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The Roman Curia
Curia
is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See[a] and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff
Roman Pontiff
conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church. It acts in his name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the necessary central organization for the correct functioning of the Church and the achievement of its goals.[1][2][3][b] The structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus issued by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
on 28 June 1988,[5] which Pope Francis
Pope Francis
has decided to revise.[6][7][8] Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, though they are not in fact part of it, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia
Curia
in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope
Pope
and under his direction. The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope
Pope
in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches."[9]

Contents

1 Historical background 2 Terminology 3 The Secretariats

3.1 Secretariat of State 3.2 Secretariat for the Economy 3.3 Secretariat for Communications

4 The Dicasteries

4.1 Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life 4.2 Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development

5 The Congregations

5.1 The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith 5.2 The Congregation for the Oriental Churches 5.3 The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments 5.4 The Congregation for the Causes of Saints 5.5 The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples 5.6 The Congregation for the Clergy 5.7 The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life 5.8 The Congregation for Catholic Education (Institutes of Study) 5.9 The Congregation for Bishops

6 The Tribunals

6.1 The Apostolic Penitentiary 6.2 The Tribunal of the Rota Romana 6.3 The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura

7 The Pontifical Councils

7.1 The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity 7.2 The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Legislative Texts 7.3 The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Interreligious Dialogue 7.4 The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Culture 7.5 The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting the New Evangelization

8 The offices

8.1 The Apostolic Camera 8.2 The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See 8.3 The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

9 The Pontifical commissions

9.1 The Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church 9.2 The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei 9.3 The Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology 9.4 The Pontifical Biblical Commission 9.5 The International Theological Commission 9.6 Interdicasterial Commissions 9.7 The Pontifical Commission for Latin America 9.8 The Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors

10 The Swiss Guard 11 The Labour Office of the Apostolic See 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Historical background[edit] Main article: History of the Roman Curia

This section needs expansion with: historical information between 1534 and 1939. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)

Curia
Curia
in medieval and later Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia
Curia
is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England.[10] It is the papal court and assists the Pope
Pope
in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia
Curia
can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known also as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
(established in 1939 by Pius XII) and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government. It is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe. The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, and his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope
Pope
himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome in Vatican City. Until recently, there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States
Papal States
were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope
Pope
Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff. These reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law.[11] The offices of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State are not part of the Roman Curia, which is composed only of offices of the Holy See. The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia.[12] All members of the Curia
Curia
except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office immediately after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation.[13] Terminology[edit] The principal departments of the Roman Curia
Curia
are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus (1988), provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Congregations, Tribunals, Councils and Offices".[14] Those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries– Dicastery for the Laity, Family, and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development. Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariats[edit] Secretariat of State[edit] Main article: Secretariat of State (Holy See) The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. It is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 Cardinal Pietro Parolin, who is responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively. The Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century[15] and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Secretariat for the Economy[edit] Main article: Secretariat for the Economy The Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis
Pope Francis
in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell, formerly the Archbishop
Archbishop
of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Secretariat for Communications[edit] Main article: Secretariat for Communications On 27 June 2015 Pope Francis
Pope Francis
established the Secretariat for Communications, incorporating under one governing body the following: the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Social Communications; the Press Office of the Holy See
Holy See
(Vatican Press Office); the Vatican Internet Service (VIS); Vatican Radio; Vatican Television Center; the L'Osservatore Romano newspaper; Tipografia Vaticana; Servizio Fotografico; and the Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Named the first Prefect of the Secretariat was Monsignor Dario Edoardo Viganò, formerly the Director of the Vatican Television Center.[16][17] The Dicasteries[edit] Two departments of the Roman Curia
Curia
established by Pope Francis
Pope Francis
in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types. Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life[edit] Main article: Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life Pope Francis
Pope Francis
announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life, effective 1 September 2016. It took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for the Family.[18] As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell
Kevin Farrell
of Dallas, Texas,[19] Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development[edit] Main article: Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development Pope Francis
Pope Francis
announced the erection of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development on 31 August 2016, effective 1 January 2017. He named Cardinal Peter Turkson
Peter Turkson
its first prefect. Combining the work of four Pontifical Councils established following the Second Vatican Council.[20] Pope Francis
Pope Francis
gave it responsibility for "issues regarding migrants, those in need, the sick, the excluded and marginalized, the imprisoned and the unemployed, as well as victims of armed conflict, natural disasters, and all forms of slavery and torture".[21] The Pope
Pope
announced that "temporarily" he would personally direct the department's work on behalf of migrants and refugees.[22] The Congregations[edit] Main article: Congregation (Roman Curia) The Roman Congregations[23] are a type of dicastery (department with a jurisdiction) of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. Each Congregation is led by a prefect, who is a cardinal. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith[edit] Main article: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
(CDF), previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, and sometimes simply called the Holy Office, is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. Among the most active of these major Curial departments, it oversees Catholic doctrine.[24] Its most familiar name for most of its history was the Holy Office of the Inquisition. Archbishop
Archbishop
Luis Ladaria Ferrer has served as its prefect since 1 July 2017. The Congregation for the Oriental Churches[edit] Main article: Congregation for the Oriental Churches

