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ROGER JOSEPH EBERT (/ˈiːbərt/ ; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American film critic and historian , journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the _ Chicago Sun-Times _ from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism .

Ebert and _ Chicago Tribune _ critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show _ Sneak Previews _, followed by several variously named _At the Movies _ programs. The two verbally sparred and traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up," used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and then, starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper .

Neil Steinberg of the _ Chicago Sun-Times_ said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of _ Forbes _ described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", and Kenneth Turan of the _ Los Angeles Times _ called him "the best-known film critic in America".

Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands from 2002. This required treatments necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, which cost him the ability to speak or eat normally. His ability to write remained unimpaired, however, and he continued to publish frequently both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Career

* 2.1 Critical style * 2.2 Best Films of the Year * 2.3 Views * 2.4 Film and TV appearances

* 3 Personal life

* 3.1 Health

* 4 Death

* 4.1 Memorials and legacy

* 5 Bibliography * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

EARLY LIFE

Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, Illinois , the only child of Annabel (née Stumm; May 1, 1911 – June 1, 1987), a bookkeeper, and Walter Harry Ebert (November 20, 1901 – September 22, 1960), an electrician. He was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana.

His paternal grandparents were German immigrants and his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School , where he was a sports writer for _The News-Gazette _ in Champaign, Illinois ; however, he began his writing career with letters of comment to the science fiction fanzines of the era. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper , _The Echo_. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.

Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection _Mad About the Movies_:

“ I learned to be a movie critic by reading _Mad _ magazine ... _Mad_'s parodies made me aware of the machine inside the skin – of the way a movie might look original on the outside, while inside it was just recycling the same old dumb formulas. I did not read the magazine, I plundered it for clues to the universe. Pauline Kael lost it at the movies ; I lost it at _Mad_ magazine. ”

Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high-school courses while also taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert then attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for the _ Daily Illini _ and then served as its editor during his senior year while also continuing to work as a reporter for the _News-Gazette_ of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois (he had begun at the _News-Gazette_ at age 15 covering Urbana High School sports). As an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U.S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he ever wrote was a review of _ La Dolce Vita _, published in _The Daily Illini_ in October 1961.

Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year. He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and then, after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago , he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the _ Chicago Daily News_, hoping that, as he had already sold freelance pieces to the _Daily News_, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan , he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan . Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the _ Chicago Sun-Times,_ Jim Hoge , who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the _Sun-Times_ in 1966. He attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the _Sun-Times_ for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the _Sun-Times_ in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert. The load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.

CAREER

Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967, writing for the _ Chicago Sun-Times_. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today". That same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled _Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life_, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of _ Night of the Living Dead _ was published in _Reader\'s Digest _.

Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film _Beyond the Valley of the Dolls _ and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, which was poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic . Ebert and Meyer also made _Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens _, _Up! _, and other films, and were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie _Who Killed Bambi? _ (In April 2010, Ebert posted his screenplay of _Who Killed Bambi?_ aka _Anarchy in the UK_ on his blog.)

Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as a guest lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies . Roger Ebert (right) with Russ Meyer in 1970.

In 1975, the same year Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism , he and Gene Siskel began co-hosting a weekly film review television show, _Sneak Previews_, which was locally produced by the Chicago public broadcasting station WTTW . The series was later picked up for nationwide syndication on PBS . The duo became famous for their "thumbs up/thumbs down" review summaries. Siskel and Ebert trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up".

In 1982, they moved from PBS to launch a similar syndicated commercial television show named _At The Movies With Gene Siskel & Roger Ebert _. In 1986, they again moved the show to new ownership, creating _Siskel & Ebert & The Movies _ through Buena Vista Television , part of the Walt Disney Company .

After Siskel's death in 1999, the producers retitled the show _Roger Ebert & the Movies_ and used rotating co-hosts. In September 2000, _ Chicago Sun-Times_ columnist Richard Roeper became the permanent co-host and the show was renamed _At The Movies With Ebert he reviewed a film for what he felt it would be to its prospective audience, yet always with at least some consideration as to its value as a whole. He awarded four stars to films of the highest quality, and generally a half star to those of the lowest, unless he considered the film to be "artistically inept" or "morally repugnant", in which case it received no stars.

“ When you ask a friend if _Hellboy _ is any good, you're not asking if it's any good compared to _Mystic River _, you're asking if it's any good compared to _The Punisher _. And my answer would be, on a scale of one to four, if _Superman _ is four, then _Hellboy_ is three and _The Punisher_ is two. In the same way, if _American Beauty _ gets four stars, then _ The United States of Leland _ clocks in at about two. ”

Ebert emphasized that his star ratings had little meaning if not considered in the context of the review itself. Occasionally (as in his review of _ Basic Instinct 2 _), Ebert's star rating may have seemed at odds with his written opinion. Ebert acknowledged such cases, stating, "I cannot recommend the movie, but ... why the hell can't I? Just because it's godawful? What kind of reason is that for staying away from a movie? Godawful and boring, _that_ would be a reason". In August 2004 Stephen King , in a column, criticized what he saw as a growing trend of leniency towards films from critics, including Ebert. His main criticism was that films, citing _Spider-Man 2 _ as an example, were constantly given four star ratings that they did not deserve. In his review of _The Manson Family _, Ebert gave the film three stars for achieving what it set out to do, but admitted that did not count as a recommendation _per se_. He similarly gave the Adam Sandler-starring remake of _The Longest Yard _ a positive rating of three stars, but in his review, which he wrote soon after attending the Cannes Film Festival , he recommended readers not to see the film because they had access to more satisfying cinematic experiences. He declined to give a star rating to _The Human Centipede _, arguing that the rating system was "unsuited" to such a film: "Is the movie good? Is it bad? Does it matter? It is what it is and occupies a world where the stars don't shine."

Ebert reprinted his starred reviews in movie guides. In his appearances on _ The Howard Stern Show _, he was frequently challenged to defend his ratings. Ebert stood by his opinions with one notable exception – when Stern pointed out that Ebert had given _The Godfather Part II _ a three-star rating in 1974, but had subsequently given _ The Godfather Part III _ three and a half stars. Ebert later added _ The Godfather Part II_ to his "Great Movies" list in October 2008 stating that his original review has often been cited as proof of his "worthlessness" but he still had not changed his mind and would not change a word of his original review. When reviewing the 2009 remake of _The Last House on the Left_ , Ebert noted how he had given the controversial 1972 original three and a half stars and declined to make a comparison between the two versions: "I wrote that original "Last House" review 37 years ago. I am not the same person. I am uninterested in being 'consistent'".

