HOME
The Info List - Rochester, New York





Rochester (/ˈrɒtʃɪstər, ˈrɒtʃɛstər/) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in western New York. With a population of 208,880 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City
New York City
and Buffalo. The metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people.[4] Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns, initially due to its flour mills along the Genesee River, and then as a manufacturing hub.[5] Several of the region's universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products. The Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, Bausch & Lomb, Gleason and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City
New York City
metropolitan area.[6] Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below that of Buffalo, New York, while still exceeding it in per-capita income.[7] The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U.S. metropolitan areas.[8] In 2010 Forbes
Forbes
rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States.[9] In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate.[10]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Demographics 2.3 Religion

3 Crime 4 Economy

4.1 High technology 4.2 Food and beverage

4.2.1 Breweries

4.3 Major shopping centers

4.3.1 Former shopping centers

4.4 Tallest buildings 4.5 Companies

5 Government

5.1 Neighborhood Service Centers 5.2 Representation at other levels of government

5.2.1 Representation at the federal level 5.2.2 Representation at the state level

5.2.2.1 New York State Senate 5.2.2.2 New York State Assembly 5.2.2.3 Courts

5.2.3 Representation at the county level

6 Fire department 7 Cityscape

7.1 Principal suburbs 7.2 Neighborhoods

7.2.1 Browncroft 7.2.2 14621 community 7.2.3 Lyell-Otis 7.2.4 19th Ward 7.2.5 Charlotte 7.2.6 Corn Hill 7.2.7 Upper Monroe 7.2.8 East End 7.2.9 Maplewood 7.2.10 North Winton Village 7.2.11 Park Avenue and the Neighborhood of the Arts 7.2.12 Plymouth-Exchange 7.2.13 South Wedge 7.2.14 Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Neighborhood 7.2.15 Swillburg 7.2.16 Marketview Heights 7.2.17 Homestead Heights

8 Education

8.1 Colleges and universities

8.1.1 University of Rochester 8.1.2 Former colleges

8.2 Secondary education

9 Culture and recreation

9.1 Nightlife 9.2 Park lands 9.3 Festivals 9.4 Media

9.4.1 Defunct newspapers

9.5 Points of interest 9.6 Sports

9.6.1 Professional sports 9.6.2 Golf 9.6.3 College sports 9.6.4 Rugby 9.6.5 Facilities

10 Transportation

10.1 Maritime transport 10.2 Air transport 10.3 Rails and mass transit 10.4 Major highways and roads 10.5 Later expressway proposals

11 Notable people 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Rochester, New York The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797.[11] Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois
Iroquois
after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois
Iroquois
tribes were forced out of New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada. Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution
American Revolution
by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England
New England
who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century.[12] On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester
Nathaniel Rochester
(1752–1831), Maj. Charles Carroll, and Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (ca. 40 ha) tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km2) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. Also in 1823, the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
east to the Hudson River
Hudson River
was opened. In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was re-routed south of Rochester. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney. By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the "Flower City." Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany
Germany
and Patrick Barry from Ireland.[13] In 1847, Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue.[14] Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester. The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see.[15] Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House.[16] At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops. Rochester was also home to significant unrest in labor, race, and antiwar protests. After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, including inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch
John Jacob Bausch
and Henry Lomb, who launched Bausch & Lomb in 1861. Not only did they create new industries, but Eastman became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
and other local institutions. In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions. It was the base of enterprises Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch & Co. The carriage maker James Cunningham and Sons founded a pioneer automobile company – Cunningham.[17] The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920. By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester's population as 97.6% white and 2.3% black.[18] With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2010, the city's population had declined to 210,565, although the metropolitan area was considerably larger.

Geography[edit]

Urban Rochester as seen from the air

Rochester is at 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139 (43.165496, −77.611504).[19] The city is about 65 miles (100 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 75 miles (120 km) west of Syracuse; it sits on Lake Ontario's southern shore. The Genesee River
Genesee River
bisects the city. New York City is about 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96 km2), of which 35.8 square miles (93 km2) is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) is water (3.42%).

Rochester

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.4     32 18

    1.9     34 19

    2.5     43 26

    2.7     56 37

    2.9     68 46

    3.3     77 56

    3.3     81 61

    3.5     79 60

    3.4     72 52

    2.7     60 41

    2.9     48 33

    2.6     36 23

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    61     0 −8

    49     1 −7

    63     6 −3

    69     13 3

    73     20 8

    85     25 13

    84     27 16

    88     26 15

    86     22 11

    69     15 5

    75     9 1

    67     2 −5

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Rochester's geography was formed by the ice sheets during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch. The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass. This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt. Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb's Hill. Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a "kame delta". A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called "kame moraine". The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
(one of the five freshwater Great Lakes), the Genesee River
Genesee River
with its waterfalls and gorges, Irondequoit Bay, Sodus Bay, Braddock Bay, Mendon Ponds, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes. According to the City of Rochester, the city has 537 miles (864 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses. The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York. Other water sources include Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake
and Lake Ontario. The 30-year annual average snowfall is just above 100 in (2.5 m).[20] The monthly daily average ranges from 24.7 °F (−4.1 °C) in January to 70.8 °F (21.6 °C) in July. The high amount of snow that Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city's proximity to Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
(see lake effect). Climate[edit] Rochester lies in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb)[21] and has four distinct seasons, with cold and snowy winters; temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) on 4.2 nights annually. Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, and summer sees generally comfortable temperatures that usually stay in the range of 80 to 85 °F (27 to 29 °C) accompanied by moderate to high humidity; there are only 6.9 days annually of highs more than 90 °F (32 °C). Precipitation
Precipitation
is plentiful year round. See also: Climate of New York

Climate data for Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
(Greater Rochester Int'l), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871−present[a]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 74 (23) 73 (23) 86 (30) 93 (34) 94 (34) 100 (38) 102 (39) 99 (37) 99 (37) 91 (33) 81 (27) 72 (22) 102 (39)

Average high °F (°C) 31.7 (−0.2) 34.1 (1.2) 42.8 (6) 56.0 (13.3) 67.6 (19.8) 76.6 (24.8) 81.0 (27.2) 79.1 (26.2) 71.6 (22) 59.6 (15.3) 48.0 (8.9) 36.5 (2.5) 57.1 (13.9)

Average low °F (°C) 17.6 (−8) 18.6 (−7.4) 25.8 (−3.4) 36.6 (2.6) 46.3 (7.9) 55.9 (13.3) 60.7 (15.9) 59.5 (15.3) 52.0 (11.1) 41.5 (5.3) 33.0 (0.6) 23.5 (−4.7) 39.3 (4.1)

Record low °F (°C) −17 (−27) −22 (−30) −7 (−22) 7 (−14) 26 (−3) 35 (2) 42 (6) 36 (2) 28 (−2) 19 (−7) 1 (−17) −16 (−27) −22 (−30)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.41 (61.2) 1.95 (49.5) 2.50 (63.5) 2.73 (69.3) 2.87 (72.9) 3.34 (84.8) 3.33 (84.6) 3.47 (88.1) 3.38 (85.9) 2.72 (69.1) 2.94 (74.7) 2.63 (66.8) 34.27 (870.5)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 28.2 (71.6) 21.5 (54.6) 16.3 (41.4) 3.9 (9.9) 0.4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.1 (0.3) 7.3 (18.5) 21.8 (55.4) 99.5 (252.7)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 19.4 15.9 15.1 13.1 12.2 11.9 10.8 10.8 11.5 13.2 15.3 17.6 166.8

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 18.0 14.4 9.8 3.2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.2 5.6 14.5 65.9

Average relative humidity (%) 74.0 74.1 71.0 67.0 67.2 69.4 69.7 74.3 76.8 74.5 76.3 77.5 72.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 108.3 118.1 177.7 216.5 266.5 297.6 314.4 273.4 212.3 154.4 81.5 77.5 2,298.2

Percent possible sunshine 37 40 48 54 59 65 68 63 57 45 28 28 52

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990),[22][23][24]The Weather Channel[25]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1820 1,502

1830 9,207

513.0%

1840 20,191

119.3%

1850 36,403

80.3%

1860 48,204

32.4%

1870 62,386

29.4%

1880 89,366

43.2%

1890 133,856

49.8%

1900 162,608

21.5%

1910 218,149

34.2%

1920 295,750

35.6%

1930 328,132

10.9%

1940 324,975

−1.0%

1950 332,488

2.3%

1960 318,611

−4.2%

1970 296,233

−7.0%

1980 241,741

−18.4%

1990 231,636

−4.2%

2000 219,773

−5.1%

2010 210,565

−4.2%

Est. 2016 208,880 [3] −0.8%

Historical Population Figures[26] U.S. Decennial Census[27] 2012 Estimate[28]

Racial composition 2010[29] 1990[18] 1970[18] 1940[18]

White 43.7% 61.1% 82.4% 97.6%

—Non-Hispanic 37.6% 58.3% 80.2%[30] n/a

Black or African American 41.7% 31.5% 16.8% 2.3%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 16.4% 8.7% 2.8%[30] (X)