The Church of the Annunciation is the largest Christian church building in the Middle East under the supervision of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches

The Congregation for the Oriental Churches, established by Pope Benedict XV on 1 May 1917, is responsible for contact with the Eastern Catholic Churches for the sake of assisting their development, protecting their rights and also maintaining whole and entire in the one Catholic Church, alongside the liturgical, disciplinary and spiritual patrimony of the Latin Church, the heritage of the various Oriental Christian traditions. It has exclusive authority over the following regions: Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula, Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, southern Albania and Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, and Ukraine.[25] Its members include all Eastern Catholic patriarchs and major archbishops, as well as the President of the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity.[26] Cardinal Leonardo Sandri
Leonardo Sandri
has served as its prefect since his appointment on 9 June 2007. The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments[edit] Main article: Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters relating to the Sacraments.[27] It has been headed by Cardinal Robert Sarah
Robert Sarah
as prefect since his appointment on 23 November 2014. The Congregation for the Causes of Saints[edit] Main article: Congregation for the Causes of Saints The Congregation for the Causes of Saints oversees the process that leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of "heroic virtues" and beatification. After preparing a case, including the approval of miracles, the case is presented to the pope, who decides whether or not to proceed with beatification or canonization.[28] The current prefect is Cardinal Angelo Amato, who has served since 2008. The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples[edit] Main article: Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, North facade on Piazza di Spagna by architect Bernini, the southwest facade seen here by Borromini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761[29]

The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
is responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is perhaps better known by its former title, the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
renamed it in 1982 without altering its mission. Its prefect is Fernando Filoni, who has held the office since 2011. The Congregation for the Clergy[edit] Main article: Congregation for the Clergy The Congregation for the Clergy[30] is the department of the Roman Curia
Curia
responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to institutes of consecrated life or societies of apostolic life, as well as for the seminaries (except those regulated by the Congregations for the Evangelization of Peoples and for the Oriental Churches), and houses of formation of religious and secular institutes. The Congregation for the Clergy handles requests for dispensation from active priestly ministry, as well as the legislation governing presbyteral councils and other organizations of priests around the world. The Congregation does not deal with clerical sexual abuse cases, as those are handled exclusively by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Beniamino Stella
Beniamino Stella
of Italy has served as its prefect since 2013. The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life[edit] Main article: Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life[31] is the congregation of the Roman Curia
Curia
responsible for everything which concerns institutes of consecrated life (religious institutes and secular institutes) and societies of apostolic life, both of men and of women, regarding their government, discipline, studies, goods, rights, and privileges. João Braz de Aviz of Brazil has served as its prefect since 2011. The Congregation for Catholic Education (Institutes of Study)[edit] Main article: Congregation for Catholic Education The Congregation for Catholic Education is responsible for:[32]

universities, faculties, institutes and Catholic institutions of higher education, either

Ecclesiastical, which are governed by the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana and which are tasked "to explore more profoundly the various areas of the sacred disciplines [e.g., Theology Ecclesiastical Philosophy, Canon Law] so that day by day a deeper understanding of sacred revelation will be developed" (cf. Sapientia christiana, Preamble, III); or Non-ecclesiastical (offering secular sciences) dependent on ecclesiastical persons, which are governed by the apostolic constitution Ex corde Ecclesiae, as well as by the existing pertinent civil laws of countries in which they are collocated; and

schools and educational institutes depending on ecclesiastical authorities.