Ebert occasionally accused some films of having an unwholesome political agenda, such as claiming that the 1971 film _ Dirty Harry _ had a fascist moral position. He was wary of films passed off as art, but which he saw as lurid and sensational. He leveled this charge against such films as _ The Night Porter ._

Ebert's reviews could clash with the overall reception of movies, as evidenced by his one-star review of the celebrated 1986 David Lynch film _Blue Velvet _ ("marred by sophomoric satire and cheap shots ... in a way, behavior is more sadistic than the Hopper character"). He was dismissive of the popular 1988 Bruce Willis action film _Die Hard _ ("inappropriate and wrongheaded interruptions reveal the fragile nature of the plot"), while his positive 3 out of 4 stars review of 1997's _Speed 2: Cruise Control _ ("Movies like this embrace goofiness with an almost sensual pleasure") is one of only two positive reviews accounting for that film's 3% approval rating on the reviewer aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes (the other having been written by his _At The Movies_ co-star Gene Siskel). Ebert panned the 1995 crime drama _ The Usual Suspects ,_ giving the well-regarded film a rating of one and a half stars and a place on his "Most Hated Films" list.

Ebert's reviews were also characterized by what has been called "dry wit". In August 2005, after Rob Schneider insulted _Los Angeles Times _ movie critic Patrick Goldstein (who had criticized Schneider's film _Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo _) by commenting that Goldstein was unqualified because he had never won the Pulitzer Prize , Ebert intervened by stating that, as a Pulitzer winner, he _was_ qualified to review the film, and bluntly told Schneider, "Your movie sucks." Ebert and Schneider would later reconcile regarding this matter.

Ebert commented on films using his Catholic upbringing as a point of reference, and was critical of films he believed were grossly ignorant of or insulting to Catholicism, such as _Stigmata _ and _Priest _. He also gave favorable reviews of controversial films with themes or references to Jesus and Catholicism, including _The Passion of the Christ _, _The Last Temptation of Christ _, and to Kevin Smith 's religious satire _Dogma _. Ebert was described as an agnostic in 2005, but preferred not being "pigeon-holed".

He often included personal anecdotes in his reviews when he considered them relevant. He occasionally wrote reviews in the forms of stories, poems, songs, scripts, open letters, or imagined conversations. He wrote many essays and articles exploring in depth the field of film criticism (see Bibliography in this article).

Ebert was also an advocate and supporter of Asian-American cinema, famously coming to the defense of the cast and crew of Justin Lin 's _ Better Luck Tomorrow _ (2002) during a Sundance Film Festival screening when a white member of the audience asked how Asians could be portrayed in such a negative light and how a film so empty and amoral could be made for Asian-Americans and Americans. Ebert responded that "nobody would say such a thing to a bunch of white filmmakers: how could you do this to "your people"? ... Asian-American characters have the right to be whoever the hell they want to be. They do not have to represent 'their people'!" He was a supporter of the film after the incident at Sundance, and also supported a number of Asian-American films, having them also screen at his film festival (such as Eric Byler 's _Charlotte Sometimes _).

Ebert was accused by some horror movie fans of elitism in his dismissal of what he calls "Dead Teenager Movies". Ebert clarified that he did not disparage horror movies as a whole, but that he drew a distinction between films like _ Nosferatu _ and _The Silence of the Lambs _, which he regarded as "masterpieces", and films which he felt consisted of nothing more than groups of teenagers being killed off with the exception of one survivor to populate a sequel.

Ebert indicated that his favorite film was _ Citizen Kane _, joking, "That's the official answer", although he preferred to emphasize it as "the most important" film. He insinuated that his real favorite film was _ La Dolce Vita _. His favorite actor was Robert Mitchum , and his favorite actress was Ingrid Bergman . He also considered Buster Keaton , Robert Altman , Werner Herzog , and Martin Scorsese to be his favorite directors. He expressed his general distaste for "top ten" lists, and all movie lists in general, but contributed a top ten list to the 2012 Sight and Sound Critics' poll. Listed alphabetically, those films were _2001: A Space Odyssey _; _Aguirre, the Wrath of God _; _ Apocalypse Now _; _ Citizen Kane _; _ La Dolce Vita _; _The General _; _ Raging Bull _; _ Tokyo Story _; _The Tree of Life _; and _Vertigo _. His favorite Bond film was _Goldfinger _ (1964), and he later added it to his "Great Movies" list.

BEST FILMS OF THE YEAR

Ebert compiled "best of the year" movie lists beginning in 1967 until 2012, thereby helping provide an overview of his critical preferences. His top choices were:

* 1967: _Bonnie and Clyde _ * 1968: _ The Battle of Algiers _ * 1969: _Z _ * 1970: _ Five Easy Pieces _ * 1971: _ The Last Picture Show _ * 1972: _ The Godfather _ * 1973: _ Cries and Whispers _ * 1974: _ Scenes from a Marriage _ * 1975: _Nashville _ * 1976: _Small Change _ * 1977: _ 3 Women _ * 1978: _ An Unmarried Woman _ * 1979: _ Apocalypse Now _ * 1980: _ The Black Stallion _ * 1981: _ My Dinner with Andre _ * 1982: _Sophie\'s Choice _

* 1983: _The Right Stuff _ * 1984: _Amadeus _ * 1985: _The Color Purple _ * 1986: _Platoon _ * 1987: _ House of Games _ * 1988: _ Mississippi Burning _ * 1989: _ Do the Right Thing _ * 1990: _ Goodfellas _ * 1991: _JFK _ * 1992: _Malcolm X _ * 1993: _Schindler\'s List _ * 1994: _ Hoop Dreams _ * 1995: _ Leaving Las Vegas _ * 1996: _Fargo _ * 1997: _Eve\'s Bayou _ * 1998: _Dark City _

