_ROBINSON CRUSOE_ /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel
Defoe , first published on 25 April 1719. The first edition credited
the work's protagonist
Epistolary , confessional , and didactic in form, the book is
presented as an autobiography of the title character (whose birth name
is Robinson Kreutznaer)—a castaway who spends twenty-eight years on
a remote tropical desert island near
Despite its simple narrative style, _Robinson Crusoe_ was well received in the literary world and is often credited as marking the beginning of realistic fiction as a literary genre. It is generally seen as a contender for the first English novel . Before the end of 1719, the book had already run through four editions, and it has gone on to become one of the most widely published books in history, spawning numerous imitations in film, television and radio that its name was used to define a genre, Robinsonade .
* 1 Plot summary * 2 Sources * 3 Reception and sequels * 4 Real-life castaways * 5 Interpretations * 6 Legacy * 7 Editions * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 References
* 12 Bibliography
* 12.1 Editions * 12.2 Works of criticism
* 13 External links
Pictorial map of Crusoe's island, a.k.a. "Island of Despair", showing incidents from the book
Crusoe (the family name corrupted from the German name "Kreutznaer") sets sail from the Queen\'s Dock in Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents, who want him to pursue a career, possibly in law. After a tumultuous journey where his ship is wrecked in a storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea again. This journey, too, ends in disaster, as the ship is taken over by Salé pirates (the Salé Rovers ) and Crusoe is enslaved by a Moor . Two years later, he escapes in a boat with a boy named Xury; a captain of a Portuguese ship off the west coast of Africa rescues him. The ship is en route to Brazil . Crusoe sells Xury to the captain. With the captain's help, Crusoe procures a plantation .
Years later, Crusoe joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa , but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island (which he calls the Island of Despair) near the mouth of the Orinoco river on 30 September 1659. He observes the latitude as 9 degrees and 22 minutes north. He sees penguins and seals on his island. As for his arrival there, only he and three animals, the captain's dog and two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his despair, he fetches arms, tools and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar. By using tools salvaged from the ship, and some he makes himself from "ironwood", he hunts, grows barley and rice, dries grapes to make raisins, learns to make pottery and raises goats. He also adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society.
More years pass and Crusoe discovers native cannibals , who occasionally visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. At first he plans to kill them for committing an abomination but later realizes he has no right to do so, as the cannibals do not knowingly commit a crime. He dreams of obtaining one or two servants by freeing some prisoners; when a prisoner escapes, Crusoe helps him, naming his new companion "Friday " after the day of the week he appeared. Crusoe then teaches him English and converts him to Christianity.
After more natives arrive to partake in a cannibal feast, Crusoe and Friday kill most of the natives and save two prisoners. One is Friday's father and the other is a Spaniard, who informs Crusoe about other Spaniards shipwrecked on the mainland. A plan is devised wherein the Spaniard would return to the mainland with Friday's father and bring back the others, build a ship, and sail to a Spanish port.
Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears; mutineers have
commandeered the vessel and intend to maroon their captain on the
island. Crusoe and the ship's captain strike a deal in which Crusoe
helps the captain and the loyal sailors retake the ship and leave the
worst mutineers on the island. Before embarking for England, Crusoe
shows the mutineers how he survived on the island and states that
there will be more men coming. Crusoe leaves the island 19 December
1686 and arrives in England on 11 June 1687. He learns that his family
believed him dead; as a result, he was left nothing in his father's
will. Crusoe departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of his estate
in Brazil, which has granted him much wealth. In conclusion, he
transports his wealth overland to England from
The story has been perceived to be based on the life of Alexander
Selkirk , a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific
island called "Más a Tierra", now part of
RECEPTION AND SEQUELS
Plaque in Queen\'s Gardens, Hull —the former Queen's Dock from which Crusoe sailed—showing him on his island
The book was published on 25 April 1719. Before the end of the year, this first volume had run through four editions.
By the end of the 19th century, no book in the history of Western literature had more editions, spin-offs and translations (even into languages such as Inuktitut , Coptic and Maltese ) than _Robinson Crusoe_, with more than 700 such alternative versions, including children's versions with pictures and no text.
The term " Robinsonade " was coined to describe the genre of stories similar to _Robinson Crusoe_.
