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ROCHDALE /ˈrɒtʃdeɪl/ is a town in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines on the River Roch , 5.3 miles (8.5 km) northwest of Oldham
Oldham
and 9.8 miles (15.8 km) northeast of Manchester
Manchester
. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
Rochdale
, which had a population of 211,699 in 2011.

Historically part of Lancashire
Lancashire
, Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 under "Recedham Manor". The ancient parish of Rochdale
Rochdale
was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England, comprising several townships . By 1251, Rochdale
Rochdale
had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter
Royal charter
. Rochdale
Rochdale
flourished into a centre of northern England
England
's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".

Rochdale
Rochdale
rose to prominence in the 19th century as a mill town and centre for textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, and amongst the first industrialised towns. The Rochdale Canal
Rochdale Canal
—one of the major navigable broad canals of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
—was a highway of commerce during this time used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal to and from the area. The socioeconomic change brought by the success of Rochdale's textile industry in the 19th century led to its rise to borough status and it remained a dominant settlement in its region. However, during the 20th century Rochdale's spinning capacity declined towards an eventual halt.

Rochdale
Rochdale
is the birthplace of the modern Co-operative Movement , to which more than one billion people worldwide belonged in 2012. The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society was founded in 1844 by 28 local residents as a response to the high cost and frequent adulteration of basic foodstuffs by shopkeepers at the time. The Pioneers were notable for combining the notion of the patronage dividend alongside investing trading surplus for member benefit, especially in education. The Rochdale Principles , the set of ideals which underpinned the society, are still used, in updated form, by the International Co-operative Alliance . The Rochdale Pioneers shop was the precursor to The Co-operative Group , the largest consumer co-operative in the world.

Rochdale
Rochdale
today is a predominantly residential town. Rochdale
Rochdale
Town Hall —a Grade I listed building —dates from 1871 and is one of the United Kingdom's finest examples of Victorian Gothic revival architecture.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
* 1.4 Post-industrial

* 2 Governance

* 2.1 Parliamentary representation

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Divisions and suburbs

* 4 Demography * 5 Landmarks

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 Road * 6.2 Rochdale Canal
Rochdale Canal
* 6.3 Rail and Metrolink * 6.4 Bus

* 7 Education * 8 Religion * 9 Public services * 10 Sports * 11 Notable people

* 12 References

* 12.1 Notes * 12.2 Bibliography

* 13 External links

HISTORY

TOPONYMY

Rochdale
Rochdale
seems to be named from its position on the River Roch but is recorded as Recedham in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
. The name is derived from Old English reced meaning "hall", and ham, a "homestead". Over time, the name changed to Rachedale and eventually Rochdale. The river's name is a back-formation from the Old English name, its name is /ˈroʊtʃ/ , with a long o. Rochdale
Rochdale
however, is pronounced /ˈrɒtʃdeɪl/, with a short o.

EARLY HISTORY

Arrow Mill is a former cotton mill and Grade II listed building in Castleton

A Roman road
Roman road
, leading from Mamucium ( Manchester
Manchester
) to Eboracum (York ), crossed the moors at Blackstone Edge .

During the time of the Danelaw , Rochdale
Rochdale
was subjected to incursions by the Danes on the Saxons
Saxons
. The castle that Castleton is named after, and of which no trace remains, was one of twelve Saxon
Saxon
forts possibly destroyed in frequent conflicts that occurred between the Saxons
Saxons
and Danes during the 10th and 11th centuries.

Rochdale
Rochdale
appears in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Recedham. At the time of the Norman Conquest the manor was held by a Saxon
Saxon
thegn , Gamel. Before 1212 Henry II granted the manor to Roger de Lacy whose family retained it as part of the Honour of Clitheroe until it passed to the Dukes of Lancaster by marriage and then by 1399 to the Crown . John Byron bought the manor in 1638 and it was sold by the poet, Lord Byron
Lord Byron
, in 1823, to the Deardens, who hold the title. Rochdale
Rochdale
had no manor house but the "Orchard" built in 1702 and acquired in 1745 by Simon Dearden was the home of the lords of the manor after 1823. It was described as "a red-brick building of no architectural distinction, on the north side of the river opposite the town hall" and sometimes referred to as the Manor House. It was demolished in 1922.

In medieval times, Rochdale
Rochdale
was a market town , and weekly markets were held from 1250 when Edmund de Lacy obtained a grant for a market and an annual fair. The market was held outside the parish church where there was an "Orator's Corner".