Giuseppe Versaldi
Giuseppe Versaldi
has headed it since 2015. The Congregation for Bishops[edit] Main article: Congregation for Bishops The Congregation for Bishops[33] oversees the selection of new bishops that are not in mission territories or those areas that come under the jurisdiction of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches who deal with the Eastern Catholics, pending papal approval. It consequently holds considerable sway over the evolution of the church. It also schedules the papal audiences required for bishops every five years and arranges the creation of new dioceses. This office is headed by Cardinal Marc Ouellet, PSS. The Tribunals[edit]

A depiction of Pope
Pope
Gregory IX excommunicating

The Apostolic Penitentiary[edit] Main article: Apostolic Penitentiary The Apostolic Penitentiary,[34] more formally the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is one of the three tribunals of the Roman Curia. The Apostolic Penitentiary
Apostolic Penitentiary
is responsible for issues relating to the forgiveness of sins in the Roman Catholic Church. The Apostolic Penitentiary has jurisdiction only over matters in the internal forum. Its work falls mainly into these categories:

the absolution of excommunications latæ sententiæ reserved to the Holy See, the dispensation of sacramental impediments reserved to the Holy See, and the issuance and governance of indulgences.

The Tribunal of the Rota Romana[edit] Main article: Roman Rota The Tribunal of the Roman Rota
Roman Rota
is the highest appellate tribunal.[35] While usually trying cases in appeal in third instance (as is normally the case in the Eastern Catholic Churches),[36] or even in second instance if appeal is made to it directly from the sentence of a tribunal of first instance, it is also a court of first instance for cases specified in the law and for others committed to the Rota by the Roman Pontiff.[35][37] It fosters the unity of jurisprudence and, through its own sentences, is a help to lower tribunals.[35] The greater Part of its decisions concern the nullity of marriage. In such cases its competence includes marriages between two Catholics, between a Catholic and non-Catholic, and between two non-Catholic parties whether one or both of the baptized parties belongs to the Latin or an Eastern Rite.[38] The court is named Rota (Latin for: wheel) because the judges, called auditors, originally met in a round room to hear cases.[39] The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura[edit] Main article: Apostolic Signatura The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura[40] is the highest judicial authority in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
besides the Pope
Pope
himself, who is the supreme ecclesiastical judge. In addition, it is an administrative office for matters pertaining to the judicial activity of the whole Church. Appeals in standard judicial processes, if appealed to the Apostolic See, normally are not handled by the Signatura. Those go to the Roman Rota, which is the ordinary appellate tribunal of the Apostolic See. The Supreme Tribunal handles some of the more specialized kinds of cases, including the following:

Petitions for a declaration of nullity against a Rotal decision; Conflicts of jurisdiction between two or more tribunals or dicasteries, Recourse against administrative acts of ordinaries and dicasteries (including some penal cases decided without using a court),

Although a Rotal decision can be appealed, if not res judicata, to a different panel (turnus) of the Rota, there is no right of appeal from a decision of the Signatura,[41] although a complaint of nullity on formal grounds is possible.[42] As an administrative office, it exercises jurisdiction (vigilance) over all the tribunals of the Catholic Church. It can also extend the jurisdiction of tribunals, grant dispensations for procedural laws, establish interdiocesan tribunals, and correct advocates. The Pontifical Councils[edit] The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity[edit] Main article: Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity[43] is dedicated chiefly to the promotion of dialogue and unity with other Christian churches and ecclesial communities, but also, through a closely linked specific commission, to advancing religious relations with Jews. The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Legislative Texts[edit] Main article: Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Legislative Texts The Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
has responsibility for interpreting Church law.[44][45] The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Interreligious Dialogue[edit] Main article: Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Interreligious Dialogue The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Interreligious Dialogueis the central office of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
for promoting of interreligious dialogue in accordance with the spirit of the Second Vatican Council, in particular the declaration Nostra aetate. It has the following responsibilities:[46]

to promote mutual understanding, respect and collaboration between Catholics and the followers of other religious traditions; to encourage the study of religions; to promote the formation of persons dedicated to dialogue.