Asian 3.1% 1.8% 0.2% −

According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 43.7% White or White American, 41.7% Black, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race and 4.4% from two or more races. 16.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans.[31] Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
were 37.6% of the population in 2010,[29] compared to 80.2% in 1970.[18] Over the course of the past 50 years Rochester has become a major center for immigration, particularly for arrivals from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Subsaharan Africa and the Caribbean. Rochester has the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
of any major city in the United States,[28] one of the four largest Turkish American communities,[32] one of the largest Jamaican American
Jamaican American
communities in any major U.S city[33] and a large concentration of Polish Americans along with nearby Buffalo, New York.[citation needed] In addition, Rochester is ranked number 9 in the nation for the largest Italian population in the United States.[34] In 1997, Rochester was reported to have the largest per-capita deaf population in the United States.[35] This is attributed to the fact that Rochester is home to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. There were 88,999 households of which 30.0% had children under 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were non-families. Of all households, 37.1% were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.19. The city population was 28.1% under 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 31. For every 100 females there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median income for a city household was $27,123, and the median family income was $31,257. Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,588. About 23.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.5% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. Religion[edit] By the 1920s and 1930s, Rochester's population was roughly half Protestant and half Catholic, although a significant Jewish population also was present.[36] In 1938, there were 214 religious congregations, two thirds of which had been founded after 1880.[36] At that time, the city added, on average, 2.6 new congregations per year, many founded by immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.[36] During peak immigration from 1900–1920 dozens of churches were established, including four Roman Catholic churches with Italian clergy, three Roman Catholic churches with Slavic clergy, Polish Baptist church, 15 Jewish synagogues, and four small Italian Protestant mission churches: Baptist, Evangelical, Methodist, and Presbyterian.[36] Crime[edit] In 2012, Rochester had 2,061 reported violent crimes, compared to a national average rate of 553.5 violent crimes in cities with populations larger than 100,000.[37] That same year, Rochester had 827 personal crime incidents and 11,054 property crime incidents. In 2012, Rochester reported 36 murders (17.1 per 100,000 people), 95 sexual assaults, 816 robberies, 1,104 aggravated assault, 2,978 burglaries, 7,694 larceny thefts, 111 forcible rape, 622 auto thefts and 152 arson.[38][39] In late 80s, Serial Killer Aurther Showcross killed 11 prostitutes in the city before he was finally arrested and sentenced to 250 years in prison. Economy[edit] See also: Rochester, New York metropolitan area
Rochester, New York metropolitan area
§ Economy

Kodak
Kodak
is headquartered in Rochester.

Downtown Rochester
Downtown Rochester
and the central business district after dark.

Rush Rhees Library
Rush Rhees Library
at the University of Rochester, the largest employer in the six-county metropolitan area.

Rochester is home to a number of Fortune 1000 and international businesses, including Eastman Kodak, as well as several national and regional companies, such as Carestream Health. Xerox
Xerox
was founded in Rochester in 1906 as The Haloid Company,[40] and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now in Norwalk, Connecticut. Bausch & Lomb moved to Bridgewater, New Jersey
New Jersey
in 2014.[41] The Gannett newspaper company and Western Union
Western Union
were founded in Rochester by Frank Gannett and Hiram Sibley
Hiram Sibley
respectively but have since moved to other cities. The median single-family house price was $135,000 in the second quarter of 2015 in greater Rochester, an increase of 5.4% from a year earlier, according to the National Association of Realtors.[42] High technology[edit] Further information: Tech Valley Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York State, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester and Finger Lakes areas. Since the 2000s, as established companies in Rochester downsized, Rochester and Monroe County's economy has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the seed capital necessary for business foundation. The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
and Cornell University.[43] Other organizations such as High Tech Rochester provide local startups with mentorship, office space, and other resources.[44] Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta have imaging programs.[45] In 2006, the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
became the Rochester area's largest employer, surpassing the Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
Company.[46] Food and beverage[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A white hot Garbage Plate from Nick Tahou Hots.

One food product that Rochester calls its own is the "white hot", a variant of the hot dog or smoked bratwurst made by the local Zweigle's company and other companies.[47][48] Another local specialty is the "Garbage Plate", a trademark of Nick Tahou Hots
Nick Tahou Hots
that traditionally includes macaroni salad, home fries, and two hot dogs or cheeseburgers topped with mustard, onions, and their famous meat hot sauce. Many area restaurants feature copies or variations with the word "plate" commonly used as a general term. Rochester was home to French's Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street.[49] The Ragú brand of pasta sauce used to be produced in Rochester. Some of the original facility still exists and produces products for other labels (including Newman's Own) as Private Label Foods. Other local franchises include: Bill Gray's
Bill Gray's
(a hamburger/hot dog joint that lays claim to having "The World's Greatest Cheeseburger"), DiBella's, Tom Wahl's, American Specialty Manufacturing producers of Boss Sauce, Salvatore's Old Fashioned Pizzeria, Mark's Pizzeria, Pontillo's Pizzeria, Perri's Pizzeria, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Abbott's Frozen Custard. Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, which originated in Syracuse, also operates its second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad station on the Genesee River. Breweries[edit]

Genesee Brewing Company, maker of the Genesee family of products, Genesee, Genesee Pilot Batch, Honey Brown, Dundee Ales & Lagers and Labatt Blue Lime also calls Rochester home. Rohrbach Brewing Company The Lost Borough Brewing Co. Three Heads Brewing Roc Brewing Co. Iron Tug Brewing Swiftwater Brewing Company

Major shopping centers[edit] For shopping centers in the Greater Rochester Area, see Rochester, New York metropolitan area § Major shopping centers.

Rochester Public Market Village Gate Square

Former shopping centers[edit]

Midtown Plaza (Closed as of July 29, 2008 after years of slow deterioration, now under construction as site of mixed-use residential and commercial building) Reynolds Arcade
Reynolds Arcade
(remains in use as office building)

The Metropolitan, an iconic part of Rochester's skyline

Tallest buildings[edit] Main article: List of tallest buildings in Rochester, New York As of June 2016, the top ten tallest buildings in the city are:[50]

Building name Height

ft m

Xerox
Xerox
Tower 443 135

Legacy Tower 401 122

The Metropolitan 392 119

Kodak
Kodak
Tower 360 110

First Federal Plaza 309 94

Five Star Bank Plaza 284 87

Hyatt Regency Hotel 271 83

Times Square Building 260 79

Tower 280 251 77

St. Michael's Church 246 75

Companies[edit] For companies operating in the Greater Rochester Area, see Rochester, New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
§ Top regional employers.

Kodak
Kodak
Tower in High Falls, just north of Center City.

Numerous companies have corporate headquarters in Rochester.

5Linx
5Linx
– Multi-level marketing company Abbott's Frozen Custard
Abbott's Frozen Custard
– Ice cream franchise Carestream Health
Carestream Health
– Health equipment and technology Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
– Printing and photography ESL Federal Credit Union
ESL Federal Credit Union
– New York State's largest credit union in assets[51] Excellus Blue Cross Blue Shield
Excellus Blue Cross Blue Shield
– Insurance Frontier Telephone of Rochester
Frontier Telephone of Rochester
– Communications Genesee Brewing Company
Genesee Brewing Company
– Brewery Gleason Corporation
Gleason Corporation
– Gear equipment manufacturing Hickey Freeman
Hickey Freeman
– Handmade suits and clothing, including the Bobby Jones line Hillside Family of Agencies – Social services non-profit Home Properties
Home Properties
– Apartment and properties firm Monro Muffler Brake
Monro Muffler Brake
– Auto care chain North American Breweries – Alcoholic beverage company Rochester Gas and Electric – Utilities Rochester Regional Health
Rochester Regional Health
– Healthcare Rohrbach Brewing Company
Rohrbach Brewing Company
– Microbrewery

Locally founded corporations that have since moved their headquarters to other states include Bausch & Lomb, Champion, French's, Gannett, Schlegel, Western Union, and Xerox. Humor website eBaum's World was also started in Rochester. Companies that moved their headquarters from the city of Rochester to the suburbs include Wegmans (Gates, New York) and Paychex
Paychex
(Penfield, New York).[52][53] Government[edit] Further information: List of mayors of Rochester, New York

"Flower City" logo used by the city of Rochester

Rochester is governed by a mayor serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of 4 district members and 5 at-large members.[54] Mayor
Mayor
Lovely A. Warren was first elected mayor in November 2013 defeating incumbent Thomas Richards in both a Democratic primary and General Election. Warren took office in January 2014 becoming both the youngest and first female mayor in Rochester history. The city's police department is the Rochester Police Department, headed by Chief of Police Michael L. Ciminelli. Neighborhood Service Centers[edit] Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester had been handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team, or NET. Rather than utilizing a centralized code-enforcement office, ten sectors in Rochester were assigned a total of six NET offices by the city government. However, there had been complaints about the lack of consistency in the manner and severity of enforcement between NET offices. On July 16, 2008, the city announced that two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network.[55] Following the restructuring, the remaining offices were renamed Neighborhood Service Centers, or NSCs. There is now one office per city quadrant which resolve quality of life issues, work with neighborhood groups, and pave the way for appropriate housing and economic development.[56] The majority of code enforcement processes were consolidated into the Bureau of Inspection and Compliance within the Department of Neighborhood and Business Development located centrally in City Hall. Representation at other levels of government[edit] Representation at the federal level[edit] The city is covered by New York's 25th congressional district currently vacant. From 1987 until 2018 the city was represented by longtime Democrat Louise M. Slaughter of Fairport, Monroe County in Congress. Representation at the state level[edit] New York State Senate[edit] After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, the city was split between three state senate districts:

