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The ROMAN CONQUEST OF BRITAIN was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius
Claudius
, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
(Latin : _Britannia_). Great Britain
Great Britain
had already frequently been the target of invasions, planned and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In common with other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had enjoyed diplomatic and trading links with the Romans in the century since Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, and Roman economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age
Iron Age
, especially in the south.

Between 55 BC and the 40s AD, the _status quo_ of tribute, hostages, and client states without direct military occupation, begun by Caesar\'s invasions of Britain , largely remained intact. Augustus prepared invasions in 34 BC, 27 BC and 25 BC. The first and third were called off due to revolts elsewhere in the empire, the second because the Britons seemed ready to come to terms. According to Augustus's _Res Gestae _, two British kings, Dubnovellaunus and Tincomarus , fled to Rome
Rome
as suppliants during his reign, and Strabo
Strabo
's _Geography_, written during this period, says that Britain paid more in customs and duties than could be raised by taxation if the island were conquered.

By the 40s AD, the political situation within Britain was apparently in ferment. The Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum ( Colchester
Colchester
), and were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates
Atrebates
, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius .

Caligula
Caligula
planned a campaign against the Britons in 40, but its execution was bizarre: according to Suetonius ' _ The Twelve Caesars _, he drew up his troops in battle formation facing the English Channel and, once his forces had become quite confused, ordered them to gather seashells , referring to them as "plunder from the ocean due to the Capitol and the Palace ".

Modern historians are unsure if that was meant to be an ironic punishment for the soldiers' mutiny or due to Caligula's derangement. Certainly this invasion attempt readied the troops and facilities that would make Claudius' invasion possible three years later. For example, Caligula
Caligula
built a lighthouse at Bononia (modern Boulogne-sur-Mer ) that provided a model for the one built soon after at Dubris (Dover).

CONTENTS

* 1 Claudian preparations * 2 Crossing and landing * 3 River battles * 4 (44–60) * 5 (60–78)

* 6 Campaigns of Agricola (78–84)

* 6.1 Scotland before Agricola * 6.2 Agricola in Caledonia

* 7 (84–96) * 8 Failure to conquer Caledonia * 9 See also * 10 Citations * 11 References * 12 Further reading

CLAUDIAN PREPARATIONS

* v * t * e

Roman invasion and occupation of Britain

* Caesar\'s invasions (55–54 BC)

* Conquest of Britain (43–76 AD)

* Medway * Capture of Camulodunon * Caer Caradoc * Menai

* Boudica\'s uprising (60–61 AD)

* Camulodunum * Londinium * Watling Street

* Scotch Corner (71 AD) * Mons Graupius (83 AD) * Siege of Burnswark (140 AD) * Caledonia (208–210 AD) * Carausian Revolt (286–296 AD) * Usurpation of Magnentius (350–353 AD) * Carausius II (354–358 AD) * Great Conspiracy
Great Conspiracy
(367–368 AD) * Usurpation of Magnus Maximus (383–388 AD) * Stilicho\'s Pictish War (398 AD) * Usurpation of Marcus (406–407 AD) * Usurpation of Gratian (407 AD) * Usurpation of Constantine III (407–411 AD)

Three years later, in 43, possibly by re-collecting Caligula's troops, Claudius
Claudius
mounted an invasion force to re-instate Verica , an exiled king of the Atrebates
Atrebates
. Aulus Plautius
Aulus Plautius
, a distinguished senator, was given overall charge of four legions , totalling about 20,000 men, plus about the same number of auxiliaries. The legions were:

* Legio II _Augusta_ * Legio IX _Hispana_ * Legio XIV _Gemina_ * Legio XX _Valeria Victrix_

The _II Augusta_ is known to have been commanded by the future emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
. Three other men of appropriate rank to command legions are known from the sources to have been involved in the invasion. Cassius Dio mentions Gnaeus Hosidius Geta , who probably led the _IX Hispana_, and Vespasian's brother Titus Flavius Sabinus the Younger . He wrote that Sabinus was Vespasian's lieutenant, but as Sabinus was the older brother and preceded Vespasian
Vespasian
into public life, he could hardly have been a military tribune . Eutropius mentions Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus , although as a former consul he may have been too senior, and perhaps accompanied Claudius
Claudius
later.

