Robinson Crusoe[a] /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel
Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719. The first edition credited
the work's protagonist
Robinson Crusoe as its author, leading many
readers to believe he was a real person and the book a travelogue of
Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is presented
as an autobiography of the title character (whose birth name is
Robinson Kreutznaer)—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote
tropical desert island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals,
captives, and mutineers, before ultimately being rescued. The story
has been thought to be based on the life of Alexander Selkirk, a
Scottish castaway who lived for four years on a Pacific island called
"Más a Tierra", now part of Chile, which was renamed Robinson Crusoe
Island in 1966, but various literary sources have also been
Despite its simple narrative style,
Robinson Crusoe was well received
in the literary world and is often credited as marking the beginning
of realistic fiction as a literary genre. It is generally seen as a
contender for the first English novel. Before the end of 1719, the
book had already run through four editions, and it has gone on to
become one of the most widely published books in history, spawning so
many imitations, not only in literature but also in film, television
and radio, that its name is used to define a genre, the Robinsonade.
1 Plot summary
2 Sources and real life castaways
3 Reception and sequels
7 See also
10 Additional References
11 Works of criticism
12 External links
Pictorial map of Crusoe's island, a.k.a. "Island of Despair", showing
incidents from the book
Crusoe (the family name corrupted from the German name "Kreutznaer")
set sail from
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651,
against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career
in law. After a tumultuous journey where his ship is wrecked in a
storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea
again. This journey, too, ends in disaster, as the ship is taken over
Salé pirates (the
Salé Rovers) and Crusoe is enslaved by a Moor.
Two years later, he escapes in a boat with a boy named Xury; a captain
of a Portuguese ship off the west coast of Africa rescues him. The
ship is en route to Brazil. Crusoe sells Xury to the captain. With the
captain's help, Crusoe procures a plantation.
Years later, Crusoe joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa,
but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an
island (which he calls the Island of Despair) near the mouth of the
Orinoco river on 30 September 1659. He observes the latitude as 9
degrees and 22 minutes north. He sees penguins and seals on his
island. As for his arrival there, only he and three animals, the
captain's dog and two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his
despair, he fetches arms, tools and other supplies from the ship
before it breaks apart and sinks. He builds a fenced-in habitat near a
cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates
a calendar. By using tools salvaged from the ship, and some he makes
himself from "ironwood", he hunts, grows barley and rice, dries grapes
to make raisins, learns to make pottery and raises goats. He also
adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious,
thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human
More years pass and Crusoe discovers native cannibals, who
occasionally visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. At first he
plans to kill them for committing an abomination but later realizes he
has no right to do so, as the cannibals do not knowingly commit a
crime. He dreams of obtaining one or two servants by freeing some
prisoners; when a prisoner escapes, Crusoe helps him, naming his new
companion "Friday" after the day of the week he appeared. Crusoe then
teaches him English and converts him to Christianity.
After more natives arrive to partake in a cannibal feast, Crusoe and
Friday kill most of the natives and save two prisoners. One is
Friday's father and the other is a Spaniard, who informs Crusoe about
other Spaniards shipwrecked on the mainland. A plan is devised wherein
the Spaniard would return to the mainland with Friday's father and
bring back the others, build a ship, and sail to a Spanish port.
Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears; mutineers have
commandeered the vessel and intend to maroon their captain on the
island. Crusoe and the ship's captain strike a deal in which Crusoe
helps the captain and the loyal sailors retake the ship and leave the
worst mutineers on the island. Before embarking for England, Crusoe
shows the mutineers how he survived on the island and states that
there will be more men coming. Crusoe leaves the island 19 December
1686 and arrives in England on 11 June 1687. He learns that his family
believed him dead; as a result, he was left nothing in his father's
will. Crusoe departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of his estate
in Brazil, which has granted him much wealth. In conclusion, he
transports his wealth overland to England from
Portugal to avoid
travelling by sea. Friday accompanies him and, en route, they endure
one last adventure together as they fight off famished wolves while
crossing the Pyrenees.
