ROBIN HOOD is a heroic outlaw in
English folklore who, according to
legend, was a highly skilled archer and swordsman . Traditionally
depicted as being dressed in
Lincoln green , he is often portrayed as
'robbing from the rich and giving to the poor' alongside his band of
Merry Men .
Robin Hood became a popular folk figure in the
late-medieval period, and continues to be widely represented in
literature, films and television.
* 1 Ballads and tales
* 1.1 Early ballads
* 1.2 Early plays, May Day games and fairs
Robin Hood on the early modern stage
* 1.4 The broadside ballads and garlands
* 1.5 Rediscovery of the Medieval Robin Hood: Percy and Ritson
The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
* 1.7 20th century onwards
* 1.8 Movies, animations, new concepts and other adaptations
* 1.8.1 Walt Disney\'s
Robin and Marian
Robin and Marian
* 1.8.3 A Muslim among the
Robin Hood in France
* 2.1 Early references
Robin Hood of
Robin Hood of
Roger Godberd as
Robin Hood as an alias
* 3 A mythological
* 4 Locations associated with
* 4.3 Yorkshire
* 4.5 The Saylis
* 4.6 Church of Saint Mary Magdalene at
* 4.7 Abbey of Saint Mary at
* 4.8 Grave at Kirklees
* 4.9 All Saints\' Church at
* 4.10 Place-name locations
* 4.10.1 Some other place names and other references
* 5 List of traditional ballads
* 5.1 Early ballads (i.e., surviving in 15th- or early-16th-century
* 5.2 Ballads appearing in 17th-century
* 5.3 Other ballads
* 6 In popular culture
* 7 Main characters of the folklore
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
BALLADS AND TALES
The first clear reference to 'rhymes of Robin Hood' is from the
Piers Plowman , thought to have been composed in the
1370s, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that
tell his story date to the second half of 15th century, or the first
decade of the 16th century. In these early accounts, Robin Hood's
partisanship of the lower classes, his Marianism and associated
special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer , his
anti-clericalism, and his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of
Nottingham are already clear.
Little John , Much the Miller\'s Son
Will Scarlet (as Will 'Scarlok' or 'Scathelocke') all appear,
although not yet
Maid Marian or
Friar Tuck . It is not certain what
should be made of these latter two absences as it is known that Friar
Tuck, for one, has been part of the legend since at least the later
15th century where he is mentioned in a
Robin Hood play script.
In modern popular culture,
Robin Hood is typically seen as a
contemporary and supporter of the late-12th-century king Richard the
Lionheart , Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of
Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the
Third Crusade .
This view first gained currency in the 16th century. It is not
supported by the earliest ballads. The early compilation, A Gest of
Robyn Hode , names the king as 'Edward'; and while it does show Robin
Hood accepting the King's pardon, he later repudiates it and returns
to the greenwood.
The oldest surviving ballad,
Robin Hood and the Monk , gives even
less support to the picture of
Robin Hood as a partisan of the true
king. The setting of the early ballads is usually attributed by
scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is
recognised they are not necessarily historically consistent.
The early ballads are also quite clear on Robin Hood's social status:
he is a yeoman . While the precise meaning of this term changed over
time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders,
it always referred to commoners. The essence of it in the present
context was 'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but
something in between'. Artisans (such as millers) were among those
regarded as 'yeomen' in the 14th century. From the 16th century on,
there were attempts to elevate
Robin Hood to the nobility and in two
extremely influential plays,
Anthony Munday presented him at the very
end of the 16th century as the
Earl of Huntingdon , as he is still
commonly presented in modern times.
As well as ballads, the legend was also transmitted by 'Robin Hood
games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and
early modern May Day festivities. The first record of a Robin Hood
game was in 1426 in
Exeter , but the reference does not indicate how
old or widespread this custom was at the time. The
Robin Hood games
are known to have flourished in the later 15th and 16th centuries. It
is commonly stated as fact that
Maid Marian and a jolly friar (at
least partly identifiable with
Friar Tuck) entered the legend through
the May Games.
The earliest surviving text of a
Robin Hood ballad is the 15th
Robin Hood and the Monk ". This is preserved in Cambridge
University manuscript Ff.5.48. Written after 1450, it contains many
of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham
setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff.
Douglas Fairbanks as Robin Hood; the sword he is depicted with was
common in the oldest ballads
The first printed version is
A Gest of Robyn Hode (c. 1500), a
collection of separate stories that attempts to unite the episodes
into a single continuous narrative. After this comes "
Robin Hood and
the Potter ", contained in a manuscript of c. 1503. "The Potter" is
markedly different in tone from "The Monk": whereas the earlier tale
is 'a thriller' the latter is more comic, its plot involving trickery
and cunning rather than straightforward force.
Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the
Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham (c. 1475). These
are particularly noteworthy as they show Robin's integration into May
Day rituals towards the end of the Middle Ages; Robyn Hod and the
Shryff off Notyngham, among other points of interest, contains the
earliest reference to
The plots of neither "the Monk" nor "the Potter" are included in the
Gest; and neither is the plot of "
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne ",
which is probably at least as old as those two ballads although
preserved in a more recent copy. Each of these three ballads survived
in a single copy, so it is unclear how much of the medieval legend has
survived, and what has survived may not be typical of the medieval
legend. It has been argued that the fact that the surviving ballads
were preserved in written form in itself makes it unlikely they were
typical; in particular, stories with an interest for the gentry were
by this view more likely to be preserved. The story of Robin's aid to
the 'poor knight' that takes up much of the Gest may be an example.
The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in
his later incarnations. In "
Robin Hood and the Monk", for example, he
is shown as quick tempered and violent, assaulting
Little John for
defeating him in an archery contest; in the same ballad Much the
Miller's Son casually kills a 'little page ' in the course of rescuing
Robin Hood from prison. No extant ballad early actually shows Robin
Hood 'giving to the poor', although in a "A Gest of Robyn Hode" Robin
does make a large loan to an unfortunate knight , which he does not in
the end require to be repaid; and later in the same ballad Robin Hood
states his intention of giving money to the next traveller to come
down the road if he happens to be poor. Of my good he shall haue
some, Yf he be a por man.
As it happens the next traveller is not poor, but it seems in context
Robin Hood is stating a general policy. The first explicit
statement to the effect that
Robin Hood habitually robbed from the
rich to give the poor can be found in
John Stow 's Annales of England
(1592), about a century after the publication of the Gest. But from
Robin Hood is on the side of the poor; the Gest quotes
Robin Hood as instructing his men that when they rob: loke ye do no
husbonde harme That tilleth with his ploughe. No more ye shall no gode
yeman That walketh by gren-wode shawe; Ne no knyght ne no squyer That
wol be a gode felawe.
And in its final lines the Gest sums up: he was a good outlawe, And
dyde pore men moch god.
Within Robin Hood's band, medieval forms of courtesy rather than
modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. In the early
ballad, Robin's men usually kneel before him in strict obedience: in A
Gest of Robyn Hode the king even observes that 'His men are more at
his byddynge/Then my men be at myn.' Their social status, as yeomen,
is shown by their weapons; they use swords rather than quarterstaffs .
The only character to use a quarterstaff in the early ballads is the
Robin Hood does not take to a staff until the 17th century
Robin Hood and
Little John .
The political and social assumptions underlying the early Robin Hood
ballads have long been controversial. It has been influentially argued
J. C. Holt that the
Robin Hood legend was cultivated in the
households of the gentry, and that it would be mistaken to see in him
a figure of peasant revolt. He is not a peasant but a yeoman, and his
tales make no mention of the complaints of the peasants, such as
oppressive taxes. He appears not so much as a revolt against societal
standards as an embodiment of them, being generous, pious, and
courteous, opposed to stingy, worldly, and churlish foes. Other
scholars have by contrast stressed the subversive aspects of the
legend, and see in the medieval
Robin Hood ballads a plebeian
literature hostile to the feudal order.
EARLY PLAYS, MAY DAY GAMES AND FAIRS
By the early 15th century at the latest,
Robin Hood had become
associated with May Day celebrations, with revellers dressing as Robin
or as members of his band for the festivities. This was not common
throughout England, but in some regions the custom lasted until
Elizabethan times, and during the reign of
Henry VIII , was briefly
popular at court . Robin was often allocated the role of a May King ,
presiding over games and processions, but plays were also performed
with the characters in the roles, sometimes performed at church ales
, a means by which churches raised funds.
A complaint of 1492, brought to the
Star Chamber , accuses men of
acting riotously by coming to a fair as
Robin Hood and his men; the
accused defended themselves on the grounds that the practice was a
long-standing custom to raise money for churches, and they had not
acted riotously but peaceably.