Defoe went on to write a lesser-known sequel, _The Farther Adventures
There were many stories of real-life castaways in Defoe's time. Defoe's immediate inspiration for Crusoe is usually thought to be a Scottish sailor named Alexander Selkirk , who was rescued in 1709 by Woodes Rogers ' expedition after four years on the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra in the Juan Fernández Islands off the Chilean coast . Rogers' "Cruising Voyage" was published in 1712, with an account of Alexander Selkirk's ordeal. However, _Robinson Crusoe_ is far from a copy of Rogers' account: Selkirk was marooned at his own request, while Crusoe was shipwrecked; the islands are different; Selkirk lived alone for the whole time, while Crusoe found companions; Selkirk stayed on his island for four years, not twenty-eight. Furthermore, much of the appeal of Defoe's novel is the detailed and captivating account of Crusoe's thoughts, occupations and activities which goes far beyond that of Rogers' basic descriptions of Selkirk, which account for only a few pages. However, one must not forget that Defoe presented himself as the editor of the story. He was adamant to maintain his claim that the actual author was "Robinson Crusoe": a real person who was still alive in 1719–20.
Tim Severin 's book _Seeking Robinson Crusoe_ (2002) unravels a much wider and more plausible range of potential sources of inspiration, and concludes by identifying castaway surgeon Henry Pitman as the most likely. An employee of the Duke of Monmouth, Pitman played a part in the Monmouth Rebellion . His short book about his desperate escape from a Caribbean penal colony, followed by his shipwrecking and subsequent desert island misadventures, was published by J. Taylor of Paternoster Row, London, whose son William Taylor later published Defoe's novel. Severin argues that since Pitman appears to have lived in the lodgings above the father's publishing house and that Defoe himself was a mercer in the area at the time, Defoe may have met Pitman in person and learned of his experiences first-hand, or possibly through submission of a draft.
Crusoe standing over Friday after he frees him from the cannibals.
Novelist James Joyce noted that the true symbol of the British Empire is Robinson Crusoe, to whom he ascribed stereotypical and somewhat hostile English racial characteristics: "He is the true prototype of the British colonist. ... The whole Anglo-Saxon spirit in Crusoe: the manly independence, the unconscious cruelty, the persistence, the slow yet efficient intelligence, the sexual apathy, the calculating taciturnity." In a sense Crusoe attempts to replicate his society on the island. This is achieved through the use of European technology, agriculture and even a rudimentary political hierarchy. Several times in the novel Crusoe refers to himself as the "king" of the island, whilst the captain describes him as the "governor" to the mutineers. At the very end of the novel the island is explicitly referred to as a "colony". The idealised master-servant relationship Defoe depicts between Crusoe and Friday can also be seen in terms of cultural imperialism . Crusoe represents the "enlightened" European whilst Friday is the "savage" who can only be redeemed from his barbarous way of life through assimilation into Crusoe's culture. Nonetheless Defoe also takes the opportunity to criticise the historic Spanish conquest of South America.
According to J. P. Hunter, Robinson is not a hero but an everyman . He begins as a wanderer, aimless on a sea he does not understand, and ends as a pilgrim , crossing a final mountain to enter the promised land . The book tells the story of how Robinson becomes closer to God, not through listening to sermons in a church but through spending time alone amongst nature with only a Bible to read.
Conversely, cultural critic and literary scholar Michael Gurnow views the novel from a Rousseauian perspective. In "'The Folly of Beginning a Work Before We Count the Cost': Anarcho-Primitivism in Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe," the central character's movement from a primitive state to a more civilized one is interpreted as Crusoe's denial of humanity's state of nature .
_Robinson Crusoe_ is filled with religious aspects. Defoe was a Puritan moralist and normally worked in the guide tradition, writing books on how to be a good Puritan Christian, such as _The New Family Instructor_ (1727) and _Religious Courtship_ (1722). While _Robinson Crusoe_ is far more than a guide, it shares many of the themes and theological and moral points of view. "Crusoe" may have been taken from Timothy Cruso, a classmate of Defoe's who had written guide books, including _God the Guide of Youth_ (1695), before dying at an early age – just eight years before Defoe wrote _Robinson Crusoe_. Cruso would have been remembered by contemporaries and the association with guide books is clear. It has even been speculated that _God the Guide of Youth_ inspired _Robinson Crusoe_ because of a number of passages in that work that are closely tied to the novel. A leitmotif of the novel is the Christian notion of Providence , penitence and redemption. Crusoe comes to repent of the follies of his youth. Defoe also foregrounds this theme by arranging highly significant events in the novel to occur on Crusoe's birthday. The denouement culminates not only in Crusoe's deliverance from the island, but his spiritual deliverance, his acceptance of Christian doctrine, and in his intuition of his own salvation.