Sources and real life castaways
Castaway § Real occurrences
Robinson Crusoe at Alexander Selkirk's birthplace of Lower
Largo by Thomas Stuart Burnett
Book on Alexander Selkirk
There were many stories of real-life castaways in Defoe's time, most
famous, Defoe's suspected inspiration for
Robinson Crusoe is thought
to be from Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years on
the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra (renamed Robinson Crusoe
Island in 1966) in the
Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands off the Chilean
coast. Selkirk was rescued in 1709 by
Woodes Rogers during an English
expedition that led to the publication of Selkirk's adventures in both
A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World
A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World and A Cruising Voyage
Around the World in 1712. According to Tim Severin, "Daniel Defoe, a
secretive man, neither confirmed or denied that Selkirk was the model
for the hero of the his book. Apparently written in six months or
Robinson Crusoe was a publishing phenomenon.
The author of Crusoe's Island, Andrew Lambert states, "the ideas that
a single, real Crusoe is a "false premise" because Crusoe's story is a
complex compound of all the other buccaneer survival stories." 
Robinson Crusoe is far from a copy of Rogers' account: Becky
Little argues three events that distinguish the two stories. Robinson
Crusoe was shipwrecked while Selkirk decided to leave his ship thus
marooning himself; the island Crusoe was shipwrecked on had already
been inhabited, unlike the solidarity of Selkirk's adventures. The
last and most crucial difference between the two stories is Selkirk is
a pirate, looting and raiding coastal cities. Andrew Lambert states,
“The economic and dynamic thrust of the book is completely alien to
what the buccaneers are doing,” Lambert says. “The buccaneers just
want to capture some loot and come home and drink it all, and Crusoe
isn’t doing that at all. He’s an economic imperialist. He’s
creating a world of trade and profit.”
Another possible source for the narrative was Ibn Tufail's Hayy ibn
Yaqdhan, a twelfth-century philosophical novel also set on a desert
island and translated into Latin and English a number of times in the
half-century preceding Defoe's novel.
Yet another source for Defoe's novel may have been the Robert Knox
account of his abduction by the King of Ceylon in 1659 in An
Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon.
Tim Severin's book Seeking
Robinson Crusoe (2002) unravels a much
wider and more plausible range of potential sources of inspiration,
and concludes by identifying castaway surgeon Henry Pitman as the most
likely. An employee of the Duke of Monmouth, Pitman played a part in
the Monmouth Rebellion. His short book about his desperate escape from
a Caribbean penal colony, followed by his shipwrecking and subsequent
desert island misadventures, was published by
J. Taylor of Paternoster
Row, London, whose son William Taylor later published Defoe's novel.
Severin argues that since Pitman appears to have lived in the lodgings
above the father's publishing house and that Defoe himself was a
mercer in the area at the time, Defoe may have met Pitman in person
and learned of his experiences first-hand, or possibly through
submission of a draft. Severin also discusses another publicised
case of a marooned man named only as Will, of the
Miskito people of
Central America, who may have led to the depiction of Man Friday.
Arthur Wellesley Secord in his Studies in the narrative method of
Defoe (1963: 21–111) analyses the composition of
Robinson Crusoe and
gives a list of possible sources of the story, rejecting the common
theory that the story of Selkirk is Defoe's only source.
Reception and sequels
Plaque in Queen's Gardens, Hull, showing him on his island
The book was published on 25 April 1719. Before the end of the year,
this first volume had run through four editions.
By the end of the 19th century, no book in the history of Western
literature had more editions, spin-offs and translations (even into
languages such as Inuktitut, Coptic and Maltese) than Robinson Crusoe,
with more than 700 such alternative versions, including children's
versions with pictures and no text.
The term "Robinsonade" was coined to describe the genre of stories
similar to Robinson Crusoe.
Defoe went on to write a lesser-known sequel, The Farther Adventures
Robinson Crusoe (1719). It was intended to be the last part of his
stories, according to the original title page of the sequel's first
edition, but a third book, ''Serious Reflections During the Life &
Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: With His Vision of the
Angelic World (1720), was written.
Crusoe standing over Friday after he frees him from the cannibals.