District Area of the city Senator Party First took office Residence

55 Northeastern[57] Rich Funke Republican 2015 Fairport, Monroe County

56 Northwestern[58] Joseph E. Robach Republican 2003 Greece, Monroe County

61 Southern[59] Michael H. Ranzenhofer Republican 2009 Amherst, Erie County

New York State Assembly[edit] After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between three state assembly districts:

District Areas of the city Assemblyperson Party First took office Residence

136 Northwest portion and easternmost tip[60] Joseph D. Morelle Democratic 1991 Irondequoit, Monroe County

137 Center and west[61] David F. Gantt Democratic 1983 Rochester, Monroe County

138 A question-mark-shaped region sandwiched between districts 136 and 137[62] Harry B. Bronson Democratic 2011 Rochester, Monroe County

Courts[edit] Rochester is part of

The 7th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court The 4th Department of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division

Representation at the county level[edit] See also: Monroe County, New York
Monroe County, New York
§ Government and politics Rochester is represented by districts 3, 4, 14, and 20–29 in the Monroe County legislature.[63] Fire department[edit] The city of Rochester is protected by approximately 500 professional firefighters in the Rochester Fire Department (RFD). The RFD is the third-largest fire department in the state of New York. It operates from 16 fire stations, located throughout the city, under the command of 2 Battalion Chiefs and a Deputy Chief per shift. The RFD operates 13 engines, six trucks, one heavy rescue, two hazardous material units, and a salvage unit (Rochester Protectives), as well as many other special and support units. There are 87 line division members working each shift, including chief officers & fire investigation (not including staff divisions such as Fire Safety, the Training Academy and Supply Depot). The RFD responds to around 40,000 emergency calls annually. Approximately 90% of RFD personnel are certified NY State EMTs and approximately 50% of the calls each year are for EMS. The RFD also operates its own apparatus repair division located at the Public Safety Training Facility. The current Chief of Department is John P. Schreiber.[64][65][66] Cityscape[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Principal suburbs[edit] Suburbs of the city include: Brighton, Brockport, Chili, Churchville, East Rochester, Fairport, Gates, Greece, Hamlin, Henrietta, Hilton, Honeoye Falls, Irondequoit, Webster, Mendon, Ogden, Parma, Penfield, Pittsford, Riga, Rush, Scottsville, Spencerport, Victor and Wheatland. Neighborhoods[edit] Main article: Downtown Rochester Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward, 14621 Community, Beechwood, Browncroft, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place, High Falls District, Highland Park, Dutchtown, Maplewood (10th Ward), Marketview Heights, Mt. Read, North Winton Village, Neighborhood of the Arts (NOTA), Lyell-Otis, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg, Susan B. Anthony, University-Atlantic, Upper Monroe, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations. There are also living spaces in Downtown Rochester.

Center City and the Frederick Douglass– Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Memorial Bridge

Townhouses in Corn Hill

Oxford Street Mansions

Park and Oxford

Apartments in Rochester's East End

Browncroft[edit] The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery. The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops. The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks. The Browncroft Historic District
Browncroft Historic District
was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in 2004.[67] 14621 community[edit] Extending across much of the north-central cityscape of Rochester, now including parts of the old Hudson Avenue and North Clinton neighborhoods, is the 14621 community. Today this neighborhood is predominantly Black and Hispanic, this community suffered being the center of the 1964 riots.[68] The riots did produce some benefits in the long run: the north-central area has been the site of ongoing urban renewal projects since the late 1960s, and, as noted by JULY '64 filmmakers Carvin Eison and Chris Christopher, inspired the development of such important Black organizations such as The Urban League of Rochester as well as Rochester's first anti-poverty organization (Action for a Better Community), and black community activist organization Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today (F.I.G.H.T.) founded by Rev. Franklin Florence and Deleon McEwen, the latter was its first president. The establishment of this program came through the assistance of Saul Alinsky. The neighborhood is still considered the most dangerous part of Rochester and is blighted by crime, drugs and gang activity.[69] Lyell-Otis[edit] Historically, an Italian-American neighborhood, this area of the City of Rochester is now home to citizens from across the globe. [70] [71] There have recently been efforts to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood, as the area has opportunity for redevelopment and renewal. [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] The Lyell-Otis neighborhood is located in the City of Rochester, NY in the Northwest Quadrant. Bordering the suburbs of Gates and Greece, the Lyell-Otis boundaries are: The Erie Canal
Erie Canal
(the City Line) on the West, Lyell Avenue on the South, Driving Park Boulevard on the North, and the old subway bed (long since filled-in, which previously was where the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
flowed!) on the East - almost to Dewey Avenue, but not quite. 19th Ward[edit] The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester.[78] Now known by its slogan "Urban by Choice", in the early 19th century the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel
Colonel
Isaac Castle. By the early 1820s, however, the area became overshadowed by developments in the north that would later become downtown Rochester. Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee river, the area was home to skilled boatsmen that assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as "The Rapids". In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew. By 1930 it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development. Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches. In the 1960s, property values declined as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight accelerated by school busing, blockbusting, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use, and neglected property further diminishing property values.[79] To respond to these issues, the 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965, and is now known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity.[vague] The current "Brooks Landing" development along the Genesee River
Genesee River
at the former "rapids" is successfully bringing new economic development to the community including an 88-room hotel, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) office building, 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of new retail, two restaurants, and Boulder Coffee shop.[80] Residential development is also increasing with completion of a 170-bed University of Rochester
University of Rochester
student housing tower at Brooks Landing in 2014, and 29 new market-rate homes nearby. Located in the 19th Ward are the Arvine Heights Historic District, Chili–West Historic District, Inglewood and Thurston Historic District, and Sibley–Elmdorf Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[81][82][83] Charlotte[edit]

Genesee River
Genesee River
and the historic Aqueduct Downtown

Charlotte (shar-LOT) is a lake front community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario. It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians. A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to- Toronto
Toronto
ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005. The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been revamped. It now houses the restaurant California Rollin', a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian along with offices for the marina that has been created around it. In summer 2016 a proposed redevelopment project for the Port of Rochester was put on hold due to the developers failing to meet financial obligations as set by the city.[84] Corn Hill[edit] The Corn Hill neighborhood near downtown is one of the nation's best-preserved Victorian neighborhoods and a center for art. It is also home to Corn Hill Landing, a shopping and housing strip located on the Genesee River. The annual Corn Hill Art Festival, a two-day event held on the weekend after the 4th of July, is one of the city's most popular gatherings for the display of art. Corn Hill is one of Rochester's smaller neighborhoods. The neighborhood name came about because (allegedly) in the early settlement days, those traveling the fast-flowing Genesee River
Genesee River
could see a large-sized rolling hill covered with corn which had been planted by the immigrating Scots and English. By the late 1800s and well into the 1920s, Cornhill was home to some of the wealthiest families. Situated on the southern edge of downtown, the neighborhood allowed for a short carriage ride or walk to the banks and businesses of New York's third-largest city. Upper Monroe[edit] Located less than one and one-half miles from downtown, Upper Monroe encompasses 17 streets with 1,400 households and approximately 3,300 residents. Cobbs Hill Park, with its beautiful reservoir, tennis courts and athletic fields, forms the southeastern boundary of this neighborhood. Highland Park, world-renowned for its annual Lilac Festival, also is within walking distance.[85] The Upper Monroe Neighborhood Association (UMNA) is a not-for-profit advocacy group representing the residents and property owners of the Upper Monroe neighborhood. Its goals are to ascertain the needs and concerns of the neighborhood and take positive action to address those needs and concerns.[86] The neighborhood is also home to a number of small, local businesses including: Hardpact, Huey's Hair Company, Monty's Krown, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Park Ave. Pets.[87] East End[edit] The East End is a residential neighborhood in Downtown Rochester
Downtown Rochester
but also the main nightlife district. The Eastman Theatre, the Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
are in the East End, along with the Little Theatre, an independent film theatre, Harts Local Grocers and many clubs, bars and high-end restaurants. Maplewood[edit] Maplewood is a northwest neighborhood located south of Eastman Business Park and between the Genesee River
Genesee River
and Dewey Avenue. Much of the area's charm comes from the use of parkways as well as parks and greenspace bordering the river. These features are the result of plans designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Maplewood Rose Garden is the second-largest rose test garden in the United States. The Maplewood Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.[67] North Winton Village[edit] The North Winton Neighborhood is made up of spacious and quiet residential streets, small essential businesses and professional services and an 82-acre (33 ha) wilderness. Its neighborhood boundaries extend north to Colebourne Road/Merchants Road, south to Blossom Road, east to North Winton Road and west to Culver Road. There are two neighborhood associations within North Winton Village. The North Winton Village Neighborhood Association, joins businesses and residents together. Its major goals include "neighborhood preservation, beautification, pride in home ownership and patronization of neighborhood businesses." Its motto: "Live, Shop and Beautify North Winton Village." In 2011, residents in an area bounded by Culver Road, East Main Street, Cedarwood Terrace and Jersey Street joined together to create The North East Main Neighbors United (NEMNU). Today, NEMNU's mission is to maintain, improve, and enhance the quality of life in the neighborhood by addressing safety issues, providing social activities, communicating with residents and local government, promoting beautification projects, linking needs with resource opportunities, and developing cooperative efforts with businesses and neighborhood groups.