When confronted with the cannibals, Crusoe wrestles with the problem of cultural relativism . Despite his disgust, he feels unjustified in holding the natives morally responsible for a practice so deeply ingrained in their culture. Nevertheless, he retains his belief in an absolute standard of morality; he regards cannibalism as a "national crime" and forbids Friday from practising it. Main article: Robinson Crusoe economy
In classical , neoclassical and Austrian economics , Crusoe is regularly used to illustrate the theory of production and choice in the absence of trade, money and prices. Crusoe must allocate effort between production and leisure and must choose between alternative production possibilities to meet his needs. The arrival of Friday is then used to illustrate the possibility of and gains from trade.
Tim Severin 's book _Seeking Robinson Crusoe_ (2002) unravels a much
wider range of potential sources of inspiration. Severin concludes his
investigations by stating that the real
Severin also provides evidence in his book that another publicised case of a real-life marooned Miskito Central American man named only as Will may have caught Defoe's attention, inspiring the depiction of Man Friday in his novel. "One day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand." — Defoe's _Robinson Crusoe_, 1719
The novel has been variously read as an allegory for the development
of civilisation, as a manifesto of economic individualism and as an
expression of European colonial desires but it also shows the
importance of repentance and illustrates the strength of Defoe's
religious convictions. It is also considered by many to be the first
novel written in English . Early critics, such as Robert Louis
Stevenson , admired it, saying that the footprint scene in _Crusoe_
was one of the four greatest in English literature and most
unforgettable; more prosaically, Dr. Wesley Vernon has seen the
origins of forensic podiatry in this episode. It has inspired a new
Robinsonade , as works like
Johann David Wyss 's _The Swiss
Family Robinson _ (1812) adapt its premise and has provoked modern
postcolonial responses, including
J. M. Coetzee 's _Foe _ (1986) and
Michel Tournier 's _
Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique _ (in English,
_Friday, or, The Other Island_) (1967). Two sequels followed, Defoe's
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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The book proved so popular that the names of the two main
protagonists have entered the language. During
World War II
_Robinson Crusoe_ marked the beginning of realistic fiction as a literary genre. Its success led to many imitators, and castaway novels, written by Ambrose Evans, Penelope Aubin , and others, became quite popular in Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Most of these have fallen into obscurity, but some became established, including _ The Swiss Family Robinson _, which borrowed Crusoe's first name for its title.
Jonathan Swift 's _Gulliver\'s Travels _, published seven years after _Robinson Crusoe_, may be read as a systematic rebuttal of Defoe's optimistic account of human capability. In _The Unthinkable Swift: The Spontaneous Philosophy of a Church of England Man_, Warren Montag argues that Swift was concerned about refuting the notion that the individual precedes society, as Defoe's novel seems to suggest. In _ Treasure Island _, author Robert Louis Stevenson parodies Crusoe with the character of Ben Gunn , a friendly castaway who was marooned for many years, has a wild appearance, dresses entirely in goat skin and constantly talks about providence.
The Tale of Little Pig Robinson _,
Beatrix Potter directs the
reader to _Robinson Crusoe_ for a detailed description of the island
(the land of the Bong tree) to which her eponymous hero moves. In
Wilkie Collins ' most popular novel, _
The Moonstone _, one of the
chief characters and narrators, Gabriel Betteredge, has faith in all
Michel Tournier published _Friday, or, The Other
Island _ (French _Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique_) in 1967. His
novel explores themes including civilization versus nature, the
psychology of solitude, as well as death and sexuality in a retelling
of Defoe's _Robinson Crusoe_ story. Tournier's Robinson chooses to
remain on the island, rejecting civilization when offered the chance
to escape 28 years after being shipwrecked. Likewise, in 1963, J. M.
G. Le Clézio , winner of the 2008
"Crusoe in England", a 183-line poem by Elizabeth Bishop , imagines Crusoe near the end of his life, recalling his time of exile with a mixture of bemusement and regret.
J. M. Coetzee 's 1986 novel _Foe _ recounts the tale of Robinson Crusoe from the perspective of a woman named Susan Barton.
The story was also illustrated and published in comic book form by _ Classics Illustrated _ in 1943 and 1957. The much improved 1957 version was inked/penciled by Sam Citron, who is most well known for his contributions to the earlier issues of _Superman _.
A pantomime version of _Robinson Crusoe_ was staged at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in 1796, with Joseph Grimaldi as Pierrot in the harlequinade . The piece was produced again in 1798, this time starring Grimaldi as Clown . In 1815, Grimaldi played Friday in another version of _Robinson Crusoe_.