James Joyce noted that the true symbol of the British Empire
is Robinson Crusoe, to whom he ascribed stereotypical and somewhat
hostile English racial characteristics: "He is the true prototype of
the British colonist. ... The whole Anglo-Saxon spirit in Crusoe:
the manly independence, the unconscious cruelty, the persistence, the
slow yet efficient intelligence, the sexual apathy, the calculating
taciturnity." In a sense Crusoe attempts to replicate his society
on the island. This is achieved through the use of European
technology, agriculture and even a rudimentary political hierarchy.
Several times in the novel Crusoe refers to himself as the "king" of
the island, whilst the captain describes him as the "governor" to the
mutineers. At the very end of the novel the island is explicitly
referred to as a "colony". The idealised master-servant relationship
Defoe depicts between Crusoe and Friday can also be seen in terms of
cultural imperialism. Crusoe represents the "enlightened" European
whilst Friday is the "savage" who can only be redeemed from his
barbarous way of life through assimilation into Crusoe's culture.
Nonetheless Defoe also takes the opportunity to criticise the historic
Spanish conquest of South America.
According to J. P. Hunter, Robinson is not a hero but an everyman. He
begins as a wanderer, aimless on a sea he does not understand, and
ends as a pilgrim, crossing a final mountain to enter the promised
land. The book tells the story of how Robinson becomes closer to God,
not through listening to sermons in a church but through spending time
alone amongst nature with only a Bible to read.
Conversely, cultural critic and literary scholar Michael Gurnow views
the novel from a Rousseauian perspective. In "'The Folly of Beginning
a Work Before We Count the Cost': Anarcho-Primitivism in Daniel
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe," the central character's movement from a
primitive state to a more civilized one is interpreted as Crusoe's
denial of humanity's state of nature.
Robinson Crusoe is filled with religious aspects. Defoe was a Puritan
moralist and normally worked in the guide tradition, writing books on
how to be a good
Puritan Christian, such as The New Family Instructor
(1727) and Religious Courtship (1722). While
Robinson Crusoe is far
more than a guide, it shares many of the themes and theological and
moral points of view. "Crusoe" may have been taken from Timothy Cruso,
a classmate of Defoe's who had written guide books, including God the
Guide of Youth (1695), before dying at an early age – just eight
years before Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe. Cruso would have been
remembered by contemporaries and the association with guide books is
clear. It has even been speculated that God the Guide of Youth
Robinson Crusoe because of a number of passages in that work
that are closely tied to the novel. A leitmotif of the novel is
the Christian notion of Providence, penitence and redemption.
Crusoe comes to repent of the follies of his youth. Defoe also
foregrounds this theme by arranging highly significant events in the
novel to occur on Crusoe's birthday. The denouement culminates not
only in Crusoe's deliverance from the island, but his spiritual
deliverance, his acceptance of Christian doctrine, and in his
intuition of his own salvation.
When confronted with the cannibals, Crusoe wrestles with the problem
of cultural relativism. Despite his disgust, he feels unjustified in
holding the natives morally responsible for a practice so deeply
ingrained in their culture. Nevertheless, he retains his belief in an
absolute standard of morality; he regards cannibalism as a "national
crime" and forbids Friday from practising it.
Robinson Crusoe economy
In classical, neoclassical and Austrian economics, Crusoe is regularly
used to illustrate the theory of production and choice in the absence
of trade, money and prices. Crusoe must allocate effort between
production and leisure and must choose between alternative production
possibilities to meet his needs. The arrival of Friday is then used to
illustrate the possibility of trade and the gains that result.
Tim Severin's book Seeking
Robinson Crusoe (2002) unravels a much
wider range of potential sources of inspiration. Severin concludes his
investigations by stating that the real
Robinson Crusoe figure was
Henry Pitman, a castaway who had been surgeon to the Duke of Monmouth.
Pitman's short book about his desperate escape from a Caribbean penal
colony for his part in the Monmouth Rebellion, his shipwrecking and
subsequent desert island misadventures was published by
J. Taylor of
Paternoster Street, London, whose son William Taylor later published
Defoe's novel. Severin argues that since Pitman appears to have lived
in the lodgings above the father's publishing house and since Defoe
was a mercer in the area at the time, Defoe may have met Pitman and
learned of his experiences as a castaway. If he didn't meet Pitman,
Severin points out that Defoe, upon submitting even a draft of a novel
about a castaway to his publisher, would undoubtedly have learned
about Pitman's book published by his father, especially since the
interesting castaway had previously lodged with them at their former
Severin also provides evidence in his book that another publicised
case of a real-life marooned Miskito Central American man named
only as Will may have caught Defoe's attention, inspiring the
Man Friday in his novel.