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The manufacture of woollen cloth, particularly baize , kerseys and flannels , was important from the reign of Henry VIII . At this time the industry was rooted in the domestic system but towards the end of the 18th century mills powered by water were built. Water power was replaced by steam power in the 19th century and coal mines, mostly drift mines , were opened where coal from the lower coal measures outcropped around the town. The Deardens who were lords of the manor were among the local coal owners. By the mid-1800s the woollen trade was declining and the cotton trade which took advantage of technological developments in spinning and weaving growing in importance. Rochdale
Rochdale
became one of the world's most productive cotton spinning towns when rose to prominence during the 19th century as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution , and amongst the first ever industrialised towns. By the end of the 19th century there were woollen mills, silk manufacturers, bleachers and dyers but cotton spinning and weaving were the dominant industries in Rochdale. The socioeconomic change brought by the success of Rochdale's textile industry in the 19th century led to its rise to borough status and it remained a dominant settlement in its region. However, during the 20th century Rochdale's spinning capacity declined towards an eventual halt.

The Rochdale Pioneers opened the first Cooperative shop in Toad Lane in 1844. The reformer and Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
, John Bright (1811–1889), was born in Rochdale
Rochdale
and gained a reputation as a leader of political dissent and supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League .

POST-INDUSTRIAL

The first seven series of the BBC
BBC
school drama Waterloo Road were set in Rochdale
Rochdale
between 2006 and 2012, and filmed on location at the former Hilltop Primary School in Kirkholt, which closed in July 2003. Most of the out-of-school scenes in the series were filmed around Rochdale, and many of the pupils' homes seen on television were council houses in the Kirkholt area which were mostly built in the early postwar years.

It was announced by the BBC
BBC
and Shed Media that filming on the series in Rochdale
Rochdale
was to end in late 2011, with production moving to Scotland
Scotland
from early 2012. The final scenes to be shot at the Hilltop Primary site were filmed in November 2011. In April 2012, filming on the eighth series began on location at the new Waterloo Road set, the former Greenock Academy in Greenock
Greenock
, Scotland.

GOVERNANCE

The coat of arms of the former Municipal , and later County Borough of Rochdale
Rochdale
council, granted 20 February 1857. The arms incorporate references to Rochdale's early industries and lords.

Lying within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire
Lancashire
since the early 12th century , Rochdale
Rochdale
was recorded in 1066 as held by Gamel, one of the twenty-one thegns of the Hundred of Salfordshire .

The ancient ecclesiastical parish of Rochdale
Rochdale
was divided into four townships: Butterworth , Castleton , Hundersfield and Spotland . Hundersfield was later divided into four townships: Blatchinworth, Calderbrook , Wardleworth and Wuerdle and Wardle. Excluding the large chapelry of Saddleworth , which lay entirely in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, the parish of Rochdale
Rochdale
had an area of 65.4 square miles (169.4 km2).

In 1825 commissioners for the social and economic improvement of the town were established. The town became part of a parliamentary borough in 1832. Under the terms of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 Rochdale became the head of Rochdale
Rochdale
Poor Law Union
Poor Law Union
which was established on 15 February 1837 despite considerable local opposition. In 1856 Rochdale was incorporated as a municipal borough , giving it borough status in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and after 1858 it obtained the powers of the improvement commissioners. In 1872 the remaining area of Wardleworth township and parts of Castleton, Wuerdle and Wardle, Spotland and Butterworth townships were added to the borough.

When the administrative county of Lancashire
Lancashire
was created by the Local Government Act 1888 , Rochdale
Rochdale
was elevated to become the County Borough of Rochdale
Rochdale
and was, in modern terms, a unitary authority area exempt from the administration of Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council . In 1900 most of Castleton Urban District was added to the borough; this urban district included parts of Castleton, Hopwood and Thornham townships. In 1933 parts of Norden Urban District and Birtle with Bamford civil parish were added to the borough. Under the Local Government Act 1972 , the town's autonomous county borough status was abolished. The municipal boroughs of Middleton and Heywood and Littleborough , Milnrow and Wardle urban districts are now part of the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
Rochdale
, one of the ten metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester
Manchester
.

Since 1953, Rochdale
Rochdale
has been twinned with Bielefeld in Germany and since 1956 with Tourcoing
Tourcoing
in France, as well as Sahiwal in Pakistan since 1988 and Lviv
Lviv
in Ukraine since 1992. Sahiwal council has received many gifts like fire brigade trucks, ambulances and grants for hospitals from the people of Rochdale.

PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION

The Rochdale
Rochdale
constituency was created by the Reform Act of 1832 . The constituency was held for two decades during the 20th century by Cyril Smith , first of the Liberal Party and then of the Liberal Democrats . Following the 2010 General Election, the town is represented by Simon Danczuk MP, who was elected as a Labour MP but is currently suspended and under investigation by the Labour Party.

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geography of Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Rochdale lies in the wide valley of the River Roch

Rochdale
Rochdale
stands about 450 feet (137 m) above sea level , 9.8 miles (15.8 km) north-northeast of Manchester
Manchester
city centre , in the valley of the River Roch . Blackstone Edge , Saddleworth Moor and the South Pennines are close to the east, whilst on all other sides, Rochdale
Rochdale
is bound by smaller towns, including Whitworth , Littleborough , Milnrow , Royton
Royton
, Heywood and Shaw and Crompton
Shaw and Crompton
, with little or no green space between them. Rochdale
Rochdale
experiences a temperate maritime climate , like much of the British Isles
British Isles
, with relatively cool summers and mild winters. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.

Rochdale's built environment consists of a mixture of infrastructure, housing types and commercial buildings from a number of periods. Rochdale's housing stock is mixed, but has a significant amount of stone or red-brick terraced houses from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rochdale\'s Town Hall , seven large tower blocks (locally nicknamed 'The Seven Sisters') and a number of former cotton mills mark the town's skyline. The urban structure of Rochdale
Rochdale
is regular when compared to most towns in England
England
, its form restricted in places by its hilly upland terrain. Much of Rochdale's built environment is centred around a central business district in the town centre , which is the local centre of commerce. ‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

NEIGHBOURING TOWNS, VILLAGES AND PLACES.

Norden Whitworth Littleborough

Heywood

Milnrow

ROCHDALE

Middleton Royton
Royton
Shaw and Crompton
Shaw and Crompton

There is a mixture of high-density urban areas , suburbs , semi-rural and rural locations in Rochdale, but overwhelmingly the land use in the town is urban. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics , it forms the fifth largest settlement of the Greater Manchester Urban Area , the United Kingdom\'s third largest conurbation . The M62 motorway passes to the south and southwest of Rochdale. Two heavy rail lines enter Rochdale
Rochdale
from the east, joining at Rochdale
Rochdale
railway station before continuing southwards to the city of Manchester.

DIVISIONS AND SUBURBS

* v * t * e

Areas and suburbs of Rochdale
Rochdale

* Ashworth * Balderstone * Bamford * Belfield * Buckley * Buersil * Burnedge * Caldershaw * Castleton * Cronkeyshaw * Cutgate * Deeplish * Falinge * Fieldhouse * Foxholes * Halfacre * Hamer * Healey * Hurstead * Kirkholt * Lowerfold * Lowerplace * Marland * Meanwood * Newbold * Nook Farm * Norden * Oakenrod * Oulder Hill * Passmonds * Prickshaw * Rooley Moor * Shawclough * Smallbridge * Smithy Bridge * Sparth Bottom * Spotland * Sudden * Syke * Thornham * Turf Hill * Wardleworth

DEMOGRAPHY

Further information: Demography of Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester

At the 2001 UK census , Rochdale
Rochdale
had a population of 95,796. The 2001 population density was 11,186 inhabitants per square mile (4,319/km2), with a 100 to 94.4 female-to-male ratio. Of those over 16 years old, 28.2% were single (never married), 44.0% married, and 8.8% divorced. Rochdale's 37,730 households included 30.4% one-person, 36.6% married couples living together, 8.4% were co-habiting couples, and 11.1% single parents with their children. Of those aged 16–74, 37.1% had no academic qualifications , similar to the figure for all of Rochdale, but higher than that of 28.9% in all of England. Rochdale has the highest number of Jobseeker\'s Allowance claimants in Greater Manchester, with 6.1 per cent of its adult population claiming the benefit in early 2010.