The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Culture[edit] Main article: Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Culture The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Culture[47] (Latin: Pontificium Consilium de Cultura) has as its mission oversight of the relationship of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with different cultures. The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Dialogue with Non-Believers was merged with the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Culture in 1993. On 30 July 2012, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI united the Council with the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Goods of the Church.[47] The Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting the New Evangelization[edit] Main article: Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting the New Evangelization The Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization
Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization
is a pontifical council of the Roman Curia
Curia
dedicated to catechetics and promoting the faith in parts of the world ("the West") where Christianity is well-established but is being affected by secularism.[48] The offices[edit] The Holy See's financial authorities comprise three offices. The Apostolic Camera[edit] Main article: Apostolic Camera The Apostolic Camera,[49] was the central board of finance in the Papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice, led by the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See[edit] Main article: Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See[50] deals with the "properties owned by the Holy See
Holy See
in order to provide the funds necessary for the Roman Curia
Curia
to function".[51] It was established by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
on 15 August 1967 and composed of two sections. The Ordinary Section continued the work of the Administration of the Property of the Holy See, a commission to which Pope
Pope
Leo XIII
Leo XIII
entrusted the administration of the property remaining to the Holy See
Holy See
after the complete loss of the Papal States
Papal States
in 1870. On 8 July 2014, the Ordinary Section was transferred to the newly established Secretariat for the Economy. The Extraordinary Section administers the funds given by the Italian government to implement the Financial Convention attached to the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929. These funds were previously managed by the Special
Special
Administration of the Holy See.[52] The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See[edit] Main article: Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See,[53] was erected on 15 August 1967 and entrusted with overseeing all the offices of the Holy See
Holy See
that manage finances, regardless of their degree of autonomy. It does not manage finances itself, but instead audits the balance sheets and budgets of the offices that do. It then prepares and publishes annually a general financial report. It must be consulted on all projects of major importance undertaken by the offices in question.[52] The Pontifical commissions[edit] The Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church[edit] Main article: Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church

Laocoön and his Sons
Laocoön and his Sons
in the Vatican which is among the works under the care of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church

The Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church[54] guards the historical and artistic patrimony of the entire Church which includes works of art, historical documents, books, everything kept in museums as well as the libraries and archives. The commission was established in 1988 by Pope
Pope
John Paul II. The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei[edit] Main article: Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei[55] was established by Pope John Paul II on 2 July 1988 for the care of those former followers of Archbishop
Archbishop
Marcel Lefebvre
Marcel Lefebvre
who broke with him as a result of his consecration of four priests of his Society of St. Pius X
Society of St. Pius X
as bishops on 30 June 1988, an act the Holy See
Holy See
deemed illicit and schismatic. On 2 July 2009 this commission was closely linked with the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, whose Prefect is now ex officio President of the commission, which however maintains its separate identity.[56] The Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology[edit] Main article: Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology

Good Shepherd fresco from the Catacombs of San Callisto
Catacombs of San Callisto
under the care of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archeology

The Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology[57] was created by Pius IX on 6 January 1852 "to take care of the ancient sacred cemeteries, look after their preventive preservation, further explorations, research and study, and also safeguard the oldest mementos of the early Christian centuries, the outstanding monuments and venerable Basilicas in Rome, in the Roman suburbs and soil, and in the other Dioceses in agreement with the respective Ordinaries". Pius XI made the Commission pontifical and expanded its powers.[58] The Pontifical Biblical Commission[edit] Main article: Pontifical Biblical Commission The Pontifical Biblical Commission,[59] established 30 October 1902 by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII, is a consultative body of scholars placed under the authority of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.[26] The commission's duties include:

to protect and defend the integrity of the Catholic Faith in Biblical matters to further the progress of exposition of the Sacred Books, taking account of all recent discoveries to decide controversies on grave questions which may arise among Catholic scholars to give answers to Catholics throughout the world who may consult the Commission to see that the Vatican Library
Vatican Library
is properly furnished with codices and necessary books to publish studies on Scripture as occasion may demand.[60]