"One day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly
surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was
very plain to be seen on the sand."
— Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, 1719
The novel has been variously read as an allegory for the development
of civilisation, as a manifesto of economic individualism and as an
expression of European colonial desires but it also shows the
importance of repentance and illustrates the strength of Defoe's
religious convictions. Critics such as Maximillian E. Novak support
the connection between the religious and economic themes within
Robinson Crusoe, citing Defoe's religious ideology as the influence
for his portrayal of Crusoe's economic ideals and his support of the
individual. Within Novak's article, "Robinson Crusoe's "Original
Sin"," Novak cites Ian Watt's extensive research in Watt's book, Myths
of Modern Individualism: Faust, Don Quixote, Don Jaun, Robinson
Crusoe, In which Watts explores the impact that several Romantic Era
novels had against economic individualism, and the reversal of those
ideals that takes place within Robinson Crusoe. In Tess Lewis’
review, “The Heroes We Deserve,” of Ian Watts article, she
furthers Watt’s argument with a development on Defoe’s intention
as an author, “to use individualism to signify nonconformity in
religion and the admirable qualities of self-reliance,” (Lewis 678).
This further supports the belief that Defoe used aspects of a
spiritual biography in order to introduce the benefits of
individualism to a not entirely convinced ideological community.
It is also considered by many to be the first novel written in
English. Early critics, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, admired it,
saying that the footprint scene in Crusoe was one of the four greatest
in English literature and most unforgettable; more prosaically, Dr.
Wesley Vernon has seen the origins of forensic podiatry in this
episode. It has inspired a new genre, the Robinsonade, as works
like Johann David Wyss's
The Swiss Family Robinson
The Swiss Family Robinson (1812) adapt its
premise and has provoked modern postcolonial responses, including J.
M. Coetzee's Foe (1986) and Michel Tournier's Vendredi ou les Limbes
du Pacifique (in English, Friday, or, The Other Island) (1967). Two
sequels followed, Defoe's The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
(1719) and his Serious reflections during the life and surprising
adventures of Robinson Crusoe: with his Vision of the angelick world
(1720). Jonathan Swift's
Gulliver's Travels (1726) in part parodies
Defoe's adventure novel.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2010)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The book proved so popular that the names of the two main protagonists
have entered the language. During World War II, people who decided to
stay and hide in the ruins of the German-occupied city of
Warsaw for a
period of three winter months, from October to January 1945, when they
were rescued by the Red Army, were later called Robinson Crusoes of
Robinson Crusoe usually referred to his servant as "my man
Friday", from which the term "Man Friday" (or "Girl Friday")
Robinson Crusoe marked the beginning of realistic fiction as a
literary genre. Its success led to many imitators, and castaway
novels, written by Ambrose Evans, Penelope Aubin, and others, became
quite popular in Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Most
of these have fallen into obscurity, but some became established,
including The Swiss Family Robinson, which borrowed Crusoe's first
name for its title.
Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, published seven years after
Robinson Crusoe, may be read as a systematic rebuttal of Defoe's
optimistic account of human capability. In The Unthinkable Swift: The
Spontaneous Philosophy of a Church of England Man, Warren Montag
argues that Swift was concerned about refuting the notion that the
individual precedes society, as Defoe's novel seems to suggest. In
Treasure Island, author
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson parodies Crusoe with
the character of Ben Gunn, a friendly castaway who was marooned for
many years, has a wild appearance, dresses entirely in goat skin and
constantly talks about providence.
In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's treatise on education, Emile, or On
Education, the one book the protagonist is allowed to read before the
age of twelve is Robinson Crusoe.
Rousseau wants Emile to identify
himself as Crusoe so he can rely upon himself for all of his needs. In
Rousseau's view, Emile needs to imitate Crusoe's experience, allowing
necessity to determine what is to be learned and accomplished. This is
one of the main themes of Rousseau's educational model.