ROCHDALE COMPARED

2001 UK CENSUS ROCHDALE ROCHDALE MB ENGLAND

Total population 95,796 205,357 49,138,831

White 78.7% 88.6% 91%

Asian 19.9% 9.8% 4.6%

Black 0.3% 0.3% 2.3%

Christian 62.7% 72.1% 71.7%

Muslim 19.1% 9.4% 3.1%

No religion 10.4% 10.8% 14.6%

In 2011, Rochdale
Rochdale
had a population of 107,926 which makes it about the same size as Salford and Stockport
Stockport
. The population increased from 95,796 in 2001. Rochdale
Rochdale
is one of four townships in the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
Rochdale
along with Middleton , Heywood and Pennine (a township which includes Littleborough and Wardle ). Rochdale
Rochdale
is considered an Urban Subdivision by the local borough council.

ROCHDALE COMPARED 2011 ROCHDALE ROCHDALE (BOROUGH)

White British 65.2% 78.6%

Asian 27.5% 14.9%

Black 1.5% 1.3%

In 2011, 34.8% of Rochdale's population were non white British, compared with 21.4% for the surrounding borough. Rochdale
Rochdale
town also has almost double the percentage of Asians compared with the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale , which had a population of 211,699 in 2011. This means the town takes up almost 55% of the borough's population.

LANDMARKS

See also: List of Scheduled Monuments in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, and List of public art in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Rochdale Cenotaph stands before Rochdale Town Hall

Rochdale Town Hall is a Victorian era town hall "widely recognised as being one of the finest municipal buildings in the country". The Grade I listed building is the ceremonial headquarters of Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council and houses local government departments, including the borough's civil registration office . Built in the Gothic Revival style it was inaugurated on 27 September 1871. The architect, William Henry Crossland , won a competition held in 1864. The town hall had a 240-foot (73 m) clock tower topped by a wooden spire with a gilded statue of Saint George and the Dragon which were destroyed by fire on 10 April 1883. A new 191-foot (58 m) stone clock tower and spire in the style of Manchester
Manchester
Town Hall was designed by Alfred Waterhouse
Alfred Waterhouse
, and erected in 1888. Art critic Nikolaus Pevsner described the building as possessing a "rare picturesque beauty". Its stained glass windows, some designed by William Morris
William Morris
, are credited as "the finest modern examples of their kind". The building came to the attention of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
who was said to have admired it so much that he wished to ship the building, brick-by-brick, to Nazi Germany had the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
been defeated in the Second World War
Second World War
.

Rochdale Cenotaph , a war memorial bearing four sculpted and painted flags, is opposite the town hall. It commemorates those who died in conflicts since the First World War
First World War
(1914–1918). The monument and surrounding gardens were designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens .

In Rochdale, is St John the Baptist Catholic Church . It was built in 1927 in Byzantine Revival style and is a Grade II listed building.

TRANSPORT

Public transport
Public transport
in Rochdale
Rochdale
is co-ordinated by the Transport for Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
who own the bus station and coordinate transport services in the area.

ROAD

The earliest routes around Rochdale
Rochdale
were tracks and packhorse routes and a paved track over Blackstone Edge into Yorkshire
Yorkshire
that had Roman origins. As trade increased the Blacksone Edge turnpike road was built in 1735.

The M62 motorway to the south of the town is accessed via the A627(M) , which starts at Sandbrook Park in Rochdale
Rochdale
and runs to Elk Mill in Chadderton
Chadderton
. The A627(M) provides drivers a quick access to the M62 and to Oldham.

ROCHDALE CANAL

The idea for the Rochdale Canal
Rochdale Canal
emerged in 1776, when James Brindley was commissioned to survey possible routes between Sowerby Bridge and Manchester. However it was not until 4 April 1794 that an Act of Parliament was obtained. The broad canal which linked the Bridgewater Canal in Manchester
Manchester
with the Aire and Calder Navigation at Sowerby Bridge became a major artery of commerce between Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
for cotton, wool, coal, limestone, timber, and salt. The canal is fed from Hollingworth Lake . The canal fell into disuse and re-opened in 2003 after years of neglect, including its division by a motorway.

RAIL AND METROLINK

The Metrolink stop at Rochdale railway station

Demand from the cross-Pennine trade to support local cotton , wool and silk industries led to the building of the Manchester
Manchester
and Leeds Railway which opened in 1839 from Manchester
Manchester
to Littleborough , and from Normanton to Hebden Bridge
Hebden Bridge
in 1840. The linking section opened on completion of the Summit Tunnel
Summit Tunnel
in 1841. Rochdale railway station is about a mile south of the town centre. Trains run to Manchester Victoria , Halifax , Dewsbury , Bradford
Bradford
and Leeds
Leeds
. A new service to Burnley
Burnley
and Accrington commenced in 2015.