Robin Hood and
It is from the association with the May Games that Robin's romantic
Maid Marian (or Marion) apparently stems. A "Robin and
Marion" figured in 13th-century French 'pastourelles ' (of which Jeu
de Robin et Marion c. 1280 is a literary version) and presided over
the French May festivities, 'this Robin and Marion tended to preside,
in the intervals of the attempted seduction of the latter by a series
of knights, over a variety of rustic pastimes.' In the Jeu de Robin
and Marion, Robin and his companions have to rescue Marion from the
clutches of a 'lustful knight'. The naming of Marian may have come
from the French pastoral play of c. 1280, the Jeu de Robin et Marion
This play is distinct from the English legends. although Dobson and
Taylor regard it as 'highly probable' that this French Robin's name
and functions travelled to the English May Games where they fused with
Robin Hood legend. Both
Robin and Marian
Robin and Marian were certainly
associated with May Day festivities in England (as was
Friar Tuck ),
but these may have been originally two distinct types of performance
Alexander Barclay in his Ship of Fools, writing in c. 1500, refers
to 'some merry fytte of
Maid Marian OR ELSE of Robin Hood'—but the
characters were brought together'. Marian did not immediately gain
the unquestioned role; in Robin Hood\'s Birth, Breeding, Valor, and
Marriage , his sweetheart is 'Clorinda the Queen of the
Shepherdesses'. Clorinda survives in some later stories as an alias
The earliest preserved script of a
Robin Hood play is the fragmentary
Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham This apparently dates to the
1470s and circumstantial evidence suggests it was probably performed
at the household of Sir John Paston. This fragment appears to tell the
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne There is also an early
playtext appended to a 1560 printed edition of the Gest. This includes
a dramatic version of the story of
Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar and
a version of the first part of the story of
Robin Hood and the Potter
. (Neither of these ballads are known to have existed in print at the
time, and there is no earlier record known of the "Curtal Friar"
story). The publisher describes the text as a 'playe of Robyn Hood,
verye proper to be played in Maye games', but does not seem to be
aware that the text actually contains two separate plays An especial
point of interest in the "Friar" play is the appearance of a ribald
woman who is unnamed but apparently to be identified with the bawdy
Maid Marian of the May Games. She does not appear in extant versions
of the ballad.
ROBIN HOOD ON THE EARLY MODERN STAGE
Anthony Munday wrote a pair of plays on the Robin Hood
legend, The Downfall and The Death of Robert Earl of Huntington
(published 1601). These plays drew on a variety of sources, including
A Gest of Robin Hood , and were influential in fixing the
Robin Hood to the period of
Richard I . Stephen Thomas Knight
has suggested that Munday drew heavily on
Fulk Fitz Warin a historical
12th century outlawed nobleman and enemy of King John , in creating
his Robin Hood. The play identifies
Robin Hood as Robert, Earl of
Huntingdon , probably for the first time, and identifies Maid Marian
with 'one of the semi-mythical Matildas persecuted by King John '.
The plays are complex in plot and form, the story of Robin Hood
appearing as a play-within-a-play presented at the court of Henry VIII
and written by the poet, priest and courtier
John Skelton . Skelton
himself is presented in the play as acting the part of
Some scholars have conjectured that Skelton may have indeed written a
Robin Hood play for Henry VIII's court, and that this play may
have been one of Munday's sources.
Henry VIII himself with eleven of
his nobles had impersonated "Robyn Hodes men" as part of his "Maying"
Robin Hood is known to have appeared in a number of other
lost and extant Elizabethan plays. In 1599, the play George a Green,
the Pinner of
Robin Hood in the reign of
Edward IV .
Edward I, a play by
George Peele first performed in 1590-1,
Robin Hood game played by the characters. Lleweleyn,
the last independent Prince of Wales, is presented playing Robin Hood.
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart marrying
Robin Hood and Maid Marian
on a plaque outside
Robin Hood story to the 1190s had been first proposed by
John Major in his Historia Majoris Britanniæ (1521), (and he also may
have been influenced in so doing by the story of
Fulk Fitz Warin )
This was the period in which King Richard was absent from the country,
fighting in the
Third Crusade .
William Shakespeare makes reference to
Robin Hood in his
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona . In it, the
character Valentine is banished from
Milan and driven out through the
forest where he is approached by outlaws who, upon meeting him, desire
him as their leader. They comment, 'By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's
fat friar, This fellow were a king for our wild faction!' Robin Hood
is also mentioned in
As You Like It
As You Like It . When asked about the exiled Duke
Senior, the character of Charles says that he is '"already in the
forest of Arden, and a many merry men with him; and there they live
like the old
Robin Hood of England'. Justice Silence sings a line from
Robin Hood ballad, the line is "Robin Hood, Scarlet, and
John" in Act 5 scene 3 of
Henry IV, part 2 . In
Henry IV part 1 Act 3
scene 3, Falstaff refers to
Maid Marian implying she is a by-word for
unwomanly or unchaste behaviour.
Ben Jonson produced the (incomplete) masque The Sad Shepherd, or a
Robin Hood in part as a satire on Puritanism . It is about
half finished and writing may have been interrupted by his death in
1637. It is Jonson's only pastoral drama, it was written in
sophisticated verse and included supernatural action and characters.
It has had little impact on the
Robin Hood tradition but needs mention
as the work of a major dramatist.
THE BROADSIDE BALLADS AND GARLANDS
With the advent of printing came the
Robin Hood broadside ballads .
Exactly when they displaced the oral tradition of
Robin Hood ballads
is unknown but the process seems to have been completed by the end of
the 16th century. Near the end of the 16th century an unpublished
prose life of
Robin Hood was written, and included in the Sloane
Manuscript . Largely a paraphrase of the Gest, it also contains
material revealing that the author was familiar with early versions of
a number of the
Robin Hood broadside ballads. Not all of the medieval
legend was preserved in the broadside ballads, there is no broadside
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne or of
Robin Hood and the
Monk , which did not appear in print until the 18th and 19th centuries
respectively. However, the Gest was reprinted from time to time
throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.