Robinson Crusoe Bookstore on İstiklal Avenue, Istanbul.
In The Tale of Little Pig Robinson,
Beatrix Potter directs the reader
Robinson Crusoe for a detailed description of the island (the land
of the Bong tree) to which her eponymous hero moves. In Wilkie
Collins' most popular novel, The Moonstone, one of the chief
characters and narrators, Gabriel Betteredge, has faith in all that
Robinson Crusoe says and uses the book for a sort of divination. He
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe the finest book ever
written, reads it over and over again, and considers a man but poorly
read if he had happened not to read the book.
Michel Tournier published Friday, or, The Other Island
(French Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique) in 1967. His novel
explores themes including civilization versus nature, the psychology
of solitude, as well as death and sexuality in a retelling of Defoe's
Robinson Crusoe story. Tournier's Robinson chooses to remain on the
island, rejecting civilization when offered the chance to escape 28
years after being shipwrecked. Likewise, in 1963, J. M. G. Le Clézio,
winner of the 2008
Nobel Prize in literature, published the novel Le
Proces-Verbal. The book's epigraph is a quote from Robinson Crusoe,
and like Crusoe, Adam Pollo suffers long periods of loneliness.
"Crusoe in England", a 183-line poem by Elizabeth Bishop, imagines
Crusoe near the end of his life, recalling his time of exile with a
mixture of bemusement and regret.
J. M. Coetzee's 1986 novel Foe recounts the tale of Robinson Crusoe
from the perspective of a woman named Susan Barton.
The story was also illustrated and published in comic book form by
Classics Illustrated in 1943 and 1957. The much improved 1957 version
was inked/penciled by Sam Citron, who is most well known for his
contributions to the earlier issues of Superman.
A pantomime version of
Robinson Crusoe was staged at the Theatre
Royal, Drury Lane in 1796, with
Joseph Grimaldi as Pierrot in the
harlequinade. The piece was produced again in 1798, this time starring
Grimaldi as Clown. In 1815, Grimaldi played Friday in another version
of Robinson Crusoe.
Jacques Offenbach wrote an opéra comique called Robinson Crusoé,
which was first performed at the
Opéra-Comique in Paris on 23
November 1867. This was based on the British pantomime version rather
than the novel itself. The libretto was by Eugène Cormon and
There is a 1927 silent film titled Robinson Crusoe. The Soviet 3D film
Robinzon Kruzo was produced in 1946.
Luis Buñuel directed Adventures
Robinson Crusoe starring Dan O'Herlihy, released in 1954. Walt
Disney later comedicized the novel with Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N.,
featuring Dick Van Dyke. In this version, Friday became a beautiful
woman, but named 'Wednesday' instead.
Peter O'Toole and Richard
Roundtree co-starred in a 1975 film
Man Friday which sardonically
portrayed Crusoe as incapable of seeing his dark-skinned companion as
anything but an inferior creature, while Friday is more enlightened
and sympathetic. In 1988,
Aidan Quinn portrayed
Robinson Crusoe in the
film Crusoe. A 1997 movie entitled
Robinson Crusoe starred Pierce
Brosnan and received limited commercial success. Variations on the
theme include the 1954 Miss Robin Crusoe, with a female castaway,
played by Amanda Blake, and a female Friday, and the 1964 film
Robinson Crusoe on Mars, starring Paul Mantee, with an alien Friday
Victor Lundin and an added character played by Adam West.
The 2000 film Cast Away, with
Tom Hanks as a FedEx employee stranded
on an Island for many years, also borrows much from the Robinson
In 1964 a French film production crew made a 13-part serial of The
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. It starred Robert Hoffmann. The black
and white series was dubbed into English and German. In the UK, the
BBC broadcast it on numerous occasions between 1965 and 1977. In 1981
Czechoslovakian director and animator
Stanislav Látal made a version
of the story under the name Dobrodružství Robinsona Crusoe,
námořníka z Yorku (The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a sailor from
York) combining traditional and stop-motion animation. The movie was
coproduced by regional West Germany broadcaster Sudwestfunk
Robinson Crusoe, Oneworld Classics 2008. ISBN 978-1-84749-012-4
Penguin Classics 2003. ISBN 978-0-14-143982-2
Oxford World's Classics
Oxford World's Classics 2007.