* 1999: _ Being John Malkovich _ * 2000: _ Almost Famous _ * 2001: _Monster\'s Ball _ * 2002: _Minority Report _ * 2003: _Monster _ * 2004: _ Million Dollar Baby _ * 2005: _Crash _ * 2006: _Pan\'s Labyrinth _ * 2007: _Juno _ * 2008: _ Synecdoche, New York _ * 2009: _ The Hurt Locker _ * 2010: _ The Social Network _ * 2011: _ A Separation _ * 2012: _Argo _

Ebert revisited and sometimes revised his opinions. After ranking _ E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial _ third on his 1982 list, it was the only movie from that year to appear on his later "Best Films of the 1980s" list (where it also ranked third). He made similar reevaluations of 1981's _ Raiders of the Lost Ark _, and 1985's _Ran _. _The Three Colors trilogy _ (_Blue _, _White _, and _Red _), and _ Pulp Fiction _ originally ranked second and third on Ebert's 1994 list; both were included on his "Best Films of the 1990s" list, but their order had reversed.

In 2006, Ebert noted his own "tendency to place what I now consider the year's best film in second place, perhaps because I was trying to make some kind of point with my top pick," adding, "In 1968, I should have ranked _ 2001 _ above _ The Battle of Algiers _. In 1971, _McCabe and Mrs. Miller _ was better than _ The Last Picture Show _. In 1974, _Chinatown _ was probably better, in a different way, than _Scenes from a Marriage _. In 1976, how could I rank _Small Change _ above _ Taxi Driver _? In 1978, I would put _ Days of Heaven _ above _An Unmarried Woman _. And in 1980, of course, _ Raging Bull _ was a better film than _ The Black Stallion _ ... although I later chose _Raging Bull_ as the best film of the entire decade of the 1980s, it was only the second-best film of 1980 ... am I the same person I was in 1968, 1971, or 1980? I hope not."

Since his death, Ebert's website has continued the practice, with the site's primary contributors each offering individual Top Ten lists, with their rankings combined into a communal top ten list.

Ebert was an admirer of director Werner Herzog , whom he supported through many years when Herzog's popularity had declined. He conducted an onstage public "conversation" with Herzog at the Telluride Film Festival in 2004, after a screening of Herzog's film _Invincible _ at Roger Ebert\'s Overlooked Film Festival . Herzog dedicated his 2008 film _ Encounters at the End of the World _ to Ebert, and Ebert responded with a heartfelt public letter of gratitude. Herzog said he once exhorted Ebert to watch _ The Anna Nicole Show _ (which Ebert did) so he could gain a better understanding of the decline in American culture.

In 2005, Ebert opined that video games are not art, and are inferior to media created through authorial control, such as film and literature, stating, "video games can be elegant, subtle, sophisticated, challenging and visually wonderful", but "the nature of the medium prevents it from moving beyond craftsmanship to the stature of art". This resulted in negative reaction from video game enthusiasts, such as writer Clive Barker , who defended video games as an art form , stating that they have the power to move people, that the views of book or film critics are less important than those of the consumers experiencing them, and that Ebert's were prejudiced. Ebert responded that the charge of prejudice was merely a euphemism for disagreement, that merely being moved by an experience does not denote it as artistic, and that critics are also consumers. Ebert later defended his position in April 2010, saying, "No video gamer now living will survive long enough to experience the medium as an art form". He also stated that he had never found a video game "worthy of (his) time", and thus had never played one.

In a July 1, 2010, blog entry, Ebert maintained his position that video games can never be art in principle, but conceded that he should not have expressed this skepticism without being more familiar with the actual experience of playing them. He reflected on the reaction to his blog entry, gamers' attempts to recommend to him games such as _ Shadow of the Colossus _, and his reluctance to play games due to his lack of interest in the medium. "I have played _ Cosmology of Kyoto _ which I enormously enjoyed, and _ Myst _ for which I lacked the patience." said Ebert.

VIEWS

Ebert was an outspoken opponent of the Motion Picture Association of America film rating system , repeatedly criticizing its decisions regarding which movies are suitable for children.

Ebert also frequently lamented that cinemas outside major cities are "booked by computer from Hollywood with no regard for local tastes", making high-quality independent and foreign films virtually unavailable to most American moviegoers.

Ebert was a strong advocate for Maxivision 48, in which the movie projector runs at 48 frames per second, as compared to the usual 24 frames per second. He was opposed to the practice whereby theatres lower the intensity of their projector bulbs in order to extend the life of the bulb, arguing that this has little effect other than to make the film harder to see. Ebert was skeptical of the recent resurgence of 3D effects in film , which he found unrealistic and distracting.

FILM AND TV APPEARANCES

In 1995, Ebert, along with colleague Gene Siskel, guest-starred on an episode of the animated TV series _ The Critic _. In the episode, Siskel and Ebert split and each wants Jay as his new partner. The episode is a parody of the film _ Sleepless in Seattle _. The following year, Ebert appeared in _Pitch_, a documentary by Canadian film makers Spencer Rice and Kenny Hotz . He made an appearance as himself in a 1997 episode of the television series _ Early Edition _, which took place in Chicago. In the episode, Ebert consoles a young boy who is depressed after he sees a character called Bosco the Bunny die in a movie.

In 1999, Roger Ebert founded his own film festival, Ebertfest , in his home town of Champaign, Illinois. He was also a regular fixture at the Hawaii International Film Festival .

In 2003, Ebert had a cameo appearance in the film _Abby Singer _. On May 4, 2010, Ebert was announced by the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences as the Webby Person of the Year, having taken to the Internet following his battle with cancer. On October 22, 2010, Ebert appeared on camera with Robert Osborne on the Turner Classic Movies network during the network's "The Essentials" series. Ebert chose the films _ Sweet Smell of Success _ and _ The Lady Eve _ to be shown.

For many years, on the day of the Academy Award ceremony, Ebert repeatedly appeared with Roeper on the live pre-awards show, _An Evening at the Academy Awards: The Arrivals_. This aired for over a decade, usually prior to the awards ceremony show, which also featured red carpet interviews and fashion commentary. They also used to appear on the post-awards show entitled _An Evening at the Academy Awards: The Winners_, produced and aired by the ABC -owned KABC-TV in Los Angeles.