No surviving broadside ballad can be dated with certainty before the
17th century, but during that century, the commercial broadside ballad
became the main vehicle for the popular
Robin Hood legend. These
broadside ballads were in some cases newly fabricated but were mostly
adaptions of the older verse narratives. The broadside ballads were
fitted to a small repertoire of pre-existing tunes resulting in an
increase of "stock formulaic phrases' making them 'repetitive and
verbose', they commonly feature Robin Hood's contests with artisans:
tinkers tanners and butchers. Among these ballads is
Robin Hood and
Little John telling the famous story of the quarter-staff fight
between the two outlaws.
Dobson and Taylor wrote, 'More generally the Robin of the broadsides
is a much less tragic, less heroic and in the last resort less mature
figure than his medieval predecessor'. In most of the broadside
Robin Hood remains a plebeian figure, a notable exception
Martin Parker 's attempt at an overall life of Robin Hood, A
True Tale of
Robin Hood , which also emphasises the theme of Robin
Hood's generosity to the poor more than the broadsheet ballads do in
The 17th century introduced the minstrel
Alan-a-Dale . He first
appeared in a 17th-century broadside ballad , and unlike many of the
characters thus associated, managed to adhere to the legend. The
prose life of
Robin Hood in
Sloane Manuscript contains the substance
Alan-a-Dale ballad but tells the story about
Will Scarlet .
Little John and Robin Hood" by
In the 18th century, the stories began to develop a slightly more
farcical vein. From this period there are a number of ballads in which
Robin is severely 'drubbed' by a succession of tradesmen including a
tanner , a tinker and a ranger . In fact, the only character who does
not get the better of Hood is the luckless Sheriff. Yet even in these
ballads Robin is more than a mere simpleton: on the contrary, he often
acts with great shrewdness. The tinker, setting out to capture Robin,
only manages to fight with him after he has been cheated out of his
money and the arrest warrant he is carrying. In Robin Hood\'s Golden
Prize , Robin disguises himself as a friar and cheats two priests out
of their cash. Even when Robin is defeated, he usually tricks his foe
into letting him sound his horn, summoning the
Merry Men to his aid.
When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink
with him instead (see Robin Hood\'s Delight ).
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the
Robin Hood ballads were mostly
sold in "Garlands" of 16 to 24
Robin Hood ballads; these were crudely
printed chap books aimed at the poor. The garlands added nothing to
the substance of the legend but ensured that it continued after the
decline of the single broadside ballad. In the 18th century also,
Robin Hood frequently appeared in criminal biographies and histories
of highwaymen compendia.
REDISCOVERY OF THE MEDIEVAL ROBIN HOOD: PERCY AND RITSON
Thomas Percy (bishop of Dromore) published Reliques of
Ancient English Poetry , including ballads from the 17th century Percy
Folio manuscript which had not previously been printed, most notably
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne which is generally regarded as in
substance a genuine late medieval ballad.
Joseph Ritson published an enormously influential edition of
Robin Hood ballads Robin Hood: A collection of all the Ancient
Poems Songs and Ballads now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw
'By providing English poets and novelists with a convenient source
book, Ritson gave them the opportunity to recreate
Robin Hood in their
own imagination,' Ritson's collection included the Gest and put the
Robin Hood and the Potter ballad in print for the first time. The only
significant omission was
Robin Hood and the Monk which would
eventually be printed in 1806. Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood
was also influential. Himself a supporter of the principles of the
French Revolution and admirer of
Thomas Paine Ritson held that Robin
Hood was a genuinely historical, and genuinely heroic, character who
had stood up against tyranny in the interests of the common people.
In his preface to the collection Ritson assembled an account of Robin
Hood's life from the various sources available to him, and concluded
Robin Hood was born in around 1160, and thus had been active in
the reign of Richard I. He thought that Robin was of aristocratic
extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of
Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated
of Locksley and that his original name was
Robert Fitzooth . Ritson
gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November 1247, when he would
have been around 87 years old. In copious and informative notes Ritson
defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life. In reaching
his conclusion Ritson relied or gave weight to a number of unreliable
sources, such as the
Robin Hood plays of Anthony Munday, and the
Sloane Manuscript. Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with
having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest
for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an
'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'.
Walter Scott used Ritson's anthology collection as a
source for his picture of
Robin Hood in
Ivanhoe , written in 1818,
which did much to shape the modern legend.
THE MERRY ADVENTURES OF ROBIN HOOD
The title page of
Howard Pyle 's 1883 novel, The Merry
Robin Hood Main article: The Merry Adventures of Robin
In the 19th century the
Robin Hood legend was first specifically
adapted for children. Children's editions of the garlands were
produced and in 1820 a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood
Robin Hood novels began to appear. It is not
that children did not read
Robin Hood stories before, but this is the
first appearance of a
Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at
them. A very influential example of these children's novels was
Pierce Egan the Younger 's
Robin Hood and
Little John (1840) This
was adapted into French by Alexandre Dumas in Le Prince des Voleurs
Robin Hood Le Proscrit (1873). Egan made
Robin Hood of
noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood.