CROSSING AND LANDING

Main article: Site of the Claudian invasion of Britain

The main invasion force under Aulus Plautius
Aulus Plautius
crossed in three divisions. The port of departure is usually taken to have been Boulogne, and the main landing at Rutupiae ( Richborough , on the east coast of Kent
Kent
). Neither of these locations is certain. Dio does not mention the port of departure, and although Suetonius says that the secondary force under Claudius
Claudius
sailed from Boulogne, it does not necessarily follow that the entire invasion force did. Richborough has a large natural harbour which would have been suitable, and archaeology shows Roman military occupation at about the right time. However, Dio says the Romans sailed east to west, and a journey from Boulogne to Richborough is south to north. Some historians suggest a sailing from Boulogne to the Solent
Solent
, landing in the vicinity of Noviomagus ( Chichester
Chichester
) or Southampton
Southampton
, in territory formerly ruled by Verica. An alternative explanation might be a sailing from the mouth of the Rhine
Rhine
to Richborough, which would be east to west.

RIVER BATTLES

British resistance was led by Togodumnus and Caratacus , sons of the late king of the Catuvellauni, Cunobeline . A substantial British force met the Romans at a river crossing thought to be near Rochester on the River Medway . The battle raged for two days. Hosidius Geta was almost captured, but recovered and turned the battle so decisively that he was awarded the " Roman triumph ."

The British were pushed back to the Thames . They were pursued by the Romans across the river causing some Roman losses in the marshes of Essex
Essex
. Whether the Romans made use of an existing bridge for this purpose or built a temporary one is uncertain. At least one division of auxiliary Batavian troops swam across the river as a separate force.

Togodumnus died shortly after the battle on the Thames. Plautius halted and sent word for Claudius
Claudius
to join him for the final push. Cassius Dio presents this as Plautius needing the emperor's assistance to defeat the resurgent British, who were determined to avenge Togodumnus. However, Claudius
Claudius
was no military man. Claudius\'s arch says he received the surrender of eleven kings without any loss, and Suetonius' _The Twelve Caesars_ says that Claudius
Claudius
received the surrender of the Britons without battle or bloodshed. It is likely that the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
were already as good as beaten, allowing the emperor to appear as conqueror on the final march on Camulodunum. Cassius Dio relates that he brought war elephants and heavy armaments which would have overawed any remaining native resistance. Eleven tribes of South East Britain surrendered to Claudius
Claudius
and the Romans prepared to move further west and north. The Romans established their new capital at Camulodunum and Claudius
Claudius
returned to Rome
Rome
to celebrate his victory. Caratacus escaped and would continue the resistance further west.

(44–60)

Roman campaigns from AD 43 to AD 60. Campaigns under Aulus Plautius, focused on the commercially valuable southeast of Britain. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 54.

Vespasian
Vespasian
took a force westwards subduing tribes and capturing _oppida _ as he went, going at least as far as Exeter
Exeter
which would appear to have become an early base for Leg. II Augusta and probably reaching Bodmin
Bodmin
. Legio IX Hispana was sent north towards Lincoln (Latin : _Lindum Colonia_) and within four years of the invasion it is likely that an area south of a line from the Humber
Humber
to the River Severn Estuary was under Roman control. That this line is followed by the Roman road of the Fosse Way
Fosse Way
has led many historians to debate the route's role as a convenient frontier during the early occupation. It is more likely that the border between Roman and Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain was less direct and more mutable during this period however.

