried, moved and
lifted clear off the ground into their position (e.g. architraves); or
quarried, moved and erected in an upright position (e.g. columns).
Transporting was done by land or water (or a combination of both), in
the later case often by special-built ships such as obelisk
carriers. For lifting operations, ancient cranes were employed
since ca. 515 BC, such as in the construction of Trajan's
Further information: List of obelisks in Rome
Obelisco Sallustiano in front of the church of
Trinità dei Monti
Trinità dei Monti in
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends
in a pyramid-like shape at the top. These were originally called
"tekhenu" by the builders, the ancient Egyptians. The Greeks who saw
them used the Greek 'obeliskos' to describe them, and this word passed
Latin and then English. The Romans commissioned obelisks in
an ancient Egyptian style. Examples include:
France – the
Arles Obelisk, in Place de la République, a
4th-century obelisk of Roman origin
Benevento, Italy – three Roman obelisks
Munich – obelisk of
Titus Sextius Africanus, Staatliches Museum
Ägyptischer Kunst, Kunstareal, 1st century AD, 5.80 m
Rome – there are five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome.
Gardens in Conimbriga, Portugal
Roman gardens were influenced by Egyptian, Persian, and Greek
gardening techniques. In Ancient Latium, a garden was part of every
farm. According to Cato the Elder, every garden should be close to the
house and should have flower beds and ornamental trees. Horace
wrote that during his time flower gardens became a national
Gardens were not reserved for the extremely wealthy. Excavations in
Pompeii show that gardens attaching to residences were scaled down to
meet the space constraints of the home of the average Roman. Modified
versions of Roman garden designs were adopted in Roman settlements in
Africa, Gaul, and Britannia. As town houses were replaced by tall
insula (apartment buildings), these urban gardens were replaced by
window boxes or roof gardens.
Further information: List of Roman triumphal arches
Titus in Rome, an early Roman imperial triumphal arch with
a single archway
Titus' triumphal procession depicted on the
Arch of Titus, showing the
loot captured from
Jerusalem in 81 AD
A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway
with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.
The origins of the Roman triumphal arch are unclear. There were
precursors to the triumphal arch within the Roman world; in Italy, the
Etruscans used elaborately decorated single bay arches as gates or
portals to their cities. Surviving examples of Etruscan arches can
still be seen at
Perugia and Volterra. The two key elements of the
triumphal arch – a round-topped arch and a square entablature –
had long been in use as separate architectural elements in ancient
The innovation of the Romans was to use these elements in a single
free-standing structure. The columns became purely decorative elements
on the outer face of arch, while the entablature, liberated from its
role as a building support, became the frame for the civic and
religious messages that the arch builders wished to convey. Little
is known about how the Romans viewed triumphal arches. Pliny the
Elder, writing in the first century AD, was the only ancient author to
discuss them. He wrote that they were intended to "elevate above
the ordinary world" an image of an honoured person usually depicted in
the form of a statue with a quadriga.
The first recorded Roman triumphal arches were set up in the time of
the Roman Republic. Generals who were granted a triumph were
termed triumphators and would erect fornices or honorific arches
bearing statues to commemorate their victories. Roman triumphal
practices changed significantly at the start of the imperial period
when the first
Augustus decreed that only emperors would
be granted triumphs. The triumphal arch changed from being a personal
monument to being an essentially propagandistic one, serving to
announce and promote the presence of the ruler and the laws of the
state. Arches were not necessarily built as entrances, but –
unlike many modern triumphal arches – they were often erected across
roads and were intended to be passed through, not round.
Most Roman triumphal arches were built during the imperial period. By
the fourth century AD there were 36 such arches in Rome, of which
three have survived – the
Titus (AD 81), the
Septimius Severus (203-205) and the
Arch of Constantine (312).