Robinson Crusoe, Bantam Classics
Defoe, Daniel Robinson Crusoe. Edited by Michael Shinagel. (New York:
Norton, 1994) ISBN 9780393964523. Includes a selection of
From TV & films:
Swiss Family Robinson
Lost in Space
From real life:
a.^ It was published under the full title The Life and Strange
Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Of York, Mariner: Who lived
Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the
Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque;
Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished
but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd
^ "The Primitive Crusoe, 1719–1780". Picturing the First Castaway:
the Illustrations of
Robinson Crusoe - Paul Wilson and Michael Eck.
Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ Fiction as Authentic as Fact
^ a b Severin, Tim - In search of
Robinson Crusoe - New York, Basic
Books, 2002 ISBN 0-465-07698-X - pp. 23–24
^ "Defoe", The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret
Drabble. (Oxford: Oxforsd University Press,1996), p. 265.
^ Robinson Crusoe, Chapter 23.
^ SEVERIN, TIM (2002). "Marooned: The Metamorphosis of Alexander
Selkirk". The American Scholar. 71 (3): 73–82.
^ "Debunking the Myth of the 'Real' Robinson Crusoe". 2016-09-28.
^ Nawal Muhammad Hassan (1980), Hayy bin Yaqzan and Robinson Crusoe: A
study of an early Arabic impact on English literature, Al-Rashid House
^ Cyril Glasse (2001), New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 202, Rowman
Altamira, ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective:
Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary
Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4):
^ Martin Wainwright,
Desert island scripts, The Guardian, 22 March
^ Knox, Robert (1911). "An Historical Account of the Island Ceylon".
Based on the 1659 original text. Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons
(Publishers to the University), 1911.
^ see Alan Filreis
^ Severin, Tim - In search of
Robinson Crusoe - New York, Basic Books,
2002 - ISBN 0-465-07698-X
^ William Dampier, A New Voyage round the World, 1697 .
^ Watt, Ian (April 1951). "
Robinson Crusoe as a Myth". Essays in
^ Watt, Ian (1994). "
Robinson Crusoe as a Myth". Norton Critical
Edition (Second edition) (Reprint ed.).
^ James Joyce, "Daniel Defoe," translated from Italian manuscript and
edited by Joseph Prescott, Buffalo Studies 1 (1964): 24–25
^ "'The Folly of Beginning a Work Before We Count the Cost':
Anarcho-Primitivism in Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe,". Fifth Estate.
2010. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
^ Hunter, J. Paul (1966) The Reluctant Pilgrim. As found in Norton
Critical Edition (see References).
^ Greif, Martin J. (Summer 1966). "The Conversion of Robinson Crusoe".
Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. 6 (3): 551–574.
^ Varian, Hal R. (1990). Intermediate microeconomics: a modern
approach. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-95924-4.
William Dampier (1697) A New Voyage round the World.
^ Novak, Maximillian (Summer 1961). "Robinson Crusoe's "Original
Sin"". Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. 1 (3, Restoration and
Eighteenth Century): pp. 19–29 – via JSTOR. CS1 maint: Extra
^ Lewis, Tess (1997). Watt, Ian, ed. "The Heroes We Deserve". The
Hudson Review. 49 (4): 675–680. doi:10.2307/3851909.
^ Richard West (1998) Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange, Surprising
Adventures. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-7867-0557-3.
^ Engelking, Barbara; Libionka, Dariusz (2009). Żydzi w Powstańczej
Warszawie. Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą
Żydów. pp. 260–293. ISBN 978-83-926831-1-7.
^ Kathleen Buss, Lee Karnowski (2000). Reading and Writing Literary
Genres. International Reading Association. p. 7.
^ Laura Brown, "Oceans and Floods", Ch. 7 of Felicity A. Nussbaum,
ed., The Global Eighteenth Century, The Johns Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore, 2003. p. 109.
^ Jones, William B. (15 August 2011). Classics Illustrated: A Cultural
History (2 ed.). McFarland & Company. p. 203.
^ Findlater, pp. 60 and 76; Grimaldi (Box edition), pp. 184–185 and
193; and McConnell Stott, p. 101
Boz (Charles Dickens) (1853). Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi. London: G.