Late in 47 the new governor of Britain, Publius Ostorius Scapula , began a campaign against the tribes of modern-day Wales
Wales
, and the Cheshire Gap . The Silures of southeast Wales
Wales
caused considerable problems to Ostorius and fiercely defended the Welsh border country. Caratacus himself was defeated in the Battle of Caer Caradoc and fled to the Roman client tribe of the Brigantes
Brigantes
who occupied the Pennines . Their queen, Cartimandua was unable or unwilling to protect him however given her own truce with the Romans and handed him over to the invaders. Ostorius died and was replaced by Aulus Didius Gallus who brought the Welsh borders under control but did not move further north or west, probably because Claudius
Claudius
was keen to avoid what he considered a difficult and drawn-out war for little material gain in the mountainous terrain of upland Britain. When Nero
Nero
became emperor in AD 54, he seems to have decided to continue the invasion and appointed Quintus Veranius as governor, a man experienced in dealing with the troublesome hill tribes of Anatolia
Anatolia
. Veranius and his successor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus mounted a successful campaign across Wales, famously destroying the druidical centre at Mona or Anglesey
Anglesey
in AD 60 at what historians later called the Menai Massacre . Final occupation of Wales
Wales
was postponed however when the rebellion of Boudica
Boudica
forced the Romans to return to the south east. The Silures were not finally conquered until circa AD 76 when Sextus Julius Frontinus ' long campaign against them began to have success.

(60–78)

Following the successful suppression of Boudica
Boudica
's uprising, a number of new Roman governors continued the conquest by edging north. Cartimandua was forced to ask for Roman aid following a rebellion by her husband Venutius . Quintus Petillius Cerialis took his legions from Lincoln as far as York
York
and defeated Venutius near Stanwick around 70. This resulted in the already Romanised Brigantes
Brigantes
and Parisii tribes being further assimilated into the empire proper. Frontinus was sent into Roman Britain
Roman Britain
in 74 AD to succeed Quintus Petillius Cerialis as governor of that island. He subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales
Wales
, establishing a new base at Caerleon
Caerleon
for Legio II _Augusta_ ( Isca Augusta ) and a network of smaller forts fifteen to twenty kilometres apart for his auxiliary units. During his tenure, he probably established the fort at Pumsaint in west Wales
Wales
, largely to exploit the gold deposits at Dolaucothi . He retired in 78 AD, and later he was appointed water commissioner in Rome
Rome
. The new governor was Gnaeus Julius Agricola , made famous through the highly laudatory biography of him written by his son-in-law, Tacitus
Tacitus
.

CAMPAIGNS OF AGRICOLA (78–84)

Agricola's campaigns. Northern campaigns. Roman military organization in the north. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 96.

Arriving in mid-summer of 78, Agricola found several previously defeated peoples had re-established their independence. The first to be dealt with were the Ordovices of north Wales, who had destroyed a cavalry ala of Roman auxiliaries stationed in their territory. Knowing the terrain from his prior military service in Britain, he was able to move quickly to defeat and virtually exterminate them. He then invaded Anglesey
Anglesey
, forcing the inhabitants to sue for peace. The following year he moved against the Brigantes
Brigantes
of northern England and the Selgovae along the southern coast of Scotland, using overwhelming military power to re-establish Roman control.

SCOTLAND BEFORE AGRICOLA

Details of the early years of the Roman occupation in North Britain are unclear but began no earlier than 71, as Tacitus
Tacitus
says that in that year Petillius Cerialis (governor 71–74) waged a successful war against the Brigantes
Brigantes
, whose territory straddled Britain along the Solway -Tyne line. Tacitus
Tacitus
praises both Cerialis and his successor Julius Frontinus (governor 75–78), but provides no additional information on events prior to 79 regarding the lands or peoples living north of the Brigantes. The Romans certainly would have followed up their initial victory over the Brigantes
Brigantes
in some manner. In particular, archaeology has shown that the Romans had campaigned and built military camps in the north along Gask Ridge , controlling the glens that provided access to and from the Scottish Highlands , and also throughout the Scottish Lowlands in northeastern Scotland. In describing Agricola's campaigns, Tacitus
Tacitus
does not explicitly state that this is actually a return to lands previously occupied by Rome, where Roman occupation either had been thrown off by the Brittonic inhabitants, or had been abandoned by the Romans.