Numerous arches were built elsewhere in the Roman Empire. The
single arch was the most common, but many triple arches were also
built, of which the Triumphal
Arch of Orange (circa AD 21) is the
earliest surviving example. From the 2nd century AD, many examples of
the arcus quadrifrons – a square triumphal arch erected over a
crossroads, with arched openings on all four sides – were built,
especially in North Africa. Arch-building in
Rome and Italy diminished
after the time of
Trajan (AD 98-117) but remained widespread in the
provinces during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD; they were often erected
to commemorate imperial visits.
The ornamentation of an arch was intended to serve as a constant
visual reminder of the triumph and triumphator. The façade was
ornamented with marble columns, and the piers and attics with
decorative cornices. Sculpted panels depicted victories and
achievements, the deeds of the triumphator, the captured weapons of
the enemy or the triumphal procession itself. The spandrels usually
depicted flying Victories, while the attic was often inscribed with a
dedicatory inscription naming and praising the triumphator. The piers
and internal passageways were also decorated with reliefs and
free-standing sculptures. The vault was ornamented with coffers. Some
triumphal arches were surmounted by a statue or a currus triumphalis,
a group of statues depicting the emperor or general in a
Inscriptions on Roman triumphal arches were works of art in
themselves, with very finely cut, sometimes gilded letters. The form
of each letter and the spacing between them was carefully designed for
maximum clarity and simplicity, without any decorative flourishes,
emphasizing the Roman taste for restraint and order. This conception
of what later became the art of typography remains of fundamental
importance down to the present day.
Further information: List of Roman victory columns
A Roman street in Pompeii
Roman roads were vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman
state, and were built from about 500 BC through the expansion and
consolidation of the
Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They
provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies,
officials and civilians, and the inland carriage of official
communications and trade goods. At the peak of Rome's development,
no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital,
and the Late Empire's 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great
Roman road builders aimed at a regulation width
(see Laws and standards above), but actual widths have been measured
at between 3.6 ft (1.1 m) and more than 23 ft
(7.0 m). Today, the concrete has worn from the spaces around the
stones, giving the impression of a very bumpy road, but the original
practice was to produce a surface that was no doubt much closer to
Main article: Roman aqueduct
Further information: List of aqueducts in the Roman Empire
The Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain
The Pont du Gard, near Vers-Pont-du-Gard, France
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts in order to bring water from
distant sources into their cities and towns, supplying public baths,
latrines, fountains and private households. Waste water was removed by
complex sewage systems and released into nearby bodies of water,
keeping the towns clean and free from effluent. Aqueducts also
provided water for mining operations, milling, farms and gardens.
Aqueducts moved water through gravity alone, being constructed along a
slight downward gradient within conduits of stone, brick or concrete.
Most were buried beneath the ground, and followed its contours;
obstructing peaks were circumvented or, less often, tunnelled through.
Where valleys or lowlands intervened, the conduit was carried on
bridgework, or its contents fed into high-pressure lead, ceramic or
stone pipes and siphoned across. Most aqueduct systems included
sedimentation tanks, sluices and distribution tanks to regulate the
supply at need.
Rome's first aqueduct supplied a water-fountain sited at the city's
cattle market. By the third century AD, the city had eleven aqueducts,
sustaining a population of over a million in a water-extravagant
economy; most of the water supplied the city's many public baths.
Cities and municipalities throughout the
Roman Empire emulated this
model, and funded aqueducts as objects of public interest and civic
pride, "an expensive yet necessary luxury to which all could, and did,
Roman aqueducts proved reliable, and durable; some were
maintained into the early modern era, and a few are still partly in
use. Methods of aqueduct surveying and construction are noted by
Vitruvius in his work
De Architectura (1st century BC). The general
Frontinus gives more detail in his official report on the problems,
uses and abuses of Imperial Rome's public water supply. Notable
examples of aqueduct architecture include the supporting piers of the
Aqueduct of Segovia, and the aqueduct-fed cisterns of Constantinople.
The Alcántara Bridge, Spain, a masterpiece of ancient bridge building
Main article: Roman bridge
Further information: List of Roman bridges
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and
lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had
the arch as the basic structure (see arch bridge). Most utilized
concrete as well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges.
Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a few were
segmental (such as Alconétar Bridge). A segmental arch is an arch
that is less than a semicircle. The advantages of the segmental
arch bridge were that it allowed great amounts of flood water to pass
under it, which would prevent the bridge from being swept away during
floods and the bridge itself could be more lightweight. Generally,
Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones (voussoirs) of
the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and
lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the
Pont du Gard
Pont du Gard and Segovia
Aqueduct. Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood
openings in the piers, e.g. in the
Pons Fabricius in
Rome (62 BC), one
of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. Roman engineers
were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to
construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium.
The outside was usually covered with brick or ashlar, as in the
The Romans also introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge
construction. The 330 m long
Limyra Bridge in southwestern Turkey
features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of
5.3:1, giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for
more than a millennium.
Trajan's bridge over the
open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood (standing on 40 m
high concrete piers). This was to be the longest arch bridge for a
thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length,
while the longest extant
Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente
Romano at Mérida.
Further information: List of Roman canals
Roman canals were typically multi-purpose structures, intended for
irrigation, drainage, land reclamation, flood control and navigation
where feasible. Some navigational canals were recorded by ancient
geographers and are still traceable by modern archaeology. Channels
which served the needs of urban water supply are covered at the List
of aqueducts in the Roman Empire.
Further information: List of Roman cisterns
Basilica Cistern in
Constantinople provided water for the Imperial
Freshwater reservoirs were commonly set up at the termini of aqueducts
and their branch lines, supplying urban households, agricultural
estates, imperial palaces, thermae or naval bases of the Roman
Further information: List of Roman dams and reservoirs
Roman dam construction began in earnest in the early imperial
period. For the most part, it concentrated on the semi-arid fringe
of the empire, namely the provinces of North Africa, the Near East,
and Hispania.  The relative abundance of Spanish dams
below is due partly to more intensive field work there; for Italy only
the Subiaco Dams, created by emperor
Nero (54–68 AD) for
recreational purposes, are attested. These dams are
noteworthy, though, for their extraordinary height, which remained
unsurpassed anywhere in the world until the Late Middle Ages.
The most frequent dam types were earth- or rock-filled embankment dams
and masonry gravity dams. These served a wide array of purposes,
such as irrigation, flood control, river diversion, soil-retention, or
a combination of these functions. The impermeability of Roman dams
was increased by the introduction of waterproof hydraulic mortar and
especially opus caementicium in the
Concrete Revolution. These
materials also allowed for bigger structures to be built, like the
Lake Homs Dam, possibly the largest water barrier today, and the
sturdy Harbaqa Dam, both of which consist of a concrete core.
Roman builders were the first to realize the stabilizing effect of
arches and buttresses, which they integrated into their dam designs.
Previously unknown dam types introduced by the Romans include
arch-gravity dams, arch dams,; 
buttress dams, and multiple-arch buttress
Roman walls of Lugo, Spain
Porta Nigra of Trier, Germany, capital of the
Roman province of
Gallia Belgica, constructed between 186 and 200 AD
Main article: Ancient Roman defensive walls
The Romans generally fortified cities, rather than fortresses, but
there are some fortified camps, such as the
Saxon Shore forts like
Castle in England. City walls were already significant in
Etruscan architecture, and in the struggle for control of Italy under
the early Republic many more were built, using different techniques.