Routledge & Co.
Findlater, Richard (1955). Grimaldi King of Clowns. London: Magibbon
& Kee. OCLC 558202542.
McConnell Stott, Andrew (2009). The
Pantomime Life of Joseph Grimaldi.
Edinburgh: Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84767-761-7.
Ross, Angus, ed. (1965), Robinson Crusoe. Penguin.
Secord, Arthur Wellesley (1963). Studies in the narrative method of
Defoe. New York: Russell & Russell. (First published in 1924.)
Shinagel, Michael, ed. (1994). Robinson Crusoe. Norton Critical
Edition. ISBN 0-393-96452-3. Includes textual annotations,
contemporary and modern criticisms, bibliography. = BY KOGUL,
Severin, Tim (2002). In search of Robinson Crusoe, New York: Basic
Books. ISBN 0-465-07698-X
Hymer, Stephen (1971)
Robinson Crusoe and the Secret of Primitive
Accumulation Monthly Review.
Shinagel, Michael, ed. (1994). Robinson Crusoe. Norton Critical
Edition. (ISBN 0-393-96452-3.). By Kogul, Mariapan.
Works of criticism
Backscheider, Paula Daniel Defoe: His Life. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1989) ISBN 0801845122.
Richetti, John (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Daniel Defoe.
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) ISBN 9780521675055.
Casebook of critical essays.
Rogers, Pat Robinson Crusoe. (London: Allen and Unwin, 1979)
Watt, Ian The Rise of the Novel. (London: Pimlico, 2000)
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robinson Crusoe.
Robinson Crusoe at Project Gutenberg
Robinson Crusoe (London: W. Taylor, 1719)., commented text of the
first edition, free at Editions Marteau.
Robinson Crusoe by
Daniel Defoe - text and audio at Ciff Ciaff
Free eBook of
Robinson Crusoe with illustrations by N. C. Wyeth
Robinson Crusoe public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Free ebook of
Robinson Crusoe for Android Phones
Robinson Crusoe, told in words of one syllable, by
Lucy Aikin (aka
"Mary Godolphin") (1723–1764).
In-depth comparison between Defoe's novel and the account of the
adventures of Henry Pitman
Chasing Crusoe, multimedia documentary explores the novel and real
life history of Selkirk.
Robinson Crusoe on Literapedia
Robinson Crusoe & the Robinsonades Digital
Collection" with over 200 versions of
Robinson Crusoe openly and
freely online with full text and zoomable page images from the Baldwin
Library of Historical Children's Literature
Robinson Crusoe silent film, openly and freely
available in three parts on www.archive.org. Part 1; Part 2; Part 3
The BBC TV series from 1965 with music, info, videos and pictures.
Edgar Allan Poe's critical article
Discussion of a possible connection between Crusoe's island and Cocos
Island of Costa Rica
Naso people#History regarding the Térraba or Naso people
Defoe, Daniel. The wonderful life and surprising adventures of that
renowned hero, Robinson Crusoe: who lived twenty-eight years on an
uninhabited island, which he afterwards colonised. London: Printed for
the inhabitants of his island, and sold by T. Carnan, in St. Paul's
Church Yard, [ca. 1783]. 160 p. Accessed 4 January 2014, in PDF
Identification Guide -
Robinson Crusoe editions and related books
Works by Daniel Defoe
Robinson Crusoe (1719)
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Captain Singleton (1720)
Memoirs of a Cavalier
Memoirs of a Cavalier (1720)
Moll Flanders (1722)
Colonel Jack (1722)
A Journal of the Plague Year
A Journal of the Plague Year (1722)
Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (1724)
The Consolidator or, Memoirs of Sundry Transactions from the World in
the Moon (1705)
The Apparition of Mrs. Veal
The Apparition of Mrs. Veal (1706)
Atlantis Major (1711)
The King of Pirates (1719)
The Pirate Gow, an account of John Gow
An Essay Upon Projects
The Storm (1704)
The Family Instructor (1715)
Serious Reflections of
Robinson Crusoe (1720)
A General History of the Pyrates
A General History of the Pyrates (1724, disputed)
A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain
A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain (1724-27)
The Complete English Tradesman