AGRICOLA IN CALEDONIA

Tacitus
Tacitus
says that after a combination of force and diplomacy quieted discontent among the Britons who had been conquered previously, Agricola built forts in their territories in 79. In 80 he marched to the Firth of Tay (some historians hold that he stopped along the Firth of Forth in that year), not returning south until 81, at which time he consolidated his gains in the new lands that he had conquered, and in the rebellious lands that he had re-conquered. In 82 he sailed to either Kintyre
Kintyre
or the shores of Argyll
Argyll
, or to both. In 83 and 84 he moved north along Scotland's eastern and northern coasts using both land and naval forces, campaigning successfully against the inhabitants, and winning a significant victory over the northern British peoples led by Calgacus at the Battle of Mons Graupius .

Prior to his recall in 84, Agricola built a network of military roads and forts to secure the Roman occupation. Existing forts were strengthened and new ones planted in northeastern Scotland along the Highland Line
Highland Line
, consolidating control of the glens that provided access to and from the Scottish Highlands . The line of military communication and supply along southeastern Scotland and northeastern England (i.e., Dere Street ) was well-fortified. In southern-most Caledonia, the lands of the Selgovae (approximating to modern Dumfriesshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright ) were heavily planted with forts, not only establishing effective control there, but also completing a military enclosure of south-central Scotland (most of the Southern Uplands , Teviotdale , and western Tweeddale ). In contrast to Roman actions against the Selgovae, the territories of the Novantae , Damnonii , and Votadini were not planted with forts, and there is nothing to indicate that the Romans were at war with them.

(84–96)

Agricola was recalled to Rome
Rome
by Domitian
Domitian
. His successors are not named in any surviving source, but it seems they were unable or unwilling to further subdue the far north. The fortress at Inchtuthil was dismantled before its completion and the other fortifications of the Gask Ridge in Perthshire , erected to consolidate the Roman presence in Scotland in the aftermath of Mons Graupius , were abandoned within the space of a few years. It is equally likely that the costs of a drawn-out war outweighed any economic or political benefit and it was more profitable to leave the Caledonians alone and only under _de jure _ submission.

FAILURE TO CONQUER CALEDONIA

Main article: Scotland during the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

Roman occupation was withdrawn to a line subsequently established as one of the _limites _ (singular _limes_) of the empire (i.e. a defensible frontier) by the construction of Hadrian\'s Wall . An attempt was made to push this line north to the River Clyde
River Clyde
-River Forth area in 142 when the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
was constructed. This was once again abandoned after two decades and only subsequently re-occupied on an occasional basis.

The Romans retreated to the earlier and stronger Hadrian's Wall in the River Tyne
River Tyne
- Solway Firth frontier area, this having been constructed around 122. Roman troops, however, penetrated far into the north of modern Scotland several more times. Indeed, there is a greater density of Roman marching camps in Scotland than anywhere else in Europe as a result of at least four major attempts to subdue the area.

The most notable was in 209 when the emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
, claiming to be provoked by the belligerence of the Maeatae tribe, campaigned against the Caledonian Confederacy , a coalition of Brittonic Pictish tribes of the north of Britain. He used the three legions of the British garrison (augmented by the recently formed 2nd Parthica legion), 9000 imperial guards with cavalry support, and numerous auxiliaries supplied from the sea by the British fleet, the Rhine
Rhine
fleet and two fleets transferred from the Danube for the purpose. According to Dio Cassius , he inflicted genocidal depredations on the natives and incurred the loss of 50,000 of his own men to the attrition of guerrilla tactics before having to withdraw to Hadrian's Wall. He repaired and reinforced the wall with a degree of thoroughness that led most subsequent Roman authors to attribute the construction of the wall to him. It was during the negotiations to purchase the truce necessary to secure the Roman retreat to the wall that the first recorded utterance, attributable with any reasonable degree of confidence, to a native of Scotland was made (as recorded by Dio Cassius). When Septimius Severus's wife, Julia Domna, criticised the sexual morals of the Caledonian women, the wife of a Caledonian chief, Argentocoxos, replied: "We consort openly with the best of men while you allow yourselves to be debauched in private by the worst". The emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
died at York
York
while planning to renew hostilities, and these plans were abandoned by his son Caracalla
Caracalla
.