These included tightly-fitting massive irregular polygonal blocks,
shaped to fit exactly in a way reminiscent of later
Inca work. The
Romans called a simple rampart wall an agger; at this date great
height was not necessary. The
Servian Wall around
Rome was an
ambitious project of the early 4th century BC. The wall was up to
10 metres (32.8 ft) in height in places, 3.6 metres
(12 ft) wide at its base, 11 km (7 mi) long, and
is believed to have had 16 main gates, though many of these are
mentioned only from writings, with no other known remains. Some of it
had a fossa or ditch in front, and an agger behind, and it was enough
to deter Hannibal. Later the
Aurelian Wall replaced it, enclosing an
expanded city, and using more sophisticated designs, with small forts
The Romans walled major cities and towns in areas they saw as
vulnerable, and parts of many walls remain incorporated in later
defences, as at Córdoba (2nd century BC), Chester (earth and wood in
the 70s AD, stone from c. 100), and York (from 70s AD). Strategic
walls across open country were far rarer, and
Hadrian's Wall (from
122) and the
Antonine Wall (from 142, abandoned only 8 years after
completion) are the most significant examples, both on the Pictish
Main article: Roman mosaic
On his return from campaigns in Greece, the general Sulla brought back
what is probably the most well-known element of the early imperial
period, the mosaic, a decoration made of colourful chips of stone
inserted into cement. This tiling method took the empire by storm in
the late first century and the second century and in the Roman home
joined the well known mural in decorating floors, walls, and grottoes
with geometric and pictorial designs.
There were two main techniques in Greco-Roman mosaic: opus
vermiculatum used tiny tesserae, typically cubes of 4 millimeters or
less, and was produced in workshops in relatively small panels which
were transported to the site glued to some temporary support. The tiny
tesserae allowed very fine detail, and an approach to the illusionism
of painting. Often small panels called emblemata were inserted into
walls or as the highlights of larger floor-mosaics in coarser work.
The normal technique, however, was opus tessellatum, using larger
tesserae, which were laid on site. There was a distinct native
Italian style using black on a white background, which was no doubt
cheaper than fully coloured work.
A specific genre of
Roman mosaic obtained the name asaroton (Greek
"unswept floor"). It represented an optical illusion of the leftovers
from a feast on the floor of reach houses.
Part-excavated hypocaust under the floor in a
Roman villa in
Vieux-la-Romaine, near Caen, France
A hypocaust was an ancient Roman system of underfloor heating, used to
heat houses with hot air. The Roman architect Vitruvius, writing about
the end of the 1st century B.C., attributes their invention to Sergius
Orata. Many remains of Roman hypocausts have survived throughout
Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. The hypocaust was an
invention which improved the hygiene and living conditions of
citizens, and was a forerunner of modern central heating.
Hypocausts were used for heating hot baths (thermae), houses and other
buildings, whether public or private. The floor was raised above the
ground by pillars, called pilae stacks, with a layer of tiles, then a
layer of concrete, then another of tiles on top; and spaces were left
inside the walls so that hot air and smoke from the furnace would pass
through these enclosed areas and out of flues in the roof, thereby
heating but not polluting the interior of the room.
Further information: List of ancient Greek and Roman roofs
In Sicily truss roofs presumably appeared as early as 550
BC.Their potential was fully realized in the Roman period, which
saw trussed roofs over 30 wide spanning the rectangular spaces of
monumental public buildings such as temples, basilicas, and later
churches. Such spans were three times as wide as the widest
prop-and-lintel roofs and only surpassed by the largest Roman
The largest truss roof by span of ancient
Rome covered the Aula Regia
(throne room) built for emperor
Domitian (81–96 AD) on the
Palatine Hill, Rome. The timber truss roof had a width of
31.67 m, slightly surpassing the postulated limit of 30 m
for Roman roof constructions. Tie-beam trusses allowed for much larger
spans than the older prop-and-lintel system and even concrete
vaulting. Nine out of the ten largest rectangular spaces in Roman
architecture were bridged this way, the only exception being the groin
Basilica of Maxentius.
Further information: List of ancient spiral stairs
The spiral stair is a type of stairway which, due to its complex
helical structure, was introduced relatively late into architecture.
Although the oldest example dates back to the 5th century BC, it
was only in the wake of the influential design of Trajan's
this space-saving new type permanently caught hold in Roman
Apart from the triumphal columns in the imperial cities of
Constantinople, other types of buildings such as temples, thermae,
basilicas and tombs were also fitted with spiral stairways. Their
notable absence in the towers of the
Aurelian Wall indicates that
although used in medieval castles, they did not yet figure prominently
in Roman military engineering. By late antiquity, separate stair
towers were constructed adjacent to the main buildings, as in the
Basilica of San Vitale.