Studios in the Neighborhood of the Arts

Grove Place near Eastman in the fall.

Christ Church downtown

Shops on Park Avenue

High Falls / Brown Race District

A Caribbean grocer in the 19th Ward

Historic Mt. Hope Cemetery

The South Wedge

St Mary's Catholic Church

Park Avenue and the Neighborhood of the Arts[edit] Lining the streets of Park Avenue are cafes, shops, pubs, and restaurants. In a broader view, the total area surrounding University Avenue—known as the Neighborhood of the Arts—is one of the most culture- and art-rich sections of the city. Located here are the Village Gate, Memorial Art Gallery, School of The Arts, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester Public Market, ARTWalk, George Eastman House, and high-end residential streets such as Granger Place, East Boulevard, Douglas Road, Westminster Road, and Berkeley Street. Plymouth-Exchange[edit] Also known by the acronym PLEX, the Plymouth-Exchange neighborhood provides affordable housing for lower income families. Also home to many University of Rochester
University of Rochester
students, both grad and undergrad, it has a richly knit community and an active neighborhood association. South Wedge[edit] The South Wedge neighborhood dates back to 1827, prior to the incorporation of Rochester as a city.[88] The area is bordered by Byron Street in the north, South Clinton Avenue and Interstate 490 on its east, Highland Park on its south, and The Genesee River
Genesee River
on the west. Construction of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
(the old canal bed which went by the neighborhood is now used by Interstate 490) brought workers to the area, who set up camps for the months that it took to complete this section of the canal.[89] This racially integrated[citation needed] neighborhood is one of the neighborhoods in Rochester currently undergoing the process of gentrification, partially due to a recent increase in homeownership in the area.[90][91] A lot of young people live in this area.[citation needed] The Linden-South Historic District in South Wedge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.[92] Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Neighborhood[edit] This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District.[93] It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The center of the residential area is Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Square, a 0.84-acre (3,400 m2) park shown on city maps from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers. Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
House, which was the suffragist's residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage
Carriage
factory built in 1848 on Canal Street. James Cunningham Son & Co. sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined. The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham's headquarters for more than 100 years. Swillburg[edit] This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S. Clinton Avenue on the west, Field St on the south, and Interstate 490 on the east.[94] The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th-century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine. The area has one of the highest rates of homeownership in the city.[citation needed] The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street. Marketview Heights[edit] Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the weekends. Homestead Heights[edit] Homestead Heights is located in northeast Rochester. It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial. Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border. The neighborhood is approximately 2–2​1⁄4 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay. Education[edit] The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District which encompasses all public primary and secondary education. The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member Board of Education. There are also parochial and private primary and secondary schools located within the city. Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York State, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years. However, the high school graduation rate for African American
African American
males is lower in Rochester than in any city in the United States (9%).[95] Charter schools in the city include Rochester Academy Charter School. Colleges and universities[edit] For a complete list of institutions of higher learning in the metropolitan area, see Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
metropolitan area § Colleges and universities.

Nazareth College

Rochester and the surrounding region host a high concentration of colleges and universities which drive much of the economic growth in the five county area. The University of Rochester
University of Rochester
is the only large research institution located primarily within the city limits, although Monroe Community College
Monroe Community College
and SUNY Brockport operate campuses downtown. The Highland Park neighborhood is home to Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School (part of whose facility is leased by Ithaca College's Department of Physical Therapy) and an office maintained by the Cornell University
Cornell University
School of Industrial and Labor Relations. University of Rochester[edit] Main article: University of Rochester The University of Rochester
University of Rochester
is the metropolitan area's oldest and most prominent institution of higher learning, and one of the country's top research centers. U of R was ranked as the 32nd-best university in the nation by U.S. News & World Report for 2014[96] and was deemed "one of the new Ivies" by Newsweek.[97] The nursing school has received many awards and honors[98] and the Simon School of Business is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories.[99] The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music, which was ranked the number one music school in America. It was founded and endowed by George Eastman
George Eastman
in his years as a philanthropist.[100] He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak.

Morey Hall

Wilson Commons

Rush Rhees Library

Lattimore

Laser Energy Lab

Eastman School

Former colleges[edit] There are four institutions that began operations in the city, but subsequently moved to Rochester's inner-ring suburbs:

The Empire State College
Empire State College
Rochester Learning Center moved from its Prince Street address to Irondequoit in 1999.[101] Monroe Community College
Monroe Community College
moved from Alexander Street to Brighton in 1968.[102] Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology
moved from South Washington Street to Henrietta also in 1968.[103] St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry
St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry
moved from space leased in Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
to Pittsford in 2003.

Rochester was host of the Barleywood Female University, a short-lived women's college from 1852 to 1853. The Lutheran seminary that became Wagner College
Wagner College
was established in the city in 1883 and remained for some 35 years before moving to Staten Island.[104] Secondary education[edit] The Rochester City School District
Rochester City School District
operates 13 public secondary schools, each serving grades 7–12. In addition, there is one charter secondary school.

Benjamin Franklin High School Charlotte High School Dr. Freddie Thomas High School East High School Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Preparatory School All City High James Monroe High School Nathaniel Rochester
Nathaniel Rochester
Community School Northwest College Preparatory School School of Business, Finance and Entrepreneurship at Edison School of Engineering & Manufacturing at Edison School of Imaging & Information Technology at Edison School of Applied Technology at Edison School of the Arts School Without Walls Thomas Jefferson High School Wilson Magnet High School

Charter schools

Rochester Academy Charter School

Private schools

Aquinas Institute

Former schools

Nazareth Academy

Culture and recreation[edit]

Entrance to the George Eastman
George Eastman
Museuem

Gardens at the Eastman Museum

Strong National Museum of Play

The Rochester Memorial Art Gallery

Eastman Theater

Sacred Heart Cathedral, seat of the Rochester Diocese

Rundel Memorial Library

The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions. These include the Garth Fagan
Garth Fagan
Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, George Eastman
George Eastman
Museum International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Contemporary Art Center, Rochester Museum & Science Center, the Rochester Broadway Theater League, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium, Hochstein School of Music & Dance, the Auditorium Theater, and numerous arts organizations. Geva Theatre Center
Geva Theatre Center
is the city's largest professional theater.

Murphy's Law, a large, iconic bar and club at the corner of East & Alexander in the East End

The East End Theater is located on East Main Street in the theater district. The Rochester Association of Performing Arts is a non-profit organization that provides educational theater classes to the community. Nightlife[edit] Rochester's East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city's nightlife. It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is crowded with nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants. The Eastman School of Music, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also located within the neighborhood. The Eastman Theatre
Eastman Theatre
now plays host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events.

The Little Theatre in the East End

Monroe Avenue bars at night

There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city. Southeast is the heart of Rochester's thriving arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shops). Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas, like the Village Gate, which give space to trendy bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night. Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is packed with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges. All of these neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students and Rochester's large LGBT community. The South Wedge district, located directly below downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many trendy cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
several blocks away from the heart of the neighborhoods. The "Wedge" is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits, its numerous nightspots keeping the streets busy with college students and young professionals (many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing, thriving nightlife and proximity to many of the region's major hospitals, parks and colleges) Park lands[edit] Rochester's parks include Highland, Cobb's Hill, Durand Eastman, Genesee Valley, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.[105] The city's Victorian-era Mt. Hope Cemetery includes the final resting places of Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglass, George B. Selden, and many others. Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre and neighboring Riverside Cemetery. Throughout its history, Rochester has acquired several nicknames; it has been known as "the World's Image Center",[106] "the Flour City", "the Flower City". As a legacy of its time as "The Flower City", Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive.

Parks of Rochester

Genesee Valley Park

Ontario Beach

Meadows in Highland Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted

Lions at the Seneca Park Zoo

Mt Hope Cemetery (Infrared)

Mt. Hope Cemetery

Hamlin Beach state park on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
north of the city

Festivals[edit] Rochester hosts a number of cultural festivals every year, including:

The Xerox
Xerox
Rochester International Jazz
Jazz
Festival, which was established in 2002 and is now one of the largest Jazz
Jazz
Festivals in America. The festival is held in late June at dozens of clubs, concert halls and free outdoor stages throughout Downtown Rochester; past performers have included Herbie Hancock, Sonny Rollins, Dave Brubeck, Oscar Peterson, Chick Corea, and Wynton Marsalis. A record 205,000 people attended the event in 2016[107][108] The 360 365 Film Festival (formerly the Rochester High-Falls International Film Festival) held at the George Eastman
George Eastman
House's Dryden Theatre and the Little Theatre downtown. Several Films screened at 360/365 have been honored at the Golden Globes and the Academy Awards[109] Rochester International Film Festival, the world's oldest continuously held short-film festival[110] The Lilac Festival at Highland Park, which is the oldest and most popular festival in Rochester and the largest event of its kind in North America, attended by over 500,000 people annually.[111] Established in 1898, it includes multiple attractions aside from the Lilacs themselves[112] These musical acts include the Wailers who attended in 2012 and 2014[113]