Later excursions into Scotland by the Romans were generally limited to the scouting expeditions of _exploratores_ in the buffer zone that developed between the walls, trading contacts, bribes to purchase truces from the natives, and eventually the spread of Christianity. The degree to which the Romans interacted with the Gaelic speaking island of Hibernia
Hibernia
(modern Ireland
Ireland
) is still unresolved amongst archaeologists in Ireland. The successes and failures of the Romans in subduing the peoples of Britain are still represented in the political geography of the British Isles today.

SEE ALSO

A monument to the conquest, in Walmer , Kent
Kent
.

* Ancient Britain * Roman Britain
Roman Britain
* Roman mining * British military history * Itius Portus * Roman governors of Britain * Pugnaces Britanniae

CITATIONS

* ^ Dio Cassius , _Roman History_ 49.38, 53.22, 53.25 * ^ Augustus
Augustus
, _ Res Gestae Divi Augusti _ 32. The name of the second king is defaced, but Tincomarus is the most likely reconstruction. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
, _Geography_ 4.5 * ^ John Creighton (2000), _Coins and power in Late Iron Age Britain_, Cambridge University Press * ^ Suetonius , _Caligula_ 44–46; Dio Cassius, _Roman History_ 59.25 * ^ Dio Cassius, _Roman History_ 60.19–22 * ^ Eutropius , _Abridgement of Roman History_ 7:13 * ^ Suetonius, _Claudius_ 17 * ^ For example, John Manley, _AD43: a Reassessment_. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
(_Geography_ 4:5.2) names the Rhine
Rhine
as a commonly used point of departure for crossings to Britain in the 1st century AD. * ^ Arch of Claudius * ^ Suetonius, _Claudius_ 17 * ^ Suetonius, _Vespasian_ 4 * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
& 98 :363–364, _Life of Agricola_, Ch. 18 * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
& 98 :365–366, _Life of Agricola_, Ch. 20–21 * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
& 98 :362, _Life of Agricola_, Ch. 17 * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
& 98 :364–368, _Life of Agricola_, Ch. 19–23. * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
& 98 :368–380, _Life of Agricola_, Ch. 24–38. * ^ Frere 1987 :88–89, _Britannia_ * ^ ^ Encyclopaedia Romana. University of Chicago. accessed March 1, 2007 * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ 77.16

REFERENCES

* Frere, Sheppad Sunderland (1987), _Britannia: A History of Roman Britain_ (3rd, revised ed.), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7102-1215-1 * Tacitus, Cornelius (98), "The Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola", _The Works of Tacitus
Tacitus
(The Oxford Translation, Revised)_, II, London: Henry G. Bohn (published 1854), pp. 343–389 Check date values in: date= (help )

FURTHER READING

* The Great Invasion, Leonard Cottrell, Coward–McCann, New York, 1962, hardback. Was published in the UK in 1958. * Tacitus
Tacitus
, _Histories _, _Annals _ and _De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae _ * _A.D. 43_, John Manley , Tempus, 2002. * _Roman Britain_, Peter Salway, Oxford, 1986 * Miles Russel – Ruling Britannia – History Today 8/2005 pp 5–6 * Francis Pryor
Francis Pryor
. 2004. _Britain BC_. New York: HarperPerennial. * Francis Pryor. 2004. _Britain AD_. New York: HarperCollins. * George Shipway – Imperial Governor. 2002. London: Cassell Military Paperbacks.

* v * t * e

Ancient Roman wars

WARS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

* Roman–Etruscan Wars * Roman-Aequian wars * Roman–Latin wars
Roman–Latin wars
* Roman–Hernician wars * Roman-Volscian wars * Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
* Pyrrhic War * Punic Wars (First , Second , Third ) * Illyrian Wars (First , Second , Third ) *