Contents 1 Early life and academia 2 Later activity 3 An earlier universe 4 Physics and consciousness 5 Personal life 5.1 Family life 5.2 Religious views 6 Awards and honours 7 Depictions in popular culture 8 Works 8.1 Popular publications 8.1.1 Co-authored 8.2 Academic books 8.3 Foreword to other books 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early life and academia[edit]
Born in Colchester, Essex,
As a student in 1954, Penrose was attending a conference in Amsterdam when by chance he came across an exhibition of Escher's work. Soon he was trying to conjure up impossible figures of his own and discovered the tribar [see tri-bar for an image] – a triangle that looks like a real, solid three-dimensional object, but isn't. Together with his father, a physicist and mathematician, Penrose went on to design a staircase that simultaneously loops up and down. An article followed and a copy was sent to Escher. Completing a cyclical flow of creativity, the Dutch master of geometrical illusions was inspired to produce his two masterpieces.[5] Having become a reader at Birkbeck College, London (and having had his
attention drawn from pure mathematics to astrophysics by the
cosmologist Dennis Sciama, then at Cambridge) it was in 1964 that, in
the words of
Predicted view from outside the event horizon of a black hole lit by a thin accretion disc It was in the local context of gravitational collapse that the
contribution of Penrose was most decisive, starting with his 1969
cosmic censorship conjecture, to the effect that any ensuing
singularities would be confined within a well-behaved event horizon
surrounding a hidden space-time region for which Wheeler coined the
term black hole, leaving a visible exterior region with strong but
finite curvature, from which some of the gravitational energy may be
extractable by what is known as the Penrose process, while accretion
of surrounding matter may release further energy that can account for
astrophysical phenomena such as quasars.
Following up his "weak cosmic censorship hypothesis", Penrose went on,
in 1979, to formulate a stronger version called the "strong censorship
hypothesis". Together with the
Oil painting by Urs Schmid (1995) of a
In 1967, Penrose invented the twistor theory which maps geometric
objects in
A Penrose tiling Penrose is well known for his 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which
are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane
nonperiodically, and are the first tilings to exhibit fivefold
rotational symmetry. Penrose developed these ideas based on the
article Deux types fondamentaux de distribution statistique[10] (1938;
an English translation Two Basic Types of Statistical Distribution) by
Czech geographer, demographer and statistician Jaromír Korčák. In
1984, such patterns were observed in the arrangement of atoms in
quasicrystals.[11] Another noteworthy contribution is his 1971
invention of spin networks, which later came to form the geometry of
spacetime in loop quantum gravity. He was influential in popularising
what are commonly known as Penrose diagrams (causal diagrams).
In 1983, Penrose was invited to teach at
In 2010, Penrose reported possible evidence, based on concentric
circles found in
Prof. Penrose at a conference. Part of a series on Physical cosmology Big Bang · Universe Age of the universe Chronology of the universe Early universe Planck epoch
Grand unification epoch
Quark epoch
Hadron epoch
Lepton epoch
Photon epoch
Backgrounds
Expansion · Future Hubble's law · Redshift Metric expansion of space FLRW metric · Friedmann equations Inhomogeneous cosmology Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe Heat death of the universe Big Rip Big Crunch Big Bounce Components · Structure Components Lambda-CDM model Baryonic matter Energy Radiation Dark energy Quintessence Phantom energy Dark matter Cold dark matter Warm dark matter Hot dark matter Dark radiation Structure Shape of the universe Reionization · Structure formation Galaxy formation Large-scale structure Large quasar group Galaxy filament Supercluster Galaxy cluster Galaxy group Local Group Void Experiments
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Scientists Aaronson Alfvén Alpher Bharadwaj Copernicus de Sitter Dicke Ehlers Einstein Ellis Friedman Galileo Gamow Guth Hawking Hubble Lemaître Mather Newton Penrose Penzias Rubin Schmidt Smoot Suntzeff Sunyaev Tolman Wilson Zel'dovich Subject history Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation History of the
Religious interpretations of
the
Timeline of cosmological theories Category Cosmology portal Astronomy portal v t e Penrose has written books on the connection between fundamental
physics and human (or animal) consciousness. In The Emperor's New Mind
(1989), he argues that known laws of physics are inadequate to explain
the phenomenon of consciousness. Penrose proposes the characteristics
this new physics may have and specifies the requirements for a bridge
between classical and quantum mechanics (what he calls correct quantum
gravity). Penrose uses a variant of
Finally, he suggested that the configuration of the microtubule
lattice might be suitable for quantum error correction, a means of
holding together quantum coherence in the face of environmental
interaction.
Hameroff, in a lecture in part of a Google Tech talks series exploring
quantum biology, gave an overview of current research in the area, and
responded to subsequent criticisms of the
Penrose has been awarded many prizes for his contributions to science.