Media[edit] The Democrat and Chronicle
Democrat and Chronicle
is Rochester's main daily newspaper. The Daily Record, a legal, real estate, and business daily, has published Monday through Friday since 1908. Insider magazine (owned by the Democrat and Chronicle), City newspaper and the Freetime entertainment magazine are free, weekly publications. Rochester Business Journal is the weekly business paper of record. The Good Life Magazine is a free bi-monthly publication. There is also a grassroots, democratically run, Independent Media Center
Independent Media Center
called Rochester Indymedia. Media addressing the needs of Rochester's large African American
African American
population include About... time,[114] and Minority Reporter, which has an associated news journal for the area's Latin American population, La Voz.[115] Rochester is served by eight broadcast television stations:

CBS: WROC 8 (cable 8) NBC: WHEC 10 (cable 10) ABC: WHAM 13 (cable 13) PBS: WXXI 21 (cable 11) Fox: WUHF
WUHF
31 (cable 7) MyNetworkTV: WBGT-CD
WBGT-CD
40/26 (cable 18) CW: CW-WHAM (13–2) (cable 16) Rochester Community TV (RCTV cable 15)

Rochester is served by several AM and FM radio stations including:

WXXI-AM and WXXI-FM
WXXI-FM
(Public Radio; AM News and Talk, FM Classical and Fine Arts) WCMF
WCMF
(Rock and Roll) WBEE
WBEE
(Country) WBZA
WBZA
(Rock) WPXY
WPXY
(Contemporary hit radio) WLGZ (Classic hits) WROC-AM
WROC-AM
(Sports) WRMM
WRMM
(Adult contemporary) WDKX (Urban contemporary radio) WGMC
WGMC
(Jazz) WITR
WITR
(independent and local) WBER (alternative, independent, and local) WRUR
WRUR
(adult album alternative) WZNE (modern rock) WRSB (Spanish contemporary radio) WHAM-AM (news and talk).

Charter Communications
Charter Communications
provides Rochester with cable-fed internet service, digital and standard cable television, and Spectrum News Rochester, a 24-hour local news channel. Defunct newspapers[edit]

The Federal Building

Rochester was served by the Rochester Post Express published by the Post Express Print Company from 1882 to 1923.[116] In 1923 the paper merged with the Rochester News Corporation's Rochester Evening Journal[117] to become Rochester Evening Journal and The Post Express and served the area from 1923 through 1937.[118] Rochester's evening paper for many years was the Times-Union, which merged operations with the Democrat and Chronicle
Democrat and Chronicle
in 1992, going defunct five years later. Points of interest[edit]

Circle at Bausch & Lomb headquarters with the Xerox Tower
Xerox Tower
in the background.

Rochester's historic City Hall

Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School

Geva Theatre Center
Geva Theatre Center
downtown

Asbury First United Methodist Church Blue Cross Arena
Blue Cross Arena
at the War Memorial Cinema Theater Cobbs Hill Park and Reservoir Eastman Business Park Ellwanger Garden First Unitarian Church of Rochester, described by a Pulitzer-Prize-winning architectural critic as one of "the most significant works of religious architecture of the century".[119] Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Monument Frontier Field George Eastman
George Eastman
Museum Geva Theatre Center High Falls and the High Falls Entertainment District Highland Park Liberty Pole Little Theatre, one of the oldest art-house movie theaters in the country Maplewood Park Rose Garden Midtown Plaza, the nation's first downtown shopping mall (partially demolished – Tower and Seneca Building still stand). Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, the nation's first Victorian cemetery Nick Tahou Hots
Nick Tahou Hots
featuring the Garbage Plate and a charity run in its name Ontario Beach Park and the Port of Rochester at Charlotte Rochester Broadway Theatre League at the Auditorium Theatre Rochester Contemporary Art Center Rochester's Public Market Rochester Riverside Convention Center St. Joseph's Church and Rectory (Rochester, New York) Seneca Park Zoo, one of the top three family attractions in the area Strong National Museum of Play, nation's second-largest children's museum housing the National Toy Hall of Fame Strasenburgh Planetarium, part of the Rochester Museum & Science Center Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
House Times Square Building, noted for its 42' tall "Wings of Progress" sculpture. University Avenue and Park Avenue Artistic Districts University of Rochester University of Rochester
University of Rochester
Arboretum University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
and Eastman Theatre Water Street Music Hall

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Rochester Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 "best golf city" in America by Golf Magazine in 2007,[120] and the fifth-best "sports town" in the country by Scarborough Research in September 2008.[121] Professional sports[edit] Rochester has several professional sports teams:[122]

Frontier Field, including the Rochester skyline.

Capelli Sport Stadium

Club Sport Began play League Venue Titles

Rochester Red Wings Baseball 1899 IL Frontier Field 20

Rochester Americans Ice hockey 1956 AHL Blue Cross Arena 6

Rochester Knighthawks Indoor lacrosse 1995 NLL Blue Cross Arena 5

Rochester Rhinos Soccer 1996 USL Capelli Sport Stadium 5

Rochester RazorSharks Basketball 2005 PBL Blue Cross Arena 8

The Rochester Red Wings
Rochester Red Wings
baseball club, the AAA affiliate of the Minnesota Twins, are one of the oldest existing franchises in all of professional sports.[citation needed] They play in the International League and won at least one pennant or championship in each decade of the 20th Century.[citation needed] The Rochester Red Wings
Rochester Red Wings
are one of only six active franchises in the history of North American professional sports have played in the same city and same league continuously and uninterrupted since the 19th century.[citation needed] The Rochester Rhinos
Rochester Rhinos
soccer club played for many years in the A-League, which was the second-highest level American soccer league. The Rhinos won the U.S. Open Cup
U.S. Open Cup
against Major League Soccer competition in 1999. Rochester was home to the Western New York
Western New York
Flash from 2011-2016. The Rochester River Dogz FC soccer team played in the NPSL in 2016.

The Rochester Americans

The Rochester Americans
Rochester Americans
ice hockey team, the AHL affiliate for the NHL Buffalo Sabres, are known as the "Amerks". Lacrosse
Lacrosse
has seen some popularity in Rochester. The Rochester Knighthawks play in the National Lacrosse
Lacrosse
League. The Rochester Rattlers
Rochester Rattlers
were a charter member of Major League Lacrosse; the franchise was transferred away after winning the championship in 2008, re-established in 2011 and relocated a final time in 2017. The Rochester Razorsharks, in the Premier Basketball
Basketball
League have multiple championships. Rochester has fielded three major league sports teams in the past. From 1920 to 1925, Rochester was home to the Rochester Jeffersons, a charter member of the National Football League. From 1948 to 1957, the Rochester Royals
Rochester Royals
played in the National Basketball
Basketball
Association, winning the NBA championship in 1951. In soccer, the Rochester Lancers played from 1970 to 1980 in the top-level North American Soccer League and became NASL champions in the 1970 season. Since 1877, 29 teams in eight professional sports have represented Rochester.[citation needed] Golf[edit] Rochester has a rich history in golf dating back to the 19th Century. Oak Hill Country Club, which is often included in America's Top 100 Courses[citation needed] is in the suburb of Pittsford. Oak Hill has hosted the Ryder Cup, Men's U.S Open, and PGA Championship. Locust Hill Country Club used to host the Wegman's LPGA Championship every year in late June. Numerous golf magazines have praised Rochester for its rich passion for the game and its high level of competition.[citation needed] College sports[edit] Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U.S. which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports. Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III
level. The only exceptions are the RIT men's and women's ice hockey teams, which compete at the Division I level. RIT's other sports, as well as the Institute as a whole, are classified as being part of Division III. The men's team made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010 and the women's team won the Division III national championship in 2012, just before switching over to Division I. As of the 2014–2015 academic year, the only college in the Rochester area not officially classified at the Division III level is Roberts Wesleyan College, which completed its transition from membership in the National Christian College Athletic Association
National Christian College Athletic Association
(NCCAA); Roberts Wesleyan was granted full membership in NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
beginning with the 2014–15 year.[123] Rugby[edit] Rochester is home to two men's rugby teams, the Rochester Aardvarks and the Rochester Colonials. Both have long histories, with the Aardvarks celebrating their 40th anniversary in 2006, and the Rochester Colonials celebrating 30 years in 2010. Both rugby clubs are among the few in the country to own their own pitch: Aardvark Park in Henrietta, New York, while the Colonials play their matches at Marianne Cope Parish in Henrietta, New York. The Aardvarks and the Colonials both have hosted local and statewide tournaments and the Rochester Colonials hosted the 2007 USA Rugby National Collegiate All-Star Championships, Rochester's first national tournament, as well as the 2009 NYS Rugby Upstates Tournament and the 2009 New York State High School Rugby Championships. Both teams participate in the annual Can-Am Rugby Tournament in Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake, New York
in early August. Rochester also has a Women's Rugby club, the Rochester Renegades, who celebrated their 20th anniversary in 2008. The Renegades started the New York State Rugby Women's Division.[citation needed][124] Facilities[edit] The city has 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts. Transportation[edit] Maritime transport[edit]