Ebert was one of the principal critics featured in Gerald Peary 's 2009 documentary film _For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism _. He is shown discussing the dynamics of appearing with Gene Siskel on the 1970s show _Coming to a Theatre Near You_, which was the predecessor of _Sneak Previews_ on Chicago PBS station WTTW. He also expressed his approval of the proliferation of young people writing film reviews today on the Internet.

Ebert provided DVD audio commentaries for several films, including _ Citizen Kane _, _Casablanca _, _Dark City _, _ Floating Weeds _, _Crumb _, and _ Beyond the Valley of the Dolls _ (for which Ebert also wrote the screenplay, based on a story that he co-wrote with Russ Meyer ). Ebert was also interviewed by Central Park Media for an extra feature on the DVD release of the anime film _Grave of the Fireflies _. Ebert appeared as a guest star multiple times on _ Sesame Street _. A bio-documentary about Ebert, called _Life Itself _, was released in 2014 to universal acclaim.

Though not making a personal appearance, an honorary effigy of Ebert co-starred in the 1998 reimagined version of _ Godzilla _, played by actor Michael Lerner as New York City Mayor Ebert.

PERSONAL LIFE

Ebert and his wife Chaz Hammelsmith Ebert (left) giving the thumbs up to Nancy Kwan (right) at the Hawaii International Film Festival on October 20, 2010

At age 50, Ebert married trial attorney Charlie "Chaz" Hammelsmith (formerly Chaz Hammel-Smith) in 1992. He explained in his memoir, _Life Itself_, that he "would never marry before mother died", as he was afraid of displeasing her. In a July 2012 blog entry titled "Roger loves Chaz", Ebert wrote, "She fills my horizon, she is the great fact of my life, she has my love, she saved me from the fate of living out my life alone, which is where I seemed to be heading". Chaz Ebert is now vice president of the Ebert Company and has emceed Ebertfest.

Ebert was a recovering alcoholic, having quit drinking in 1979. He was a member of Alcoholics Anonymous and had written some blog entries on the subject. He was a longtime friend of, and briefly dated, Oprah Winfrey , who credited him with persuading her to syndicate _The Oprah Winfrey Show _, which became the highest-rated talk show in American television history. He was also friends with film historian and critic Leonard Maltin and considered the book _Leonard Maltin's Movie and Video Guide_ (final update in 2014 ) to be the standard of film guide books. Ebert in May 2010

A supporter of the Democratic Party , Ebert publicly urged liberal filmmaker Michael Moore to give a politically charged acceptance speech at the Academy Awards: "I'd like to see Michael Moore get up there and let 'em have it with both barrels and really let loose and give them a real rabble-rousing speech." During a 1996 panel at the University of Colorado at Boulder 's Conference on World Affairs , Ebert coined the Boulder Pledge, by which he vowed never to purchase anything offered through the result of an unsolicited email message, or to forward chain emails or mass emails to others. Ebert endorsed Barack Obama for re-election as President in 2012.

Ebert was critical of intelligent design , and stated that people who believe in either creationism or New Age beliefs such as crystal healing or astrology are not qualified to be President. Ebert also expressed disbelief in pseudoscientific or supernatural claims in general, calling them "woo-woo".

Discussing his beliefs, in 2009 Ebert wrote that he did not "want to provide a category for people to apply to " because he "would not want convictions reduced to a word", and stated, "I have never said, although readers have freely informed me I am an atheist, an agnostic, or at the very least a secular humanist – which I am". In the same blog entry, he also said "I am not a believer, not an atheist, not an agnostic. I am still awake at night, asking _how_? I am more content with the question than I would be with an answer." In March 2013, he wrote: "I support freedom of choice. My choice is to not support abortion, except in cases of a clear-cut choice between the lives of the mother and child. A child conceived through incest or rape is innocent and deserves the right to be born." He also stated: "I consider myself Catholic, lock, stock and barrel, with this technical loophole: I cannot believe in God. I refuse to call myself an atheist however, because that indicates too great a certainty about the unknowable."

On April 25, 2011, he achieved one of his long-time goals: winning one of the weekly caption contests in _ The New Yorker _ after more than 100 attempts.

HEALTH

Ebert (right) at the Conference on World Affairs in September 2002, shortly after his cancer diagnosis

In early 2002, Ebert was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer which was successfully removed in February. In 2003, he underwent surgery for cancer in his salivary gland , which was followed up by radiation treatment . He was again afflicted with cancer in 2006. In June of that year, he had surgery to remove cancerous tissue near his right jaw. A week later he had a life-threatening complication when his carotid artery burst near the surgery site. He was confined to bed rest and was unable to speak, eat, or drink for a period of time, necessitating the use of a feeding tube .

The complications kept Ebert off the air for an extended period of time. Ebert made his first public appearance since mid-2006 at Ebertfest on April 25, 2007. He was unable to speak, instead communicating through his wife. He returned to reviewing on May 18, 2007, when three of his reviews were published in print. In July 2007, he revealed that he was still unable to speak. Ebert adopted a computerized voice system to communicate, eventually using a copy of his own voice created from his recordings by CereProc . In March 2010, his health trials and new computerized voice were featured on _The Oprah Winfrey Show _. Ebert later proposed a test to determine the realism of a synthesized voice.

Ebert underwent further surgery in January 2008 to hopefully restore his voice and address the complications from his previous surgeries. On April 1, Ebert announced his speech had not been restored. A further surgery was performed in April 2008 after Ebert fractured his hip in a fall. By 2011, Ebert was using a prosthetic chin to hide some of the damage done by his many chin, mouth, and throat surgeries.

In December 2012, Ebert was hospitalized due to the fractured hip. On April 2, 2013, he announced that he would be taking a "leave of presence" from his duties because the hip fracture was determined to be cancerous and would require radiation treatment. He remarked, "I'll be able at last to do what I've always fantasized about doing: reviewing only the movies I want to review."