The Political History of the Devil
The Political History of the Devil (1726)
Nature Delineated (1726)
Conjugal Lewdness (1727)
A Plan of the English Commerce
A Plan of the English Commerce (1728)
The Shortest Way with the Dissenters
The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702)
An Essay Upon Literature (1726)
Conjugal Lewdness (1727)
Augusta Triumphans (1728)
Second Thoughts Are Best
Second Thoughts Are Best (1729)
The True-Born Englishman
The True-Born Englishman (1701)
Hymn to the Pillory (1703)
Republic of Pirates
Types of pirate
Brethren of the Coast
Baltic Slavic pirates
British Virgin Islands
Strait of Malacca
South China Coast
Gulf of Guinea
Charlotte de Berry
Laurens de Graaf
Michel de Grammont
Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah
Samuel Hall Lord
Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Moses Cohen Henriques
Albert W. Hicks
Nicholas van Hoorn
John Newland Maffitt
Lai Choi San
Benito de Soto
Cheung Po Tsai
Years in piracy
Queen Anne's Revenge
Marquis of Havana
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Richard Avery Hornsby
Miguel Enríquez (privateer)
Pirate battles and incidents
Jiajing wokou raids
Battle of Mandab Strait
Battle of Pianosa
Blockade of Charleston
Battle of Cape Fear River
Battle of Ocracoke Inlet
Capture of the William
Sack of Campeche
Attack on Veracruz
Raid on Cartagena
Battle of Cape Lopez
Capture of the Fancy
Persian Gulf Campaign
Battle of New Orleans
Piracy in the Aegean
Anti-piracy in the West Indies
Capture of the Bravo
Action of 9 November 1822
Capture of the El Mosquito
Battle of Doro Passage
Great Lakes Patrol
Pirate attacks in Borneo
Battle of Tysami
Battle of Tonkin River
Battle of Nam Quan
Battle of Ty-ho Bay
Battle of the Leotung
North Star affair
Battle off Mukah
Battle of Boca Teacapan
Capture of the Ambrose Light
1985 Lahad Datu ambush
Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA
Action of 18 March 2006
Action of 3 June 2007
Action of 28 October 2007
Dai Hong Dan incident
Carré d'As IV incident
Action of 11 November 2008
Action of 9 April 2009
Maersk Alabama hijacking
Operation Ocean Shield
Action of 23 March 2010
Action of 1 April 2010
Action of 30 March 2010
Action of 5 April 2010
MV Moscow University hijacking
Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden
Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden
Beluga Nomination incident
Battle off Minicoy Island
MT Zafirah hijacking
MT Orkim Harmony hijacking
African slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
Arab slave trade
Barbary slave trade
Blockade of Africa
African Slave Trade Patrol
Capture of the Providentia
Capture of the Presidente
Capture of the El Almirante
Capture of the Marinerito
Capture of the Veloz Passagera
Capture of the Brillante
Capture of the Emanuela
Monkey D. Luffy
Long John Silver
Truce of Ratisbon
Piracy Act 1698
Piracy Act 1717
Piracy Act 1837
Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law
Golden Age of Piracy
Walking the plank
No purchase, no pay
Sack of Baltimore
A General History of the Pyrates
Letter of marque
Davy Jones' Locker
Timeline of piracy
Women in piracy
Pirates in popular culture
List of ships attacked by Somali pirates
Facing the Flag
On Stranger Tides
Castaways of the Flying Dutchman
The Angel's Command
Voyage of Slaves
Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe (1902)
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1922)
Robinson Crusoe (1927)
Robinson Crusoe (1947)
Robinson Crusoe (1954)
Robinson Crusoe (1974)
Robinson Crusoe (1997)
Miss Robin Crusoe (1954)
Robinson Crusoe on Mars
Robinson Crusoe on Mars (1964)
Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N.
Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N. (1966)
Man Friday (1975)
Mr. Robinson (1976)
The Wild Life (2016)
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1964)
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a Sailor from York (1982)
Robinson Sucroe (1994)
Friday, or, The Other Island
Robinson Crusoe Island
Robinson Crusoe economy
Robinson Crusoes of Warsaw
BNF: cb119362145 (data)