Another very popular version for children was
Howard Pyle 's The
Merry Adventures of
Robin Hood , which influenced accounts of Robin
Hood through the 20th century. Pyle's version firmly stamp Robin as a
staunch philanthropist, a man who takes from the rich to give to the
poor. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national
in scope: while King Richard's participation in the Crusades is
mentioned in passing, Robin takes no stand against Prince John, and
plays no part in raising the ransom to free Richard. These
developments are part of the 20th century
Robin Hood myth. Pyle's
Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat.
The idea of
Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords
also originates in the 19th century. The most notable contributions to
this idea of Robin are
Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry 's Histoire de
la Conquête de l\'Angleterre par les Normands (1825) and Sir Walter
Ivanhoe (1819). In this last work in particular, the modern
Robin Hood – 'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows!' as
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart calls him – makes his debut.
20TH CENTURY ONWARDS
The 20th century grafted still further details on to the original
legends. The 1938 film, The Adventures of
Robin Hood , starring Errol
Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a
national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their
Norman overlords while
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades;
this movie established itself so definitively that many studios
resorted to movies about his son (invented for that purpose) rather
than compete with the image of this one.
MOVIES, ANIMATIONS, NEW CONCEPTS AND OTHER ADAPTATIONS
Walt Disney\'s Robin Hood
Robin Hood (1973 film) and
Robin Hood (the Disney
In the 1973 animated Disney film,
Robin Hood , the title character is
portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by
Brian Bedford . Years
Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered
doing a project on
Reynard the Fox . However, due to concerns that
Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some
elements from Reynard into
Robin Hood , thus making the title
character a fox.
Robin And Marian
The 1976 British-American film
Robin and Marian
Robin and Marian , starring Sean
Robin Hood and
Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian, portrays the
figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into
seclusion in a nunnery. This is the first in popular culture to
portray King Richard as less than perfect.
A Muslim Among The Merry Men
Since the 1980s, it has become commonplace to include a Saracen
(Muslim) among the Merry Men, a trend that began with the character
Nasir in the 1984 ITV
Robin of Sherwood television series. Later
versions of the story have followed suit: the 1991 movie Robin Hood:
Prince of Thieves and 2006
BBC TV series
Robin Hood each contain
equivalents of Nasir, in the figures of Azeem and Djaq , respectively.
The latest movie version, 2010's
Robin Hood , did not include a
Saracen character. The character Azeem in the 1991 movie Robin Hood:
Prince of Thieves was originally called Nasir, until a crew member who
had worked on
Robin of Sherwood pointed out that the Nasir character
was not part of the original legend and was created for the show Robin
of Sherwood . The name was immediately changed to Azeem to avoid any
potential copyright issues.
Robin Hood In France
Between 1963 and 1966, French television broadcast a medievalist
Thierry La Fronde (Thierry the Sling). This successful
series, which was also shown in Canada, Poland (Thierry Śmiałek),
Australia (The King's Outlaw), and the Netherlands (Thierry de
Slingeraar), transposes the English
Robin Hood narrative into late
medieval France during the Hundred Years\' War .
The historicity of
Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. A
difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very
common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' (or Robyn), was
its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century; it is a
French hypocorism , already mentioned in the
Roman de Renart in the
12th century. The surname Hood (or Hude, Hode, etc.) was also fairly
common because it referred either to a hooder, who was a maker of
hoods , or alternatively to somebody who wore a hood as a
head-covering. Unsurprisingly, therefore, medieval records mention a
number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom
are known to have fallen foul of the law.
Another view on the origin on the name is expressed in the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica which remarks that 'hood' was a common
dialectical form of 'wood'; and that the outlaw's name has been given
as 'Robin Wood'. There are a number of references to
Robin Hood as
Robin Wood, or Whood, or Whod, from the 16th and 17th centuries. The
earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in
dates from 1518.
The oldest references to
Robin Hood are not historical records, or
even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in
various works. From 1261 onward, the names 'Robinhood', 'Robehod' or
'Robbehod' occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames
or descriptions of malefactors. The majority of these references date
from the late 13th century. Between 1261 and 1300, there are at least
eight references to 'Rabunhod' in various regions across England, from
Berkshire in the south to
York in the north.
Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of
Robin Hood in Piers
Plowman in the 1370s, the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin
Hood is given in
Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle, written in
about 1420. The following lines occur with little contextualisation
under the year 1283: Lytil Jhon and Robyne Hude Wayth-men ware
commendyd gude In Yngil-wode and Barnysdale Thai oysyd all this tyme
The next notice is a statement in the
Scotichronicon , composed by
John of Fordun between 1377 and 1384, and revised by
Walter Bower in
about 1440. Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that
directly refers to Robin. It is inserted after Fordun's account of the
defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents. Robin
is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. This was in fact
true of the historical outlaw of
Roger Godberd , whose
points of similarity to the
Robin Hood of the ballads have often been
Bower writes: Then arose the famous murderer, Robert Hood, as well
as Little John, together with their accomplices from among the
disinherited, whom the foolish populace are so inordinately fond of
celebrating both in tragedies and comedies, and about whom they are
delighted to hear the jesters and minstrels sing above all other
The word translated here as "murderer" is the Latin siccarius (Eng:
"knife-man" or "dagger-man"), from the Latin for "knife". Bower goes
on to tell a story about
Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from
his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a
surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety.
Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in 2009, appears in
the margin of the "Polychronicon " in the
Eton College library.
Written around the year 1460 by a monk in Latin, it says: Around this
time , according to popular opinion, a certain outlaw named Robin
Hood, with his accomplices, infested Sherwood and other law-abiding
areas of England with continuous robberies.
In a petition presented to Parliament in 1439, the name is used to
describe an itinerant felon . The petition cites one Piers Venables of
Aston, Derbyshire , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes,
gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge,
and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie,
like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne." The name was still
used to describe sedition and treachery in 1605, when
Guy Fawkes and
his associates were branded "Robin Hoods" by Robert Cecil .
"Robin shoots with Sir Guy" by
ROBIN HOOD OF WAKEFIELD
The antiquarian Joseph Hunter (1783–1861) believed that Robin Hood
had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the
fourteenth century. Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to
be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:
* Robert Hood who is documented as having lived in the city of
Wakefield at the start of the fourteenth century.
* "Robyn Hode" who is recorded as being employed by Edward II of
England during 1323.
Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood
had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated
by Edward II at the
Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322. According to this
theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a
bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the 1323
court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode". Hunter's theory has long
been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious
being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been
employed by the king before he appeared in the 1323 court roll, thus
casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw
ROBIN HOOD OF YORK
The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin
Hood (Robert Hod) are from 1226, found in the
Assizes , when that
person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and
he became an outlaw. Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in
The following year, he was called "Hobbehod". Robert Hod of
the only early
Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw. L. V. D. Owen
in 1936 floated the idea that
Robin Hood might be identified with an
outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same
man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire
Pipe Rolls between 1226
and 1234. There is no evidence however that this Robert Hood,
although an outlaw , was also a bandit .
ROGER GODBERD AS ROBIN HOOD
David Baldwin identifies
Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger
Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which
Robin Hood around the 1260s. There are certainly
parallels between Godberd's career and that of
Robin Hood as he
appears in the Gest.
John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype
Robin Hood". Some problems with this theory are that there is no
evidence that Godberd was ever known as
Robin Hood and no sign in the
Robin Hood ballads of the specific concerns of de Montfort's
ROBIN HOOD AS AN ALIAS
It has long been suggested, notably by
John Maddicott , that "Robin
Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. What appears to be the first
known example of "Robin Hood" as stock name for an outlaw dates to
Berkshire , where the surname "Robehod" was applied to a man
apparently because he had been outlawed. This could suggest two main
possibilities: either that an early form of the
Robin Hood legend was
already well established in the mid-13th century; or alternatively
that the name "Robin Hood" preceded the outlaw hero that we know; so
that the "Robin Hood" of legend was so called because that was seen as
an appropriate name for an outlaw.
A MYTHOLOGICAL ROBIN HOOD
There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that
Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from
fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being
regarded as later development. It was once a popular view, however.
The "mythological theory" dates back at least to 1584, when Reginald
Robin Hood with the Germanic goblin "Hudgin" or
Hodekin and associated him with
Robin Goodfellow .
provides a brief summary and useful critique of the evidence for the
Robin Hood had mythological origins. While the outlaw often shows
great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more
exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont
Willie , which were based on historical events.
Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by
Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his
anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light. The
existence of the witch cult as proposed by Murray is now generally
LOCATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ROBIN HOOD
Major Oak in
The early ballads link
Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In
Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed
as living in
Sherwood Forest , in
Nottinghamshire . Notably, the
Lincoln Cathedral Manuscript, which is the first officially recorded
Robin Hood song (dating from approximately 1420), makes an explicit
reference to the outlaw that states that "Robyn hode in scherewode
stod." In a similar fashion, a monk of Witham Priory (1460) suggested
that the archer had 'infested shirwode'. His chronicle entry reads:
'Around this time, according to popular opinion, a certain outlaw
named Robin Hood, with his accomplices, infested Sherwood and other
law-abiding areas of England with continuous robberies'.