The construction of spiral stairs passed on both to Christian and
Significant buildings and areas
Trajan – these were a massive thermae, a bathing and
leisure complex, built in ancient
Rome starting from 104 AD and
dedicated during the
Kalends of July in 109.
Baths of Diocletian
Baths of Diocletian – in ancient Rome, these were the grandest of
the public baths (thermae), built by successive emperors
Baths of Caracalla
Trajan's Column, in Rome
Circus Maximus, in Rome
Curia Hostilia (Senate House), in Rome
Domus Aurea (former building)
Tower of Hercules
Verona Arena, in Verona
Alyscamps – a necropolis in Arles, France, one of the most famous
necropolises of the ancient world
Catacombs of Rome
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Roman engineering – Romans are famous for their advanced engineering
accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were
improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions.
Antonine Wall, in Scotland
Outline of ancient Rome
Outline of architecture
Architecture of Mesopotamia
^ Henig, 26
^ Henig, 27
^ "BUILDING BIG: Pantheon". PBS. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete". Roman Concrete.
Retrieved 16 September 2014.
^ DeLaine 1990, p. 407.
^ Rook 1992, pp. 18f..
^ Gardner 2005, p. 170.
^ Ward-Perkins 1956.
^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 117.
^ Lechtman & Hobbs 1986.
^ Mark & Hutchinson 1986, p. 24.
^ Heinle & Schlaich 1996, p. 27.
^ Henig, 28
^ Henig, 32
^ Favro, (ii) Materials and construction techniques
^ Henig, 22; Favro, (ii) Materials and construction techniques, which
lists major quarries
^ Juracek 1996, p. 310.
^ Peet 1911, p. 35–36.
^ a b Walters & Birch 1905, p. 330–40.
^ Morris 1972, pp. 39-41, 51-60.
^ Kolb 1984, pp. 169-238.
^ Benevolo 1993, pp. 256-267.
^ Harris 1989, pp. 375–392: "The
Etruscans were, in their turn,
probably also influenced in this respect by Greek and Hellenic
^ Vitrivius 1914.
^ Demandt 1998: "In fact, many sites where the Romans created towns,
such as Paris, Vienna and Bratislava, had previously been Celtic
settlements of more or less urban character."
^ Henig, 26. Blagg also mentions baths, granaries, insulae and large
^ Bomgardner 2000, p. 37.
^ Bomgardner 2000, p. 59.
^ Bomgardner 2000, p. 62.
^ Bomgardner 2000, p. 201–223.
^ Abbott & Johnson 1926, p. 12.
^ a b Dennison, Walter (June 1908). "The
Roman Forum as
It". The Classical Journal. JSTOR 3287491.
^ Richardson 1992, p. 193.
^ Lampe 2006, p. 61.
^ Potter & Mattingly 1999, p. 180.
^ Patrich 1996, p. 149.
^ Métreaux 1998, p. 14-15.
^ Pliny, Epist. VIII.18
^ Seneca, Epist. 45
^ Schmitz 1875, p. 618.
^ Kaufman, David (Dec 2, 1929). "Horrea Romana: Roman Storehouses".
The John's Hopkin's University Press. 7: 49–54.
^ a b Kaufman, David (Dec 2, 1929). "Horrea Romana: Roman
Storehouses". The John's Hopkin's University Press. no. 7.
^ EERA, 134
^ Hermansen 1970.
^ Storey 2002.
^ Storey 2004.
^ Wheeler, 89
^ Summerson, 8-13
^ Wilson Jones 2000.
^ Ros 1996.
^ Ward-Perkins 2000, p. 333.
^ La Villa Romana dell'Auditorium
^ Wikander 2000a, pp. 396f..
^ Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 11.
^ Wilson 2002, pp. 7f..
^ Wikander 2000a, pp. 373–378.
^ Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, pp. 12–15.
^ Wikander 1985, p. 158.
^ Wikander 2000b, p. 403.
^ Wilson 2002, p. 16.
^ Wikander 2000b, p. 407.
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