Packet boats on the Genesee River

There is marine freight service at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence Seaway. A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry Spirit of Ontario I built in Australia, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto
Toronto
across Lake Ontario. Canadian American Transportation Systems (CATS) was the company in charge of the Fast Ferry
Ferry
operations. The Spirit of Ontario I had a delayed arrival on April 29, 2004 as a result of hitting a pier in New York City
New York City
on April 5, 2004 and was finally officially christened on June 16, 2004 at the Port of Rochester. The Fast Ferry
Ferry
was bought by the City of Rochester in an attempt to save the project. The Fast Ferry
Ferry
operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42.5 million. The project was initially well received by inhabitants of Rochester. Considerable effort was spent by inhabitants of Rochester to build up the waterfront to embrace the idea as well as to capitalize on potential tourism which was estimated to be an additional 75,000 tourists per month. In the first three months of operation the fast ferry had carried about 140,000 people between Rochester and Toronto. A second Fast Ferry
Ferry
was proposed by CATS on August 27, 2004 which would have cost an additional $100 Million. There were a number of problems concerning the ship's engine, the lack of mutual building up of waterfronts in Toronto
Toronto
and the inability of the city to put pressure on the company responsible for the production of the Fast Ferry. This resulted in the failure of the project. It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik, a German company, for $30 million. Air transport[edit]

Aerial View of the Greater Rochester International Airport

Rochester is served by the Greater Rochester International Airport (GRIA). Daily scheduled air service is provided by Air Canada, American, Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, and United. Many of these airlines do not operate mainline service to Rochester; rather, they contract regional airlines to operate flights on their own, smaller aircraft. In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights.[125] This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester's ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999.[126][127] FedEx
FedEx
founder Fred Smith has stated in numerous articles that Xerox's development of the copier, and its need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that led him to pioneer the overnight delivery business in 1971.[citation needed] Because Xerox manufactured its copiers in Rochester[citation needed], the city was one of the original 25 cities that FedEx
FedEx
served on its first night of operations on April 17, 1973.[128] Rails and mass transit[edit] See also: Rochester station (New York)

Rochester Station

Rochester is served by Rochester Station which is a stop on several Amtrak
Amtrak
lines including the Empire Service between New York City
New York City
and Buffalo, Maple Leaf Between New York City
New York City
and Toronto
Toronto
and Lake Shore Limited Between New York City/ Boston
Boston
and Chicago. Prior to 1966, Rochester had a smaller version of New York City's "Grand Central Terminal." It was among Claude Fayette Bragdon's best works in Rochester, New York. The current station is modeled after Bragdon's work. Rochester used to be a major stop on several railroad lines. It was served by the New York Central Railroad
New York Central Railroad
which served Chicago and Buffalo to the west and Albany and New York City
New York City
to the east and southeast. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway
Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway
(absorbed by the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad) served Buffalo and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
until 1955. A rail route to Salamanca in southern New York State afforded connections in Salamanca to southwestern and southeastern New York State.[129] The last long-distance train in a southern direction was the Northern Express/Southern Express that went to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
via Canandaigua, Elmira and Williamsport; service ended in 1971.[130] Also serving Rochester was the Erie Railroad
Erie Railroad
and Lehigh Valley Railroad. Amtrak
Amtrak
(passenger) and freight lines provide rail service to Rochester. Rochester has intercity and transcontinental bus service via Greyhound and Trailways. Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority
Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority
(RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary. RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System). All RTS routes are based out of the RTS Transit Center on Mortimer Street.

The Broad Street Aqueduct was used as a subway tunnel

From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail underground transit system called the Rochester Subway. It was the smallest city in the world to have one. The subway which was operated by the Rochester Transit Corporation was shut down in 1956. The eastern half of the subway past Court Street became the Eastern Expressway
Eastern Expressway
with the western end of the open cut being filled in 1976. The tunnel was last used for freight service by Gannett Company
Gannett Company
to bring paper to the printing presses for the Democrat and Chronicle
Democrat and Chronicle
in 1997. Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnel. One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system. The former canal and subway tunnel have become a frequent source of debate. Several city homeless use the tunnels for shelter, and a few areas near tunnel entrances have gained the reputation as being dangerous. The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely. The plan to fill the tunnels in completely generated criticism as the cost of filling would not generate nor leverage economic development. The western end of the tunnel was filled in to the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
turnout in 2010 as part of a redevelopment of the above street and the eastern end of the tunnel is undergoing redevelopment. The Broad Street aqueduct and most famous part of the tunnel is on the National Register of Historic Places being added in 1976. Major highways and roads[edit]

Main Street looking east

There are three exits off the New York State Thruway
New York State Thruway
(Interstate 90) that serve Rochester. Rochester has an extensive system of limited-access highways (called 'expressways' or just 'highways', never 'freeways') which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway. During the Thruway's construction, a disagreement between the governor of New York and mayor of Rochester resulted in a bypass of downtown Rochester, leaving the city struggling for growth.[citation needed] Rochester's expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east. The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate an anticipated year-2000 metro population of 5 million,[citation needed] whereas the present-day population is just over one million. The Outer Loop circles just outside the city limits while the former Inner Loop once circled around the immediate downtown area within the city (the easternmost third was closed in 2015). From the west are Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
State Parkway, NY-531 and I-490; Interstate 390
Interstate 390
feeds from the south; and NY-104, NY-441, and I-490 approach from the east. In 2016, the City of Rochester launched the Pace Car Program. "Pace Car drivers sign a pledge to drive within the speed limit, drive courteously, yield to pedestrians and be mindful of bicyclists and others on the street."[131] Later expressway proposals[edit] In the early 1970s, the Genesee Expressway Task Force, City leaders, and NYSDOT studied the feasibility of connecting the outer and inner Loops with a new southern expressway. The proposed route extended north from the I-390 and I-590 interchange in Brighton, cutting through Rochester's Swillburg neighborhood. In 1972, consultants Berger Lehman Associates recommended a new 'Busway', an expressway with dedicated bus lanes, similar to Bus Rapid Transit.[132] The expressway extension was never built. Three Interstate Highways run through the City of Rochester: Interstate 390
Interstate 390
(Genesee Expressway)

I-390 runs south–north, crossing I-90 (exit 46) and routing north through Rochester's western suburbs. Its northern end is at I-490, however it continues north as NY-390 until it merges into the Lake Ontario State Parkway. South of I-90, I-390 runs to Avoca, New York, where it meets up with U.S. Route 15 and the Southern Tier
Southern Tier
Expressway, I-86.

Interstate 490 (Western/Eastern Expressway)

I-490 runs west–east through Rochester, starting at Le Roy, New York and ending in Victor, New York. It interchanges with the two other Interstates in Rochester: I-390 at the western city limit and I-590 at the eastern limit, as well as connecting at both ends with the Thruway, I-90 (exits 47 and 45). In July 2007, a new bridge over the Genesee River
Genesee River
was completed and named the Frederick Douglass–Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge.

Interstate 590

I-590 runs south–north through Rochester's eastern suburbs. Its southern end is at I-390, while the northern end is at I-490; the highway continues north to the shore of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
as NY-590. In decreasing usage is the term "Can of Worms", referring to the previously dangerous at-grade intersection of Interstate 490 and expressway NY-590 on the eastern edge of the Rochester city limits, bordering the suburb of Brighton. In the 1980s, a multimillion-dollar project created a system of overpasses and ramps that reduced the danger but resulted in the loss of certain exits.

New York State Route Expressways: New York State Route 104
New York State Route 104
(Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)

NY 104 – Just east of the NY 590 interchange, NY 104 becomes the Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway and crosses the Irondequoit Bay Bridge. On the other side of the Bay Bridge, in the town of Webster, NY 104 has exits before returning to an at-grade highway at Basket Road.

New York State Route 390

NY 390 is an extension of Interstate 390
Interstate 390
from the I-390/I-490 interchange in Gates. The northern terminus is at the Lake Ontario State Parkway in Greece, less than a mile from the Lake Ontario shoreline.

New York State Route 590

NY 590 is a limited-access extension of Interstate 590
Interstate 590
at runs from an interchange between Interstate 490 and I-590 on the Brighton/Rochester border. The northern terminus is at Culver Road in Irondequoit, near Sea Breeze (the western shore of Irondequoit Bay
Irondequoit Bay
at Lake Ontario).

Inner Loop

The Inner Loop Runs from Interstate 490 to Main Street on the north end and from 490 to Monroe Avenue at the south end. Formerly a loop, the eastern end was demolished and replaced with a surface road between 2014 and 2017. Unsigned reference New York State Route 940T begins and ends at Interstate 490, and the rest of the Loop is part of I-490 between exits 13 and 15, including the Frederick Douglass – Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Memorial Bridge. This expressway is commonly used to define the borders of downtown Rochester.

New York State Parkways: Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
State Parkway

Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
State Parkway travels from Lakeside Beach State Park
Lakeside Beach State Park
in Carlton, Orleans County. The eastern end is at Lake Avenue in the city of Rochester in Monroe County.