The International Theological Commission[edit] Main article: International Theological Commission The International Theological Commission[61] (ITC) consists of 30 Catholic theologians from around the world. Its function is to advise the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
(CDF) of the Roman Catholic Church. The Prefect of the CDF is ex officio the president of the ITC, which is based in Rome. Interdicasterial Commissions[edit] A temporary commission is sometimes established to deal with a matter involving the work of several departments of the Roman Curia. The Interdicasterial Commission for the Catechism of the Catholic Church was created in 1993 to prepare the definitive text in Latin of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[62] It produced the authoritative Latin text (editio typica) of the Catechism in 1997. Others exist for longer periods. The Standing Interdicasterial Commission for the Church in Eastern Europe, set up by Pope
Pope
John Paul II on 15 January 1993, as of 2012 is presided over by the Cardinal Secretary of State. Its membership includes the Secretary and the Undersecretary for Relations with States, and the Secretaries of the Congregations for the Eastern Churches, for the Clergy, and for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, and of the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity.[63] The Pontifical Commission for Latin America[edit] Main article: Pontifical Commission for Latin America The Pontifical Commission for Latin America[64] is a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Established by Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
on 19 April 1958, it is charged with providing assistance to and examining matters pertaining to the Church in Latin America. The Commission operates under the auspices of the Congregation for Bishops. The Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors[edit] Main article: Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors The Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors (Italian: Pontificia Commissione per la Tutela dei Minori) was instituted by Pope Francis
Pope Francis
on 22 March 2014 for the safeguarding of minors.[65] It is headed by Boston's Cardinal Archbishop, Seán Patrick O'Malley. The Swiss Guard[edit] Main article: Pontifical Swiss Guard

Members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard
Pontifical Swiss Guard
at the Prefettura della casa pontificia in Vatican City

Since 1506, the "Corps of the Pontifical Swiss Guard" or "Swiss Guard", a small armed force, has been responsible for the safety of the Pope, including the security of the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
and access to Vatican City. It originated as a military combat unit and quickly evolved into a police force with responsibility for border control. Its official language is Swiss German. As of 2003[update], it consisted of 134 professional soldiers.[66] The Labour Office of the Apostolic See[edit] Main article: Labour Office of the Apostolic See The Labour Office of the Apostolic See[67] is responsible for labor relations of the Holy See
Holy See
with its employees. The office also settles labor issues which arise. It was instituted by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
on 1 January 1989 by an apostolic letter in the form of a motu proprio.[68] See also[edit]

Index of Vatican City-related articles

Legal systems of the world List of popes Papal court Politics of Vatican City Pope
Pope
Paul VI's reform of the Roman Curia

Notes[edit]

^ The Holy See
Holy See
is often referred to as "the Vatican", a word of many meanings, since it can refer to the geographical area, known by that name even before Christianity, to the residence of the Pope, to the Holy See, and to the State of Vatican City, which was created in 1929. ^ "In exercising supreme, full, and immediate power in the universal Church, the Roman pontiff makes use of the departments of the Roman Curia
Curia
which, therefore, perform their duties in his name and with his authority for the good of the churches and in the service of the sacred pastors."[4]

References[edit]