Specific sites in the county of
Nottinghamshire that are directly
linked to the
Robin Hood legend include Robin Hood's Well, located
near Newstead Abbey (within the boundaries of Sherwood Forest), the
Church of St. Mary in the village of
Edwinstowe and most famously of
Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe. The
Major Oak, which resides in the heart of Sherwood Forest, is popularly
believed to have been used by the
Merry Men as a hide-out.
Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's
true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively
a sapling in Robin's time, at best.
Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with
Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's
Robin Hood heritage, the historian
J. C. Holt drew attention to the
fact that although
Sherwood Forest is mentioned in
Robin Hood and the
Monk, there is little information about the topography of the region,
and thus suggested that
Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire
through his interactions with the city's sheriff. And, the linguist
Lister Matheson has observed that the language of the Gest of Robyn
Hode is written in a definite northern dialect, probably that of
Yorkshire. In consequence, it seems probable that the Robin Hood
legend actually originates from the county of Yorkshire. Robin Hood's
Yorkshire origins are universally accepted by professional historians.
Blue Plaque commemorating Wentbridge's
Robin Hood connections
A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives
Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley ,
Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.
Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth
century, set events in the medieval forest of
Barnsdale . Barnsdale
was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square
miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the
River Went at
Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the
Hampole forming the southernmost region.
From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from
the east to
Badsworth in the west. At the northernmost edge of the
forest of Barnsdale, in the heart of the Went Valley, resides the
Wentbridge is a village in the City of
Wakefield district of West Yorkshire, England. It lies around 3 miles
(5 km) southeast of its nearest township of size, Pontefract, close to
the A1 road. During the medieval age
Wentbridge was sometimes locally
referred to by the name of
Barnsdale because it was the predominant
settlement in the forest.
Wentbridge is mentioned in an early Robin
Hood ballad, entitled,
Robin Hood and the Potter, which reads, "Y mete
hem bot at Went breg,' syde Lyttyl John". And, while
Wentbridge is not
directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode, the poem does appear to make a
cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight
Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was
wrestling'. A commemorative
Blue Plaque has been placed on the bridge
that crosses the
River Went by
Wakefield City Council.
The site of the Saylis at
The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge.
Credit is due to the nineteenth century antiquarian Joseph Hunter ,
who correctly identified the site of the Saylis. From this location
it was once possible to look out over the Went Valley and observe the
traffic that passed along the Great North Road . The Saylis is
recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to
Edward III in 1346–47 for the knighting of the Black Prince . An
acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of 1688 relating
Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close".
Professor Dobson and Mr. Taylor indicate that such evidence of
continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well
Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation". It is
this location that provides a vital clue to Robin Hood's Yorkshire
heritage. One final locality in the forest of
Barnsdale that is
Robin Hood is the village of
CHURCH OF SAINT MARY MAGDALENE AT CAMPSALL
St. Mary Magdalene's church,
The historian John Paul Davis wrote of Robin's connection to the
Church of Saint Mary Magdalene at Campsall. A Gest of Robyn Hode
states that the outlaw built a chapel in
Barnsdale that he dedicated
to Mary Magdalene, I made a chapel in Bernysdale, That seemly is to
se, It is of Mary Magdaleyne, And thereto wolde I be.
Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary
Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the
medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at
Campsall . The
church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the
2nd Baron of Pontefract. Local legend suggests that
Robin Hood and
Maid Marion were married at the church.
ABBEY OF SAINT MARY AT YORK
The backdrop of Saint Mary's Abbey at
York plays a central role in
the Gest as the poor knight who Robin aids owes money to the abbot.
GRAVE AT KIRKLEES
Robin Hood's Grave in the woods near
Kirklees Priory in Yorkshire stands an alleged grave with a
spurious inscription, which relates to Robin Hood. The
fifteenth-century ballads relate that before he died, Robin told
Little John where to bury him. He shot an arrow from the Priory
window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave.
The Gest states that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's. Robin was
ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring
for him. However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he
eventually died there. The inscription on the grave reads, Hear
underneath dis laitl stean Laz robert earl of Huntingtun Ne’er arcir
ver as hie sa geud An pipl kauld im robin heud Sick utlawz as he an
iz men Vil england nivr si agen Obiit 24 kal: Dekembris, 1247
Despite the unconventional spelling, the verse is in
Modern English ,
Middle English of the thirteenth century. The date is also
incorrectly formatted—using the
Roman calendar , "24 kal Decembris"
would be the twenty-third day before the beginning of December, that
is, 8 November. The tomb probably dates from the late eighteenth
The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the
Kirklees Priory, behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield, West
Yorkshire. Though local folklore suggests that Robin is buried in the
Kirklees Priory , this theory has now largely been
abandoned by professional historians.