Notable people[edit]

See List of people from Rochester, New York

Notable individuals who were born in and/or lived in Rochester include Kodak
Kodak
founder George Eastman, opera singer Renée Fleming, jazz singer Cab Calloway, mandopop singer Wang Leehom, actress Kristen Wiig, Olympic swimmer Ryan Lochte, and NHL
NHL
ice hockey player Ryan Callahan. Popular YouTube personality Jenna Marbles
Jenna Marbles
is also from Rochester. Pandora Boxx from RuPaul's Drag Race Seasons 2 and Allstars 1 Sister cities[edit] Rochester has twelve sister cities,[133] as designated by Sister Cities International. They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006):[134]

Region City County / District / Region / State Date

France Rennes Brittany 1958[133][135]

Germany Würzburg Bavaria 1964[133][136]

Italy Caltanissetta Sicily 1965[133]

Israel Rehovot Center District 1972[133]

Poland Kraków Małopolskie 1973[133][137]

Mali Bamako Capital District 1975[133]

Region City County / District / Region / State Date

Ireland Waterford County Waterford 1983[133]

Russia Novgorod Novgorod Oblast 1990[133]

Japan Hamamatsu Shizuoka Prefecture 1996[133][138]

Dominican Republic Puerto Plata Puerto Plata province 1997[133]

China Xianyang Shaanxi 2007[133]

Lithuania Alytus Alytus
Alytus
County 2009[133]

See also[edit]

New York portal

Notes[edit]

^ Official records for Rochester kept January 1871 to September 1940 at downtown and at Greater Rochester Int'l since October 1940. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit]

^ http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nymonroe/towns.htm ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2017.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Archived from the original on July 4, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.  ^ Publications, Rochester History Alive; Kling, Warren (April 1, 2008). America's First Boomtown
Boomtown
- Rochester, NY: The Early Years and the Notables Who Shaped It. Rochester History Alive Publications. ISBN 9780981510705.  ^ Daneman, Matthew, "Our manufacturing roots sprout jobs", Democrat and Chronicle (March 2, 2008) (archived copy Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.) ^ "Gross Metropolitan Product of U.S. Metro Areas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Facts on Rochester" Archived March 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Levy, Francesca (June 7, 2010). "America's Best Places to Raise a Family". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010.  ^ "Best Cities for Families". Kiplinger. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ Oklahoma State University Library. "Treaty of Big Tree". Digital.library.okstate.edu. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ History of Rochester and Monroe County, New York: From the Earliest Historic Times to the Beginning of 1907, Volume 1 by William Farley Peck page 181 ^ Blake McKelvey, "The Germans of Rochester: Their Traditions and Contributions", Rochester History, Vol. 20, No. 1 (January 1958), pp. 7–8. ^ "Frederick Douglass" Archived April 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., History, University of Rochester ^ "Senators to Vote on Suffrage Today; Fate of Susan B. Anthony Amendment Hangs in Balance on Eve of Final Test". New York Times. September 26, 1918.  ^ "Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State: New York" (PDF). National Park Service.  ^ Like many early companies, its production was small, about 400 a year including hearses, designed by Volney Lacey. G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985) ^ a b c d e "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 4, 2012.  ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-29.  ^ Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-29.  ^ "Station Name: NY ROCHESTER GTR INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for ROCHESTER/ROCHESTER-MONROE CO,NY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Rochester, NY (14606)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-12-29.  ^ "Census" (PDF). United States Census. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2010.  page 36 ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2013 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2014.  ^ a b "Rochester (city), New York". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.  ^ a b From 15% sample ^ "Rochester (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ Kaya 2005, 428. ^ "Ancestry Map of Jamaican Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved August 3, 2008.  ^ "The 50 U.S. cities with the most Italian Americans". National Italian American Foundation. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "Making History: A Black Man's Hands Speak Eloquently". The New York Times. May 24, 2003. Retrieved January 3, 2008.  ^ a b c d Form, William (September 2000). "Italian Protestants: Religion, Ethnicity, and Assimilation". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 39: 307–320. doi:10.1111/0021-8294.00026. JSTOR 1387816.  ^ "Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement by State by City 100,000 and over in population Montana through Ohio". Uniform Crime Reports. Retrieved June 14, 2013.  ^ "Rochester, New York". City-data.com. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ "Crime in Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
(NY)". City-data.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  ^ " Xerox
Xerox
Corporation Fact Book: Company facts, history, information". Xerox.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ Tobin, Tom (June 6, 2014). "Bausch + Lomb tower in downtown Rochester to be sold for $15 million". Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved October 1, 2014.  ^ [1] Accessed October 29, 2015. ^ "High Tech Rochester adds 4 businesses". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. November 7, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2015.  ^ [2], High Tech Rochester website ^ The Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archived April 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology website ^ Economic Development, University of Rochester
University of Rochester
"Connections" website ^ " Zweigle's
Zweigle's
- Recipes using our products". www.zweigles.com. Retrieved May 24, 2017.  ^ "Boardwalk Hot Dog (Brooklyn)". Men's Journal. Retrieved May 24, 2017.  ^ "Whatever Happened To ... French's?". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved May 24, 2017.  ^ "Buildings of Rochester, 2008". Emporis.  ^ "America's Largest Credit Unions". December 2008. Retrieved September 11, 2010.  ^ "History / Wegmans". Wegmans
Wegmans
home page. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2010. 1916 John Wegman opens the Rochester Fruit & Vegetable Company. He is joined by his brother Walter a year later.  ^ " Wegmans
Wegmans
Food Markets to Build New Meat Processing Plant in Chili, N.Y." The Buffalo News. January 30, 2004. Retrieved August 11, 2010. The new plant will retain the 330 jobs from the existing plant, next to the company's headquarters in Gates, NY.  ^ "City of Rochester Meet Rochester's City Councilmembers". Cityofrochester.gov. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ City Begins NET Consolidation, WXXI – June 17, 2008. ^ [3] Neighborhood Service Centers ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 55" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 56" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 61" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 136" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 137" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 138" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ "Legislative District Map" (PDF). Rochester, New York: Monroe County Board of Elections. January 24, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2013.  ^ "City of Rochester Rochester Fire Department". CityofRochester.gov. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ "City of Rochester About the Rochester Fire Department". Cityofrochester.gov. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ "City of Rochester Fire Department Annual Report". Cityofrochester.gov. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ a b National Park Service
National Park Service
(2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ "Independent Lens. JULY '64. Timeline". PBS. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Independent Lens. JULY '64. Filmmaker Q&A". PBS. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Northwest-Quadrant-Rochester-NY.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.lona-history.blogspot.com/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://www.littleitalyroc.com/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.democratandchronicle.com/story/news/2017/05/31/little-italy-district-along-lyell-avenue-seek-historic-designation/358953001/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-PYksLpoROqM/WEHTi6qfmAI/AAAAAAAAB0Y/nUsmrn0BCGgiHuFrQjC5c0PsoqpN9kB9wCLcB/s1600/Lyell-Otis%2Binfo%2Bfor%2BRON%2Bto%2Bdistribute-page-001.jpg.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.rochestersubway.com/topics/2015/04/lyell-otis-neighborhood-call-for-volunteers/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://13wham.com/news/local/a-new-logo-for-little-italy-and-a-look-ahead-to-what-the-future-could-hold.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.cityofrochester.gov/article.aspx?id=8589943432.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "19th Ward Community Association". 19wca.org. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ Rochester's 19th Ward. 2005. Michael Leavy and Glenn Leavy. ^ "Rochester City Newspaper". City Newspaper. Retrieved May 7, 2016.  ^ " National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/01/15 through 6/05/15. National Park Service. June 12, 2015.  ^ " National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/29/15 through 7/02/15. National Park Service. July 10, 2015.  ^ " National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 8/31/15 through 9/04/15. National Park Service. September 11, 2015.  ^ "Port of Rochester Project Now On Hold, Charlotte Residents Say It's Great News". Time Warner Cable News. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.  ^ [4] Archived August 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Upper Monroe Neighborhood Association UMNA". Uppermonroeavenue.org. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Merchants". Uppermonroeavenue.org. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "South Wedge History and Maps". Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008.  ^ Rose O'Keefe, Rochester's South Wedge. Charleston, Arcadia, 2005. ^ Created by Tracy Saville View Groups. "South Wedge Gay Neighbors". Southwedge.ning.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ Diana Louise Carter, "Signs of Progress: Residents restore a faded South Wedge to Glory," Democrat and Chronicle, October 10, 2004. ^ " National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 8/24/09 through 8/28/09. National Park Service. September 4, 2010.  ^ Kathleen LaFrank (September 1988). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on November 22, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2016.  ^ "Rochester's Best Schools: Ratings, Reviews, and Grades – Zillow School Information". Zillow.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Best Colleges 2014: University of Rochester". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 6, 2013. University of Rochester's ranking in the 2014 edition of Best Colleges is National Universities, 32.  ^ "America's 25 New Elite 'Ivies', August 21, 2008". Newsweek. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2010.  ^ Rankings, Achievements & Honors – School of Nursing Archived May 31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rankings : Simon Graduate School of Business Archived June 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " University of Rochester
University of Rochester
Rises in U.S. News Rankings", University of Rochester Press Releases ^ " Empire State College
Empire State College
in Rochester". Saratoga Springs, New York: Empire State
Empire State
College. Retrieved 2011-12-21. In 1999, the center moved from Prince Street to 1475 Winton Road North, where it celebrates 30 years of service, of excellence and innovation.  ^ "The Inauguration of Anne M. Kress; About MCC". Brighton, Monroe County, New York: Monroe Community College. Retrieved 2011-12-21. In June 1968, MCC moved to a new, modern campus at 1000 East Henrietta Road. The college opened its Damon City Campus, located at Main Street and Clinton Avenue, in January 1992.  ^ "History of RIT". Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2010-05-29.  ^ "College graduates fuel Rochester's fame". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York. April 24, 2010. ISSN 1088-5153. Archived from the original on May 6, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2013. What is now Staten Island's Wagner College
Wagner College
was founded in Rochester in 1883 as the Lutheran Proseminary. It operated out of two homes in its first three years until Rochester builder John George Wagner donated the money that the college used to start its own campus on Oregon Street near downtown. In 1886, the school was renamed in honor of Wagner, and in 1918 it moved to Staten Island...  ^ Wickes, Majorie; Tim O'Connell (April 1988). "The Legacy of Frederick Law Olmsted" (PDF). Rochester History. Rochester Public Library. L (2). ISSN 0035-7413. Retrieved December 29, 2007.  ^ "Photography & Film". Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2016.  ^ Rochester International Jazz
Jazz
Festival ^ " Xerox
Xerox
Rochester International Jazz
Jazz
Festival". Rochesterjazz.com. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "About Us «  High Falls Film Festival – Rochester, NY". Film360365.com. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Welcome". Rochesterfilmfest.org. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "CONCERT UPDATE: Lilac Fest announces three headliners". City Newspaper. Retrieved May 7, 2016.  ^ "about...time". Abouttimemag.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ "Lavoz". Rochesterlavoz.com. Retrieved November 12, 2012.  ^ "About The post express. (Rochester, N.Y.) 1882–1923". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ "About Rochester evening journal. (Rochester, N.Y.) 19??-1923". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ "About Rochester journal and the post express. (Rochester, N.Y.) 1923-193?". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ Paul Goldberger (December 26, 1982). "Housing for the Spirit". New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ "Rochester makes 10-best golf cities list (November 27, 2007)". Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved November 27, 2007. [dead link] ^ [5][dead link] ^ "Rochester Sports". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2008.  ^ Bradley, Steve (July 13, 2011). "Roberts Wesleyan moving up to Division II athletics". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved March 7, 2015.  ^ Christina Mannices. "Home". Retrieved May 7, 2016.  ^ Shearing, Emily (July 17, 2010). "CheapFlights rates Rochester airports No. 14". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2010.  ^ Dawson, Evan (July 12, 2010). "Rochester's Airport: Are Flights Actually Cheaper These Days?". Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2010.  ^ Johnston, David Cay (March 21, 1999). "Travel Advisory: Correspondent's Report; Upstate New York
Upstate New York
May Get Air Fare Relief". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2010.  ^ http://about.fedex.designcdt.com/our_company/company_information/fedex_history ^ Buffalo Rochester and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Railway http://www.r2parks.net/BR&P.html ^ Christopher T. Baer, "NAMED TRAINS OF THE PRR INCLUDING THROUGH SERVICES" 2009 http://www.prrths.com/Hagley/PRR%20NAMED%20TRAINS.pdf ^ "City of Rochester's Pace Car Program Asks Drivers to Be Part of the Solution - Reconnect Rochester works to promote transportation choices that enable a more vibrant and equitable community in the Rochester, NY region". Reconnectrochester.org. Retrieved February 24, 2017.  ^ Pritchard, Keith (December 24, 1972). "Fate of 'Busway' Rests With Drivers". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Rochester's Sister Cities". City of Rochester. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010.  ^ "Sister Cities Bridge Renamed "Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge"" (Press release). City of Rochester, New York. October 11, 2006. Archived from the original on January 11, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007. Mayor
Mayor
Robert J. Duffy conducted a ceremony today on the Sister Cities Bridge, officially renaming it the Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge.  ^ "Rennes-Rochester: déjà 55 ans de vie commune!" [Rennes-Rochester: Already 55 years of common life!] (in French). Ville de Rennes
Rennes
et Rennes
Rennes
Métropole. June 3, 2013. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.  ^ "Rochester, NY, USA". Stadt Würzburg. Retrieved April 2, 2014.  ^ " Kraków
Kraków
– Miasta Partnerskie" [ Kraków
Kraków
-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ Рочестер (США) [Rochester (USA)] (in Russian). Администрация Великого Новгорода (Administration of Veliky Novgorod). Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Keene, Michael. Folklore and Legends of Rochester:: The Mystery of Hoodoo Corner and Other Tales (2011) excerpt and text search McKelvey, Blake. Rochester on the Genesee: the growth of a city (1993) excerpt and text search; 292pp; a brief history by the leading specialist