DEATH

Three years before his death, Ebert wrote:

“ I know it is coming, and I do not fear it, because I believe there is nothing on the other side of death to fear. I hope to be spared as much pain as possible on the approach path. I was perfectly content before I was born, and I think of death as the same state. What I am grateful for is the gift of intelligence, and for life, love, wonder, and laughter. You can't say it wasn't interesting. My lifetime's memories are what I have brought home from the trip. I will require them for eternity no more than that little souvenir of the Eiffel Tower I brought home from Paris. ”

Two days before his death, Ebert ended his final blog post by saying, "So on this day of reflection I say again, thank you for going on this journey with me. I'll see you at the movies." On April 4, 2013, Ebert died at the age of 70 in Chicago as he was preparing to come home from the hospital.

On April 7, 2013, a private vigil with an open casket was held at the chapel of Graceland Cemetery on the city's north side. Hundreds attended the April 8, 2013 funeral Mass held at Chicago's Holy Name Cathedral , where Ebert was celebrated as a film critic, newspaperman, advocate for social justice, and husband. Father Michael Pfleger concluded the service with: "the balconies of heaven are filled with angels singing _Thumbs Up_."

His death prompted wide reaction from celebrities both in and out of the entertainment industry. U.S. President Barack Obama wrote, "Roger was the movies ... the unique power of the movies to take us somewhere magical ... The movies won't be the same without Roger". Robert Redford called Ebert "one of the great champions of freedom of artistic expression" and said "His personal passion for cinema was boundless, and that is sure to be his legacy for generations to come." Oprah Winfrey called Ebert's death the "end of an era", as did Steven Spielberg , who also said that Ebert's "reviews went far deeper than simply thumbs up or thumbs down. He wrote with passion through a real knowledge of film and film history, and in doing so, helped many movies find their audiences ... put television criticism on the map".

MEMORIALS AND LEGACY

A statue of Roger Ebert giving his 'thumbs up ' outside the Virginia Theatre in Champaign, Illinois.

A 2-hour-and-45-minute public tribute, entitled _Roger Ebert: A Celebration of Life_, was held at 7 p.m. on Thursday, April 11, 2013 at the Chicago Theater . It featured in-person remembrances, video testimonials, video and film clips, gospel choirs, and was, according to the _ Chicago Tribune_'s Mark Caro, "a laughter- and sorrow-filled send-off from the entertainment and media worlds".

In September 2013, organizers in Champaign, Illinois announced plans to raise $125,000 to build a life-size bronze statue of Ebert in the town, which was unveiled in front of the Virginia Theatre at Ebertfest on April 24, 2014. The composition was selected by his widow, Chaz Ebert, and depicts Ebert sitting in the middle of three theater seats giving a "thumbs up".

The 2013 Toronto International Film Festival opened with a video tribute of Ebert at Roy Thomson Hall during the world premiere of the WikiLeaks-based film _The Fifth Estate _. Ebert had been an avid supporter of the festival since its inception in the 1970s. Chaz was in attendance to accept a plaque on Roger's behalf. At the 86th Academy Awards ceremony, Ebert was included in the _In Memoriam_ montage, a rare honor for a film critic.

In 2014, the documentary _Life Itself _ was released. Director Steve James , whose films had been widely advocated by Ebert, started making it while the critic was still alive. The film studies Ebert's life and career, while also filming Ebert during his final months, and includes interviews with his family and friends. It was widely praised.

Roger Ebert was inducted as a Laureate of The Lincoln Academy of Illinois and awarded the Order of Lincoln (the State's highest honor) by the Governor of Illinois in 2001 in the area of Performing Arts.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Each year from 1999 to 2013, except in 2008, Ebert published _Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook_, a collection of all of his movie reviews from the previous two and a half years (for example, the 2011 edition, ISBN 978-0-7407-9769-9 , covers January 2008 – July 2010), as well as essays and other writings. He also wrote the following books:

* _An Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life_ (1967) – A history of the first 100 years of the University of Illinois . (no ISBN) * _A Kiss Is Still a Kiss_ (1984) (ISBN 0-8362-7957-3 ) * _The Perfect London Walk_ (1986) – A tour of London, Ebert's favorite foreign city. (ISBN 0-8362-7929-8 ) * _Two Weeks In Midday Sun: A Cannes Notebook_ (1987) Coverage of the 1987 Cannes Film Festival which was also the 40th anniversary of the festival plus comments about the previous twelve festivals Ebert had attended. Interviews with John Malkovich , Barbara Hershey , and Isabella Rossellini . (ISBN 0-8362-7942-5 ) * _Behind the Phantom's Mask_ (1993) This is Ebert's only work of fiction which is about an on-stage murder and the resulting attention put on a previously unknown actor. (ISBN 0-8362-8021-0 ) * _Ebert's Little Movie Glossary_ (1994) – a book of movie clichés. (ISBN 0-8362-8071-7 ) * _Roger Ebert's Book of Film_ (1996) – a _Norton Anthology _ of a century of writing about the movies. (ISBN 0-393-04000-3 ) * _Questions for the Movie Answer Man_ (1997) – his responses to questions sent from his readers. (ISBN 0-8362-2894-4 ) * _Ebert's Bigger Little Movie Glossary_ (1999) – a "greatly expanded" book of movie clichés. (ISBN 0-8362-8289-2 ) * _I Hated, Hated, Hated This Movie_ (2000) – a collection of reviews of films that received two stars or less, dating to the beginning of his _Sun-Times_ career. (The title comes from his zero-star review of the 1994 film _North _.) ( ISBN 0-7407-0672-1 ) * _The Great Movies_ (2002), _ The Great Movies II_ (2005), and _The Great Movies III_ (2010) – Three books of essays about great films. (ISBN 0-7679-1038-9 , ISBN 0-7679-1950-5 , and ISBN 978-0-226-18208-7 ) * _Awake in the Dark: The Best of Roger Ebert_ (2006) – a collection of essays from his 40 years as a film critic, featuring interviews, profiles, essays, his initial reviews upon a film's release, as well as critical exchanges between the film critics Richard Corliss and Andrew Sarris . * _Your Movie Sucks_ (2007) – A collection of less-than-two-star reviews, for movies released between 2000 and 2006. (The title comes from his zero-star review of the 2005 film _Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo _.) (ISBN 0-7407-6366-0 ) * _Roger Ebert's Four-Star Reviews 1967–2007_ (2007) (ISBN 0-7407-7179-5 ) * _Scorsese by Ebert_ (2008) – Covers works by director Martin Scorsese from 1967 to 2008, plus eleven interviews with the director over that period. (ISBN 978-0-226-18202-5 ) * _The Pot and How to Use It: The Mystery and Romance of the Rice cooker _ (2010) (ISBN 0-7407-9142-7 ) * _Life Itself: A Memoir_. (2011) New York: Grand Central Publishing . (ISBN 0-446-58497-5 ) * _A Horrible Experience of Unbearable Length_ (2012) – A third book of less-than-two-star reviews, for movies released in 2006 and onward. (The title comes from his one-star review of the 2009 film _Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen _.) (ISBN 1-4494-1025-1 )

SEE ALSO

* Ebert test

NOTES

* ^ The question _how_ in these last sentences of the blog entry refers back to its first paragraph in which Ebert writes that as a second-grader he would lie awake at night asking himself the questions "_But how could God have no beginning? And how could he have no end?_".