The service to Manchester
Manchester
Victoria on the Oldham
Oldham
Loop line ended in October 2009, in preparation for conversion of the line to an extension of the Metrolink light rail system, renamed as the Oldham and Rochdale
Rochdale
Line . It was deferred in 2004 on grounds of cost but in July 2006 plans were approved for the extension from Manchester Victoria as far as Rochdale
Rochdale
railway station, and opened on 28 February 2013. The extension to Rochdale
Rochdale
town centre, via Drake Street and terminating opposite Rochdale Interchange opened on 31 March 2014.

BUS

Until 1969, the borough's bus service was provided by the municipal operator Rochdale
Rochdale
Corporation Transport which was merged into the SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive. Rochdale's old bus station closed in November 2013 and was demolished in April 2014 along with the multi-storey car park and municipal offices (known locally as 'The Black Box'), to make way for the new Town Centre East retail and leisure development. The replacement Rochdale Interchange is located next to the council office building Number One Riverside and is linked with Rochdale Town Centre tram stop .

There are frequent bus services from Rochdale, operated by First Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, to Middleton, Royton, Chadderton, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury
Bury
and Bolton. Frequent services to Manchester city centre are provided by First Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
's 17 overground service. There are cross-county services into Lancashire
Lancashire
and West Yorkshire, provided by Rosso , who operates to Rawtenstall
Rawtenstall
and Accrington, First West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, which operates to Burnley
Burnley
and Halifax, both via Todmorden, while the service to Halifax via Ripponden is operated by Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Tiger .

EDUCATION

Main article: List of schools in Rochdale

Hopwood Hall College is a further education college with a campus in Rochdale. It offers vocational courses for school leavers, and courses for adult learners and some higher education .

Rochdale Sixth Form College opened in September 2010, and is the primary provider of A-Level courses in Rochdale
Rochdale
and the wider Metropolitan Borough . Most secondary schools in the area do not offer sixth form courses to students any more.

RELIGION

See also: List of churches in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester

St Chad 's Church was the mother church of the ancient ecclesiastical parish and was founded before 1170, possibly on a Saxon
Saxon
site. Much of the current building is the result of late Victorian restoration . A local legend relates that the site was chosen by spirits and fairies as on several occasions stone for the church building was moved from near the river to the hill on which St. Chad's stands. The church is accessed from the town below by a flight of 124 steps. The town stocks (no longer in use) are in the churchyard.

PUBLIC SERVICES

Scout Moor Wind Farm overlooking Rochdale
Rochdale

Home Office
Home Office
policing in Rochdale
Rochdale
is provided by Greater Manchester Police and the Rochdale
Rochdale
Division has headquarters at Town Meadow adjacent to the Magistrates\' Court . Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Fire and Rescue Service , which has fire stations in Rochdale, Littleborough and Heywood.

Emergency healthcare is provided by Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust . The Trust operates four hospitals in the North Manchester
Manchester
area, including the Rochdale
Rochdale
Infirmary for the NHS . Patient transport is provided by the North West Ambulance Service . Rochdale
Rochdale
Infirmary is the only hospital serving the town since the closure of Birch Hill Hospital which occupied the former Rochdale
Rochdale
Union Workhouse
Workhouse
at Dearnley in 2007. New facilities were established at Rochdale Infirmary as part of the town's healthcare restructure. Primary Care services in Rochdale
Rochdale
are provided by the Heywood, Middleton and Rochdale
Rochdale
NHS Primary Care Trust. In 2006 it was announced that Accident Samuel Bamford , the radical and writer; and Rev. Joseph Cooke , the inspiration behind the Methodist Unitarian movement. In the 20th century, another prominent (if now controversial) political personality was Cyril Smith .

Among Rochdale's residents have been several musicians, including singers Gracie Fields
Gracie Fields
, Lisa Stansfield (born in Heywood ) and Barb Jungr and bands Autechre , Tractor , the Chameleons , the Mock Turtles and the Cassandra Complex . Good Charlotte drummer Dean Butterworth also hails from Rochdale. Broadcasters John Peel
John Peel
, Mark Chapman , Liz and Andy Kershaw
Andy Kershaw
also have links with the town, Peel having lived there for a period of time and the latter three having been born there. Actors Colin Baker , Anna Friel and Bill Oddie were born in Rochdale. Don Estelle , who was born and brought up in Crumpsall
Crumpsall
, lived for much of his life in Rochdale
Rochdale
and was buried there in August 2003.