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rochester, New York.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rochester (New York).

Official website City of Rochester, NY Code of Laws Greater Rochester Visitors Association Rochester Wiki Rochester at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

City of Rochester, New York

History - Nathaniel Rochester
Nathaniel Rochester
- Other notable residents - List of mayors

Transportation

Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority Greater Rochester International Airport Rochester Amtrak
Amtrak
Station Erie Canal Douglass-Anthony Bridge Veterans Memorial Bridge Former

Rochester Subway

Aqueduct

Lehigh Valley Railroad
Lehigh Valley Railroad
Station Erie Railroad
Erie Railroad
Depot Spirit of Ontario I

Neighborhoods

Downtown Charlotte 19th Ward (Arvine Heights Chili–West) Browncroft Corn Hill South Wedge

Linden–South

Maplewood East End Eastman Business Park North Winton City Hall Historic District High Falls

State Street Brown's Race Historic District

14621 Neighborhood

Parks and landmarks

Mount Hope Cemetery Highland Park Durand Eastman Park Genesee Valley Park Seneca Park Zoo George Eastman
George Eastman
Museum Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
House Rundel Memorial Library Federal Building/City Hall Powers Building Blue Cross Arena Frontier Field Capelli Sport Stadium Sibley's, Lindsay and Curr Building First Federal Plaza Legacy Tower Kodak
Kodak
Tower Times Square Building Five Star Bank Plaza Xerox
Xerox
Tower Tower 280
Tower 280
(Midtown Tower) The Metropolitan

Entertainment

Sports in Rochester Strong National Museum of Play Rochester Museum and Science Center Memorial Art Gallery Rochester Contemporary Art Center Little Theatre Eastman Theatre Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra Water Street Music Hall Rochester Lilac Festival Rochester International Film Festival High Falls Film Festival Rochester International Jazz
Jazz
Festival Geva Theatre Center

Food

Nick Tahou Hots Zweigle's

White hot

Abbott's Frozen Custard DiBella's Harts Local Grocers Mark's Pizzeria Wegmans Genesee Brewing Company

Research and education

University of Rochester

Eastman School of Music Medical Center

Rochester Institute of Technology

Center for Urban Entrepreneurship

Rochester City School District Rochester Academy Charter School Aquinas Institute Monroe Community College Rochester Area Colleges

Other

Democrat and Chronicle Rochester Police Department List of tallest buildings in Rochester, New York Hickey Freeman Bausch & Lomb Eastman Kodak Xerox French's Rochester Products (defunct) Midtown Plaza (defunct)

McCurdy's B. Forman Co.

Sibley's
Sibley's
(defunct)

Rochester Metro Area - Monroe County - Western New York
Western New York
- Finger Lakes - State of New York

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Monroe County, New York, United States

County seat: Rochester

City

Rochester

Towns

Brighton Chili Clarkson East Rochester Gates Greece Hamlin Henrietta Irondequoit Mendon Ogden Parma Penfield Perinton Pittsford Riga Rush Sweden Webster Wheatland

Villages

Brockport Churchville East Rochester Fairport Hilton Honeoye Falls Pittsford Scottsville Spencerport Webster

CDPs

Brighton Clarkson Gates Greece Hamlin Irondequoit North Gates

Other hamlets

Adams Basin Garbutt Gates Center Mumford North Chili North Greece Union Hill‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

 State of New York

Albany (capital)

Topics

Bibliography Demographics Economy Education Geography History Healthcare Museums Music Nickname Parks People Politics Sports Symbols Transportation Tourist attractions

Politics

Administrative divisions Congressional districts Constitution Elections Government Law

Regions

Adirondack Mountains Allegheny Plateau Capital District Catskill Mountains Central Region (formerly Central-Leatherstocking) Central New York Champlain Valley New York City Finger Lakes Holland Purchase Hudson Highlands Hudson Valley Long Island Mohawk Valley Niagara Frontier North Country Ridge and Valley Saint Lawrence Seaway Shawangunks Ski country Southern Tier Southtowns Tech Valley Thousand Islands Tug Hill Upstate Western

Metro areas

Albany / Schenectady / Troy Binghamton Buffalo / Niagara Falls Elmira / Corning Glens Falls Ithaca Kingston New York City Rochester Syracuse Utica / Rome Watertown

Counties

Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond Rockland Saint Lawrence Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester Wyoming Yates

Places

Cities Towns Indian reservations Villages Census-designated places

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in New York

Bill de Blasio (New York City) Byron Brown (Buffalo) Lovely Warren (Rochester) Mike Spano (Yonkers) Ben Walsh (Syracuse) Kathy Sheehan (Albany)

v t e

Northeastern United States

Topics

Culture Geography Government History

States

Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Maine Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Allentown Baltimore Boston Bridgeport Buffalo Burlington Cambridge Elizabeth Erie Hartford Jersey City Lowell Manchester New Haven New York City Newark Paterson Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland Providence Quincy Reading Rochester Scranton Springfield Stamford Syracuse Washington, D.C. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester

State capitals

Albany Annapolis Augusta Boston Concord Dover Hartford Harrisburg Montpelier Providence Trenton

Coordinates: 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 268971020 GND: 4130600-4 BNF: cb1239

.