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Steinberg, Neil (April 4, 2013). "Roger Ebert dies at 70 after battle with cancer". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. * ^ Riper, Tom Van (September 24, 2007). "The Top Pundits in America". _Forbes_. Retrieved December 9, 2008. * ^ Turan, Kenneth (April 4, 2013). "Remembrance: Roger Ebert, film\'s hero to the end". _Los Angeles Times_. * ^ " Roger Ebert – Archive Interview Part 1 of 3 " on YouTube . May 20, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Biography of Roger Ebert". Film Reference. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ "Ebert, Roger (R. Hyde, Reinhold Timme)". _encyclopedia.com_. April 4, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. * ^ Roger Ebert (January 19, 2011). "The Company Men". RogerEbert.com . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Felsenthal, Carol (December 2005). \'A Life In The Movies\'. _ Chicago Magazine_. Kael quote, p. 1; agnosticism, p. 2; Catholic upbringing and wife's name, p. 3. Retrieved April 6, 2013. Archived August 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ebert, Roger (April 12, 2002). "Maryam Movie Review & Film Summary". _ RogerEbert.com _. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Oh, say, can you wear?". _ RogerEbert.com _. May 13, 2010. * ^ Ebert, Roger (February 22, 2013). "What was my Aunt Martha trying to ask me?". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. Archived from the original on February 26, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "RogerEbert.com". RogerEbert.com . October 13, 2004. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ " Roger Ebert in the IHSA list of state speech champions, 1957–58". Ihsa.org. Retrieved April 5, 2013. * ^ _Mad About the Movies_. Mad Books. ISBN 1-56389-459-9 . * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 91. * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 30. * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. pp. 92, 96. * ^ Ebert, Roger (October 4, 1961). " La Dolce Vita Movie Review & Film Summary". _ RogerEbert.com _. * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 96. * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 139. * ^ "Ebert named film critic". _ Chicago Sun-Times _. April 5, 1967. p. 57. * ^ Ebert, Roger. _Life Itself: A Memoir_. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 142. * ^ "Night of the Living Dead". _ RogerEbert.com _. January 5, 1967.

* ^ Beres, Damon (April 4, 2013). "Looking Back: Ebert\'s First Review in Reader\'s Digest". _Reader\'s Digest _. Retrieved December 26, 2016. * ^ Ebert, Roger (1980). "Beyond the Valley of the Dolls". Rogerebert.suntimes.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012. * ^ Ebert, Roger (April 25, 2010). ""\'Who Killed Bambi?\' – A screenplay"". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. * ^ "Roger Ebert, X\'70, film critic and longtime Graham School lecturer, 1942–2013". _UChicagoNews_. University of Chicago . April 5, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rousseau, Caryn (April 4, 2013). "Roger Ebert, first movie critic to win Pulitzer, dies at 70". _The Salt Lake Tribune_. * ^ Gliatto, Tom (November 1, 1999). "Despite the Loss of Film-Critic Buddy Gene Siskel, Roger Ebert Gives Life a Thumbs-Up". _People (magazine) _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bloom, Julie (July 22, 2008). "Ebert and Roeper No Longer at the Movies". _The New York Times_. Retrieved Aug 30, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Corliss, Richard (June 23, 2007). "Thumbs Up for Roger Ebert". _Time _. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Roger Ebert. "By the time we get to Phoenix, he\'ll be laughing" February 18, 2009". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. October 13, 2004. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "TV Guide". TV Guide . April 12, 2010. p. 64. * ^ "Directors Guild to honor Roger Ebert". Reuters. December 28, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-28. * ^ Rousseau, Caryn (January 19, 2010). " Roger Ebert returns with new PBS review show". _ Associated Press _. Deseret News . Retrieved January 20, 2011. * ^ Ebert, Roger (April 6, 2013). " To the Wonder Movie Review & Film Summary (2013)". RogerEbert.com . * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 18, 2013). "Computer Chess Movie Review & Film Summary (2013)". RogerEbert.com . * ^ _A_ _B_ Shetty, Sharan (July 18, 2013). "A New Review From Roger Ebert". _Slate_. * ^ Ebert, Roger (August 2, 2013). " The Spectacular Now Movie Review & Film Summary (2013)". RogerEbert.com . * ^ "_Death Wish II_ review by Roger Ebert". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. January 1, 1982. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "_Shaolin Soccer_ Movie Review & Film Summary". April 23, 2004.