Sajid Javid , the current Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport was born in Rochdale
Rochdale
to British Pakistani
British Pakistani
parents.

Other notable residents include businessman and philanthropist Sir Peter Ogden , novelist Nicholas Blincoe , Monica Coghlan , a prostitute caught up in the Jeffrey Archer scandal, and the banker Rev. Paul Flowers . Poet John Siddique was brought up in Rochdale
Rochdale
and has referred to the town in several poems. Novelist Anna Jacobs was born in Rochdale. World Series of poker winner Jake Cody grew up in Rochdale. The footballer Earl Barrett was born there in April 1967 to Jamaican immigrant parents. Great Britain Olympian Craig Dawson , represented hometown club Rochdale
Rochdale
and Bolton
Bolton
Wanderers at football .

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E " Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
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Rochdale
MBC population 2011". Retrieved 6 January 2016. * ^ Godman, Pam (1996). Images of England: Rochdale. ISBN 1-84588-173-7 . * ^ A B C D E F McNeil, R. & Nevell, M (2000). A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Greater Manchester. Association for Industrial Archaeology. ISBN 0-9528930-3-7 . * ^ "Membership in Co-operative Businesses Reaches 1 Billion - Worldwatch Institute". * ^ Rochdale
Rochdale
– The Birthplace of Co-operation. Retrieved 1 January 2006. * ^ "Co-operative identity, values & principles - ICA: International Co-operative Alliance". * ^ Cunningham, C (1981). Victorian & Edwardian Town Halls. London: Routeledge. * ^ Mills, A.D.: A Dictionary of English Place Names, 2nd Edition, page 289, s.n. Rochdale. Oxford University Press, 1998 * ^ A B C D Lewis, Samuel (1848), A Topographical Dictionary of England; \'Rixton – Rochford\', Institute of Historical Research, pp. 679–686 * ^ A B C Brownbill, J; Farrer, William (1911), A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5, Victoria County History, pp. 187–201 * ^ War Memorial, Link4Life, retrieved 28 December 2010 * ^ Mines worked in Rochdale
Rochdale
in 1896, Rochdale
Rochdale
Online, archived from the original on 15 July 2011, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ Trade, Industry & Transport, Link4Life, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ Cotton
Cotton
Mills in Rochdale
Rochdale
1891, Grace's Guide, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ Rochdale, Link4Life, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ Taylor, Miles, "Bright, John (1811–1889), politician", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ "IMDb: Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "Hilltop Primary School, Kirkholt, Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England, UK"".

* ^ R.D.W. Young (1998–2007). "Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales – Greater Manchester". civicheraldry.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007. * ^ A B Rochdale
Rochdale
Workhouse, The Workhouse, archived from the original on 5 June 2011, retrieved 23 December 2010 * ^ "Town twinning". rochdale.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2008. * ^ "Former Liberal Democrat MP Cyril Smith dies", BBC
BBC
News, 3 September 2010, retrieved 27 December 2010 * ^ "MP Simon Danczuk suspended by Labour over \'spanking\' texts to teenager". * ^ Office for National Statistics (2001). "Census 2001:Key Statistics for urban areas in the North; Map 3" (PDF). statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2007. * ^ "Census 2001 Key Statistics – Urban area results by population size of urban area". ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. 22 July 2004. KS01 Usual resident population . Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ "Census 2001 Key Statistics – Urban area results by population size of urban area". ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. 22 July 2004. KS04 Marital status . Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ "Census 2001 Key Statistics – Urban area results by population size of urban area". ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. 22 July 2004. KS20 Household composition . Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ "Census 2001 Key Statistics – Urban area results by population size of urban area". ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. 22 July 2004. KS13 Qualifications and students . Retrieved 25 April 2009.

* ^ " Stockport
Stockport
Metropolitan Borough key statistics". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved on 17 August 2008. •" Stockport
Stockport
Metropolitan Borough ethnic group data". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved on 17 August 2008. * ^ "More unemployed and for longer". M.E.N. Media. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010. * ^ "Census 2001 Key Statistics – Urban area results by population size of urban area". ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. 22 July 2004. KS06 Ethnic group . Retrieved 25 April 2009.

* ^ " Rochdale
Rochdale
Metropolitan Borough key statistics". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2009. •" Rochdale
Rochdale
Metropolitan Borough ethnic group data". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ A B Services, Good Stuff IT. " Rochdale
Rochdale
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