Jacques Offenbach wrote an opéra comique called _ Robinson Crusoé _, which was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 23 November 1867. This was based on the British pantomime version rather than the novel itself. The libretto was by Eugène Cormon and Hector-Jonathan Crémieux .
There is a 1927 silent film titled _
In 1964 a French film production crew made a 13-part serial of _The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe _. It starred Robert Hoffman . The black and white series was dubbed into English and German. In the UK, the BBC broadcast it on numerous occasions between 1965 and 1977. In 1981 Czechoslovakian director and animator Stanislav Látal made a version of the story under the name _Dobrodružství Robinsona Crusoe, námořníka z Yorku _ (The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a sailor from York) combining traditional and stop-motion animation. The movie was coproduced by regional West Germany broadcaster Sudwestfunk Baden-Baden.
* _Robinson Crusoe_, Oneworld Classics 2008. ISBN 978-1-84749-012-4 * _Robinson Crusoe_, Penguin Classics 2003. ISBN 978-0-14-143982-2 * _Robinson Crusoe_, Oxford World\'s Classics 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-283342-6 * _Robinson Crusoe_, Bantam Classics
* _Gilligan\'s Island _
Lost in Space
a.^ It was published under the full title _The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Of York, Mariner: Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by Pyrates_.
* ^ "The Primitive Crusoe, 1719–1780.". Picturing the First
Castaway: the Illustrations of
* Boz (Charles Dickens) (1853). _Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi_. London: G. Routledge & Co. * Findlater, Richard (1955). _Grimaldi King of Clowns_. London: Magibbon & Kee. OCLC 558202542 . * McConnell Stott, Andrew (2009). _The Pantomime Life of Joseph Grimaldi_. Edinburgh: Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84767-761-7 . * Ross, Angus, ed. (1965), _Robinson Crusoe_. Penguin. * Secord, Arthur Wellesley (1963). _Studies in the narrative method of Defoe_. New York: Russell ">ROBINSON CRUSOE
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ROBINSON CRUSOE _.
* _Robinson Crusoe_ at
* v * t * e
Works by Daniel Defoe
* _Robinson Crusoe_ (1719)
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
* The Consolidator or, Memoirs of Sundry Transactions from the World
in the Moon _ (1705)
The Apparition of Mrs. Veal
An Essay Upon Projects _
* _The Storm _ (1704)
* _The Family Instructor _ (1715)
* _Serious Reflections of
* _ The True-Born Englishman _ (1701) * _Hymn to the Pillory _ (1703)
* v * t * e
* Ancient Mediterranean
* Golden Age
* 21st century
TYPES OF PIRATE
* Sindhi corsairs
Brethren of the Coast
* Lake Nicaragua
* British Virgin Islands
* Strait of Malacca
* Somali Coast
* Sulu Sea
* Falcon Lake
* South China Coast
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Richard Avery Hornsby
* Jose Campuzano-Polanco
PIRATE BATTLES AND INCIDENTS
Jiajing wokou raids
* Chepo Expedition
* Battle of Mandab Strait
Battle of Pianosa
* Blockade of Charleston
* Battle of Cape Fear River
* Battle of Ocracoke Inlet
Capture of the William
* African slave trade * Atlantic slave trade * Arab slave trade * Barbary slave trade * Blockade of Africa * African Slave Trade Patrol * Capture of the _Providentia_ * Capture of the _Presidente_ * Capture of the _El Almirante_ * Capture of the _Marinerito_ * Capture of the _Veloz Passagera_ * Capture of the _Brillante_ * _Amistad_ Incident * Capture of the _Emanuela_
* Barbe Rouge
* Captain Blood
* Captain Crook
Monkey D. Luffy
Long John Silver
Truce of Ratisbon
* v * t * e
Daniel Defoe 's _Robinson Crusoe_
* _ Miss Robin Crusoe _ (1954) * _ Robinson Crusoe on Mars _ (1964) * _ Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N. _ (1966) * _ Man Friday _ (1975) * _Mr. Robinson _ (1976) * _Shipwrecked _ (1990) * _The Wild Life _ (2016)
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 175804708 * LCCN : n81045585 * GND : 4281761-4 * SELIBR : 279393 * SUDOC : 027287068 * BNF : cb119362145 (data) * NLA : 35034558 * NDL : 00627083 * BNE : XX3383713
Links: ------ /#endnote_Full_titlenone /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/Novel