* ^ "_Basic Instinct 2_ Movie Review & Film Summary". March 21, 2006. * ^ King, Stephen (August 20, 2004). "The Four-Star Follies". _ Entertainment Weekly _. Retrieved January 31, 2008. * ^ "Ebert\'s review of _The Longest Yard_ (2005 version) at rogerebert.com; May 27, 2005". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. May 26, 2005. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Ebert\'s review of _The Human Centipede_ at rogerebert.com; May 5, 2010". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. May 5, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ Ebert, Roger (October 2, 2008). "The Godfather, Part II review". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved February 28, 2010. * ^ "Ebert\'s review of _The Last House on the Left_ (2009)". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. March 11, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2013. * ^ Ebert, Roger (1971). " Dirty Harry Movie Review and Film Summary". Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Ebert\'s review of _The Night Porter_". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. February 10, 1975. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ Ebert, Roger (September 19, 1986). "Review of _Blue Velvet_". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 15, 1988). "Review of _Die Hard_". _Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (June 27, 1997). "Review of _Speed 2: Cruise Control_". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ " Speed 2 - Cruise Control (1997)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 4, 2013. * ^ "Yamato, Jen; "Meet a Critic: Roger Ebert!: RT chats with America\'s favorite critic." December 19, 2007". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Ebert\'s review of _Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo_". _Chicago Sun-Times_. August 11, 2005. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Ebert, Roger. "A bouquet arrives"". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. May 7, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ Clark, Champ (May 10, 2007). "Unlikely Fan Sends Roger Ebert Flowers". _People _. * ^ "Stigmata (1999) Movie Review & Film Summary". _RogerEbert.com _. 1999. * ^ "Roger Ebert. Review of _Priest_. _ Chicago Sun-Times_. April 7, 1995". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. April 7, 1995. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Dogma Movie Review & Film Summary". _ RogerEbert.com _. November 12, 1999. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Roger Ebert (April 17, 2009). "How I believe in God". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2009. * ^ "Roger Ebert\'s review of "Wet Hot American Summer". _Chicago Sun-Times_. August 31, 2001. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Roger Ebert\'s Great Movies review of "E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial"". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. September 14, 1997. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Roger Ebert\'s Review of "A Cinderella Story"". _Chicago Sun-Times_. July 16, 2004. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Roger Ebert\'s review of "The Howling"". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. January 1, 1981. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "Roger Ebert\'s review of "The Hudsucker Proxy"". _Chicago Sun-Times_. March 25, 1994. Retrieved July 24, 2011. * ^ "When Audiences Attack at Sundance". Film Threat . January 19, 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-03-11. * ^ Davis, Erik. "About That Time Roger Ebert Fought a Heckler over Justin Lin\'s \'Better Luck Tomorrow". _Movies.com_. Retrieved 2017-01-27. * ^ Harris, Dana. "This Video Shows Exactly What We Lost With the Death of Roger Ebert". _ IndieWire _. * ^ Ebert, Roger. "\'Sometimes\' a Great Notion". _Charlotte Sometimes the Movie_. Retrieved 2017-01-27. * ^ Gurnow, Michael (2007). "Roger Ebert\'s Bloody Ax: An Examination of the Film Critic\'s Elitist Dismissal of the Horror Film". The Horror Review. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dumont, Aaron (September 4, 2008). "Roger Ebert. "What\'s your favorite movie?" _ Chicago Sun-Times_". _Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ "Biography page for Ebert at". Tv.com. Archived from the original on May 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ "Meet a Critic: Roger Ebert". _ Rotten Tomatoes _. * ^ Roger Ebert (September 2012). "The Greatest Films Poll". BFI. Retrieved September 12, 2012. * ^ "Great Movie: Goldfinger". _Roger Ebert.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Roger Ebert\'s Top Ten Lists, 1967-2006". _Eric C. Johnson's archive_. California Institute of Technology . Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Siskel and Ebert Top Ten Lists (1969–1998)". _innermind.com_. Retrieved November 11, 2011. * ^ Ebert, Roger (2006). _Awake in the Dark_. University of Chicago Press. p. 103. * ^ "Ebert\'s 10 Best Lists: 1967–present". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. * ^ "Roger Ebert. "A letter to Werner Herzog: In praise of rapturous truth" rogerebert.com November 17, 2007". _Chicago Sun-Times_. November 17, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ Holdengräber, Paul. "Was the 20th Century a Mistake? Werner Herzog in conversation with Paul Holdengräber" (PDF). New York Public Library, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2013. * ^ Ebert, Roger (November 27, 2005). "Why did the chicken cross the genders?". _ RogerEbert.com _. * ^ Ebert, Roger (December 6, 2005). "Gamers fire flaming posts, e-mails ...". RogerEbert.com /_ Chicago Sun-Times_. * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 21, 2007). "Games vs. Art: Ebert vs. Barker". RogerEbert.com . * ^ Ebert, Roger (April 16, 2010). "Video games can never be art". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010.