He was elected a
His deep work on General Relativity has been a major factor in our
understanding of black holes. His development of
In 2005 Penrose was awarded an honorary doctorate by Warsaw University
and
In the 2004 BBC TV movie Hawking, Penrose is played by Tom Ward In the 2014 movie The Theory of Everything, Penrose is played by Christian McKay Works[edit] Popular publications[edit] The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of
Physics (1989)
Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness
(1994)
The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe
(2004)(New Edition from Vintage Digital; 31 Mar. 2016)
Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the
Co-authored[edit]
Academic books[edit] Techniques of Differential Topology in Relativity (1972, ISBN 0-89871-005-7) Spinors and Space-Time: Volume 1, Two-Spinor Calculus and Relativistic Fields (with Wolfgang Rindler, 1987) ISBN 0-521-33707-0 (paperback) Spinors and Space-Time: Volume 2, Spinor and Twistor Methods in Space-Time Geometry (with Wolfgang Rindler, 1988) (reprint), ISBN 0-521-34786-6 (paperback) Foreword to other books[edit] Foreword to Beating the Odds: The Life and Times of E. A. Milne,
written by Meg Weston Smith. Published by World Scientific Publishing
Co in June 2013.
Foreword to
See also[edit] Conformal cyclic cosmology Illumination problem Orchestrated objective reduction Penrose graphical notation Quantum Aspects of Life Quantum mind Notes[edit] ^ Penrose and his father shared mathematical concepts with Dutch
graphic artist
References[edit] ^ Penrose, R (2005). The Road to Reality: A Complete guide to the Laws
of the Universe. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-944068-7.
^ Rudolph Peters. "John Beresford Leathes. 1864-1956". Royal Society
Publishing.
^ Elementy.ru (May 2016). "Roger Penrose. Cycles of Time: Is It
Possible to Discern the Previous
MindPapers: 6.1b. Godelian arguments
References for Criticisms of the Gödelian Argument*
Boolos, George, et al. 1990. An Open Peer Commentary on The Emperor's
New Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4) 655.
Davis, Martin 1993. How subtle is Gödel's theorem? More on Roger
Penrose. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 611–612. Online version
at Davis' faculty page at http://cs.nyu.edu/cs/faculty/davism/
Feferman, Solomon (1996). "Penrose's Gödelian argument". Psyche: An
Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness. 2: 21–32.
CiteSeerX 10.1.1.130.7027 .
Krajewski, Stanislaw 2007. On Gödel's Theorem and Mechanism:
Inconsistency or Unsoundness is Unavoidable in any Attempt to
'Out-Gödel' the Mechanist. Fundamenta Informaticae 81, 173–181.
Reprinted in Topics in Logic, Philosophy and Foundations of
Sources that indicate Penrose's argument is generally rejected: Bringsford, S. and Xiao, H. 2000. A Refutation of Penrose's Gödelian
Case Against Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Experimental and
Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12: 307–329. The authors write
that it is "generally agreed" that Penrose "failed to destroy the
computational conception of mind."
In an article at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25
January 2001. Retrieved 22 October 2010. L.J. Landau at the
Sources that also note that different sources attack different points of the argument: Princeton Philosophy professor John Burgess writes in On the Outside
Looking In: A Caution about Conservativeness (published in Kurt
Gödel: Essays for his Centennial, with the following comments found
on pp. 131–132) that "the consensus view of logicians today seems to
be that the Lucas–Penrose argument is fallacious, though as I have
said elsewhere, there is at least this much to be said for Lucas and
Penrose, that logicians are not unanimously agreed as to where
precisely the fallacy in their argument lies. There are at least three
points at which the argument may be attacked."
^ Marvin Minsky. "Conscious Machines." Machinery of Consciousness,
Proceedings, National Research Council of Canada, 75th Anniversary
Symposium on Science in Society, June 1991.
^ Tegmark, Max (2000). "The importance of quantum decoherence in brain
processes".
Further reading[edit] Ferguson, Kitty (1991). Stephen Hawking: Quest For A Theory of Everything. Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-553-29895-X. Misner, Charles; Thorne, Kip S. & Wheeler, John Archibald (1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0. (See Box 34.2.) External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Roger Penrose Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roger Penrose.
Original 2005 lecture: "Before the Big Bang? A new perspective on the
Beyond the Doubting of a Shadow: A Reply to Commentaries on Shadows of
the Mind at the
Penrose Tiling found in Islamic Architecture
Two theories for the formation of quasicrystals resembling Penrose
tilings
Tegmark, Max (2000). "The importance of quantum decoherence in brain
processes".
"Biological feasibility of quantum states in the brain" – (a disputation of Tegmark's result by Hagan, Hameroff, and Tuszyński) Tegmarks's rejoinder to Hagan et al. "Toilet Paper Plagiarism" at the
v t e Works by Roger Penrose Books
Coauthored books
Academic works Techniques of Differential Topology in Relativity (1972) Spinors and Space-Time: Volume 1, Two-Spinor Calculus and Relativistic Fields (with Wolfgang Rindler) (1987) Spinors and Space-Time: Volume 2, Spinor and Twistor Methods in Space-Time Geometry (with Wolfgang Rindler) (1988) v t e Copley Medallists (2001–present)
v t e Laureates of the
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s
2010s John F. Clauser /
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