^ Paul VI, Apostolic Constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae, 15 August 1967, publ. in Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
59 (1967), pp.885-928. ^ Code of Canon Law, can. 360 ^ Herghelegiu, Monica-Elena, Reservatio Papalis, Lit Verlag, (Berlin, 2008), p.21, and chap. 2 passim. ^ "Decree concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops — Christus Dominus". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ The approved English translation of the text is available as a pdf download ^ http://press.vatican.va/content/salastampa/en/bollettino/pubblico/2013/12/05/0811/01823.html ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/council-of-cardinals-begins-second-meeting-on-curial-reform/ ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (9 February 2015). "What are the theological criteria to reform the Church and the Roman Curia?". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ "The Submission of the Clergy and Restraint of Appeals, 1534". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Roman Curia
Curia
(Roman Catholicism) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "The Roman Curia — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (30 September 2014). "First woman appointed to a Vatican congregation joyful". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus, "Dicasteries" ^ [1] ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
promulgates Motu Proprio instituting the 'Secretariat for Communications'". Vatican Radio. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ Glatz, Carol (30 June 2015). " Pope
Pope
creates new communications department to streamline Vatican media". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ Wooden, Cindy (17 August 2016). " Pope
Pope
names Dallas bishop head of new office for laity, family, life". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ Winters, Michael Sean (17 August 2016). "Bishop Farrell heads to Rome: What it means". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (31 August 2016). "Francis creates new Vatican office for charity, justice, peace, migration". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ Bordoni, Linda (31 August 2016). "Migrants and refugees at the heart of Pope's new 'Motu Proprio'". Vatican Radio. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ " Pope
Pope
to Oversee Migration Issues in Shakeup of Vatican Offices". New York Times. Reuters. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ "Congregations — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Profile". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Congregation for the Oriental Churches". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ a b "Pastor Bonus, - John Paul II — Apostolic Constitution (June 28, 1988)". Vatican.va. 28 June 1988. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Congregation for the Causes of Saints". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ romeartlover. "Collegio di Propaganda Fide". Romeartlover.it. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Congregation for the Clergy". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "The Congregation For Institutes of Consecrated Life". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Profile". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Congregation for Bishops — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Apostolic Penitentiary — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ a b c "Pastor Bonus, Table of Contents — John Paul II — Apostolic Constitution (28 June 1988)". Vatican.va. 28 June 1988. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium [CCEO] canon 1065 ^ Codex Iuris Canonici [CIC] canons 1443, 1444. ^ "The See of Peter — TRIBUNALS". Ewtn.com. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Edward Peters, Canon Law—Canonistics—Rota Background, http://www.canonlaw.info/personal_rotademo.htm (updated 21 October 2006). ^ "Apostolic Signatura". Vatican.va. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Code of Canon Law — IntraText". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Code of Canon Law — IntraText". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "The Holy See — The Roman Curia — Pontifical Councils — Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Promoting Christian Unity". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ " Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Pastor Bonus, 154 ^ "The Holy See — The Roman Curia — Pontifical Councils — Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Inter-religious Dialogue". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ a b ' Pontifical Council
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for Culture' Retrieved 26 November 2012. ^ " Pontifical Council
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for Promoting the New Evangelization". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Apostolic Camera". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ " Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (A.P.S.A.) - Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Pastor bonus, 172) ^ a b Annuario Pontificio
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2012 (ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 1846 ^ "Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ " Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "The Holy See — The Roman Curia — Pontifical Commissions — Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei"". Vatican.va. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Motu Proprio 'Ecclesiae Unitatem' concerning the Pontifical Commission 'Ecclesia Dei'". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ " Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archeology — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "I Primitivi Cemeteri, Motu Proprio che istituisce il Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, 11 dicembre 1925, Pio XI". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Pontifical Biblical Commission — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ The Biblical Commission, John Corbett, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II. Published 1907. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop
Archbishop
of New York ^ "International Theological Commission — Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Interdicasterial Commission for the Catechism of the Catholic Church". Vatican.va. 15 June 1992. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Annuario Pontificio
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2012, pp. 1202-1203 ^ " Pontifical Commission for Latin America". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Comunicato della Sala Stampa: Istituzione della Pontificia Commissione per la Tutela dei Minori". Holy See
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Press Office. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ Royal, Robert (2006). The Pope's Army: 500 Years of the Papal Swiss Guard. Crossroads Publishing Co.  ^ "The Holy See — The Roman Curia — Labour Office of the Apostolic See". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "MOTU PROPRIO Statuto Ufficio Lavoro Sede Apostolica". Vatican.va. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Bouix, Dominique (1859). Tractatus de curia romana: seu de cardinalibus, romanis congregationibus, legatis, nuntiis, vicariis et protonotariis apostolicis (in Latin). Paris: apud Jacobum Lecoffre et Socios.  de Luca, Giovanni Battista (1683). Relatio Curiae Romanae (in Latin). Cologne: Arnoldus Metternich.  Rusch, Borwin (1936). Die Behörden und Hofbeamten der päpstlichen Kurie des 13. Jahrhunderts (in German). Konigsberg: Ost-Europa-Verlag.  Grimaldi, Félix (1890). Les congrégations romaines guide: historique et pratique (in French). Siena: Imprimerie San Bernardino.  Martin, Michael (1913). The Roman Curia
Curia
as it Now Exists: An Account of Its Departments: Sacred Congregations, Tribunals, Offices; Competence of Each; Mode of Procedure; how to Hold Communication With: the Latest Legislation. New York: Benziger.  Pratica della curia romana che comprende la giurisdizione de' tribunali di Roma, e dello stato; e l'ordine giudiziario, che in essi si osserva. Con una raccolta di costituzioni, editti, riforme, regiudicate, decreti &c. . (in Italian). Roma: nella stamperia di Giovanni Zempel. 1781. 

External links[edit]

Official website The Roman Curia
Curia
by GCatholic.org The Roman Curia  Ojetti, Benedetto (1913). "Roman Curia". Catholic Encyclopedia.   Boudinhon, Auguste (1911). " Curia
Curia
Romana". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 

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