* ^ Brockway, Robert (April 22, 2010). "Why Ebert is Wrong: A Defense of Games As Art". _ Cracked.com _. * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 1, 2010). "Okay, Kids, Play on my Lawn". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. Archived from the original on July 3, 2010. * ^ Ebert, Roger (December 11, 2010). "Getting Real About Movie Ratings". _ The Wall Street Journal _. Retrieved April 5, 2013. * ^ Ebert, Roger (June 4, 2004). "They got it right". _Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on 2004-06-04. * ^ "Ebert\'s "Movie Answer Man column", February 19, 2006". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (August 16, 2008). "D-minus for 3-D". Chicago Sun-Times : Blogs. Archived from the original on August 17, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ "_The Critic_ – "Siskel & Ebert & Jay ">"". _TV.com_. * ^ "Pitch (1997) Full cast & crew". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2017-01-27. * ^ Ebert, Roger (June 1, 1997). _Questions for the Movie Answer Man_. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 99. ISBN 0-8362-2894-4 . In the Spring of 1997, I did a guest appearance on the show, consoling a little boy who was depressed that Bosco the Bunny had died. * ^ "About EbertFest". _Roger Ebert\'s Film Festival _. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Abby Singer". _Home Theater & Sound_. November 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "The Webby Awards". The Webby Awards. June 14, 2010. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013. * ^ Fristoe, Roger. "Critic\'s Choice Introduction". TCM Film Article. Retrieved April 30, 2015. * ^ "An Evening at the Academy Awards (1995)". Siskel & Ebert.org. Retrieved April 30, 2015. * ^ "For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism_"_. TCM Movie Database _. Retrieved December 16, 2012._ * ^ "Life Itself". _ Rotten Tomatoes _. Flixster . Retrieved September 11, 2014. * ^ "Life Itself Reviews". Metacritic . Retrieved July 19, 2014. * ^ Ebert, Roger (May 26, 1998). " Godzilla (1998) Movie Review & Film Summary". Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ "Chaz Ebert Bio". DailyEntertainmentNews. January 12, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013. * ^ Neil Steinberg (April 4, 2013). " Roger Ebert (1942–2013)". Chicago Sun-Times via RogerEbert.com . * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 17, 2012). "Roger loves Chaz". _Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jones, Chris (February 16, 2010). "Roger Ebert: The Essential Man". _Esquire _. * ^ Roger Ebert (August 25, 2009). "My Name is Roger, and I\'m an alcoholic". Retrieved August 25, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger; (November 16, 2005). "How I gave Oprah her start". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Rose, Lacey (January 29, 2009). "America\'s Top-Earning Black Stars". _Forbes_. * ^ Katie Rife (August 20, 2014). "The Internet has officially killed Leonard Maltin\'s Movie Guide". Retrieved April 30, 2015. * ^ "Ebert\'s political donations". Newsmeat.com. September 30, 2009. * ^ Matthew Rothschild (31 July 2003). " Roger Ebert Interview". progressive.org. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ "Critical eye by Roger Ebert — Enough! A Modest Proposal to End the Junk Mail Plague". Panix.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ " Roger Ebert gets \'two thumbs up\' from the Lumber Cartel for this distinct, well-written pledge". The Lumber Cartel, local 42. Retrieved November 14, 2006. * ^ "Bill Weinman · Why I Keep The Boulder Pledge". Bw.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. * ^ "Reason 02: President Obama faced down the GOP and the health industry to finally reform American healthcare". 90days90reasons.com. Retrieved October 25, 2012. * ^ Roger Ebert (September 4, 2009). "The Longest Thread Evolves". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (December 2, 2009). "Roger Ebert\'s Journal: New Agers and Creationists should not be President". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on December 4, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (December 14, 2011). "A Dangerous Method Movie Review & Film Summary". _ RogerEbert.com _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caro, Mark (April 9, 2013). "Roger Ebert\'s funeral: \'He had a heart big enough to love all\'". _ Chicago Tribune_. * ^ Ebert, Roger (March 1, 2013). "How I am a Roman Catholic". Roger Ebert's Journal. Retrieved April 9, 2013. * ^ Makoff, Robert (April 25, 2011). " Roger Ebert Wins the Cartoon Caption Contest". The New Yorker . * ^ "Email from Roger". _ RogerEbert.com _. August 17, 2006. * ^ Ebert, Roger (June 29, 2007). "Sicko Movie Review & Film Summary". * ^ Ebert, Roger (January 6, 2010). "Nil by mouth". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. * ^ Jim Emerson (March 29, 2007). " Ebertfest \'07: "It\'s his happening and it freaks him out!"". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger. " RogerEbert.com Front Page". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on May 21, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007. * ^ " RogerEbert.com commentary". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Retrieved July 23, 2007. * ^ Lund, Jordan. "Roger Ebert\'s Journal: Finding my own voice 8 December 2009". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ Ebert, Roger (March 8, 2010). "Hello, this is me speaking". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. * ^ Tucker, Ken (March 2, 2010). " Roger Ebert predicts the Oscars, movingly: \'No more surgery for me.\'". Entertainment Weekly . * ^ " Roger Ebert Tests His Vocal Cords, and Comedic Delivery". _The New York Times_. March 7, 2011. * ^ Emerick, Laura (January 25, 2008). "Ebert doing well after surgery". RogerEbert.com /_ Chicago Sun-Times_. * ^ " Thumbs up for Roger Ebert after latest bout of surgery, lawyer reports". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 25, 2008. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ ""Roger Ebert: Let\'s go to the movies"; _ Chicago Sun-Times_; April 1, 2008". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009. * ^ "Ebert recovering from hip surgery". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2013. * ^ Ebert, Roger (January 19, 2011). "Leading with my chin". _Roger Ebert's Journal_. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011. * ^ " Roger Ebert hospitalised with fractured hip". _3 News NZ_. December 7, 2012. * ^ Dawn, Randee (April 3, 2013). "Roger Ebert\'s cancer recurs, critic takes \'leave of presence\' from writing duties". NBC News. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ebert, Roger (April 2, 2013). "A Leave of Presence". _Roger Ebert.com_. * ^ Corely, Cheryl (April 4, 2013). "For Pulitzer-Winning Critic Roger Ebert, Films Were A Journey". NPR. * ^ Ebert, Chaz; Jones, Chris (December 24, 2013). "Oral Histories of 2013: Roger Ebert\'s Wife, Chaz, on His Final Moments" (Excerpt ed.). Esquire. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stamets, Bill (April 8, 2013). "Roger Ebert\'s Funeral: \'The Vanilla Sky Opens To Welcome One of its Own Home\'". _The Hollywood Reporter, via Yahoo Movies_. Retrieved April 16, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Death of film critic Ebert elicits wide reaction". _Boston Herald_. Associated Press. April 4, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2013. * ^ "Statement by the President on the Passing of Roger Ebert". _The White House_. April 4, 2013. * ^ Caro, Mark (April 12, 2013). " Roger Ebert honored by Hollywood stars for his \'tenacity\', \'zest for life\'". _The Chicago Tribune: Arts & Entertainment section_. Retrieved April 16, 2013. * ^ Rothman, Lily (April 25, 2014). " Roger Ebert Statue Unveiled Outside Illinois Theater". _Time_. Retrieved April 24, 2015. * ^ "Ebert statue planned in Champaign". _ Chicago Sun-Times_. September 12, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2013. * ^ Rothman, Lily (April 25, 2014). " Roger Ebert Statue Unveiled Outside Illinois Theater". _Time_. Retrieved June 1, 2015. * ^ Whipp, Glenn (September 6, 2013). "TIFF 2013: Roger Ebert tribute: \'He\'s probably ... somewhere in here\'". _Los Angeles Times _. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ The Editors (September 4, 2013). "Toronto International Film Festival Launches with a Tribute to Roger". RogerEbert.com . Retrieved April 30, 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ "Oscar Remembers – Photo Gallery, Roger Ebert, Film Critic". The Oscars. February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014.

* ^ "Oscars 2014 – In Memoriam Montage (Full)". March 2, 2014. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2015. * ^ "Life Itself Reviews". Metacritic . Retrieved December 13, 2015. * ^ "Laureates by Year - The Lincoln Academy of Illinois". _The Lincoln Academy of Illinois_. Retrieved 2016-03-07. * ^ Severson, Kim (August 31, 2010). "Roger Ebert: No Longer an Eater, Still a Cook". _ The New York Times _. Retrieved October 30, 2010.

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