ALL SAINTS\' CHURCH AT PONTEFRACT
A more recent theory proposes that
Robin Hood died at Kirkby,
Pontefract. Drayton's Poly-Olbion Song 28 (67–70) composed in 1622
speaks of Robin Hood's death and clearly states that the outlaw died
at 'Kirkby'. Acknowledging that
Robin Hood operated in the Went
Valley, located three miles to the southeast of the town of
Pontefract, historians today indicate that the outlaw is buried at
nearby Kirkby. The location is approximately three miles from the site
of Robin's robberies at the now famous Saylis. In the Anglo-Saxon
period, Kirkby was home to All Saints' Church. All Saints' Church had
a priory hospital attached to it. The Tudor historian Richard Grafton
stated that the prioress who murdered
Robin Hood buried the outlaw
beside the road,
Where he had used to rob and spoyle those that passed that way ...
and the cause why she buryed him there was, for that common strangers
and travailers, knowing and seeing him there buryed, might more safely
and without feare take their journeys that way, which they durst not
do in the life of the sayd outlaes.
All Saints' Church at Kirkby, modern Pontefract, which was located
approximately three miles from the site of Robin Hood's robberies at
the Saylis, accurately matches Richard Grafton's description because a
road ran directly from
Wentbridge to the hospital at Kirkby. The
new church within the old. After All Saints' church in
damaged during the civil war , a new one was built within in 1967
Within close proximity of
Wentbridge reside several notable landmarks
relating to Robin Hood. One such place-name location occurred in a
cartulary deed of 1422 from Monkbretton Priory, which makes direct
reference to a landmark named Robin Hood's Stone, which resided upon
the eastern side of the Great North Road, a mile south of Barnsdale
Bar. The historians Barry Dobson and John Taylor suggested that on
the opposite side of the road once stood Robin Hood's Well, which has
since been relocated six miles north-west of Doncaster, on the
south-bound side of the Great North Road. Over the next three
centuries, the name popped-up all over the place, such as at Robin
Hood\'s Bay near Whitby Yorkshire, Robin Hood's Butts in Cumbria, and
Robin Hood's Walk at Richmond Surrey.
Robin Hood type place-names
occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. The first place-name
in Sherwood does not appear until the year 1700. The fact that the
Robin Hood type place-names originated in West Yorkshire is
deemed to be historically significant because, generally, place-name
evidence originates from the locality where legends begin. The
overall picture from the surviving early ballads and other early
references indicate that
Robin Hood was based in the
of what is now
South Yorkshire , which borders Nottinghamshire.
Some Other Place Names And Other References
Robin Hood Tree aka Sycamore Gap, Hadrian\'s Wall , UK. This
location was used in the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves .
The Sheriff of
Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that
was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal
Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak
District National Park . The Royal Forest included
Tideswell , Castleton , Ladybower and the Derwent Valley near Loxley.
The Sheriff of
Nottingham possessed property near Loxley, among other
places both far and wide including Hazlebadge Hall , Peveril Castle
Haddon Hall .
Mercia , to which
Nottingham belonged, came to
within three miles of
Sheffield City Centre . But before the Law of
Normans was the Law of the Danes, The Danelaw had a similar
boundary to that of
Mercia but had a population of Free Peasantry that
were known to have resisted the Norman occupation. Many outlaws could
have been created by the refusal to recognise Norman Forest Law. The
supposed grave of
Little John can be found in
Hathersage , also in the
Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire
(and particularly Calderdale) are noted in the fact that there are
pubs called the
Robin Hood in both nearby
Brighouse and at Cragg Vale
; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax , where
Robin Hood Rocks
can also be found.
Robin Hood Hill is near
Outwood, West Yorkshire ,
not far from Lofthouse . There is a village in West Yorkshire called
Robin Hood , on the A61 between
Wakefield and close to
Rothwell and Lofthouse. Considering these references to Robin Hood, it
is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay
some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed
between Nottingham, Lincoln ,
Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire.
British Army Territorial (reserves) battalion formed in Nottingham
in 1859 was known as The
Robin Hood Battalion through various
reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in
1992. With the 1881
Childers Reforms that linked regular and reserve
units into regimental families, the
Robin Hood Battalion became part
Sherwood Foresters (
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) .
Neolithic causewayed enclosure on
Salisbury Plain has acquired the
name Robin Hood\'s Ball , although had
Robin Hood existed it is
doubtful that he would have travelled so far south.
LIST OF TRADITIONAL BALLADS
Elizabethan song of
Ballads dating back to the 15th century are the oldest existing form
Robin Hood legends, although none of them were recorded at the
time of the first allusions to him, and many are from much later. They
share many common features, often opening with praise of the greenwood
and relying heavily on disguise as a plot device , but include a wide
variation in tone and plot. The ballads are sorted into three groups,
very roughly according to date of first known free-standing copy.
Ballads whose first recorded version appears (usually incomplete) in
Percy Folio may appear in later versions and may be much older
than the mid-17th century when the Folio was compiled. Any ballad may
be older than the oldest copy that happens to survive, or descended
from a lost older ballad. For example, the plot of Robin Hood\'s Death
, found in the Percy Folio, is summarised in the 15th-century A Gest
of Robyn Hode , and it also appears in an 18th-century version.
EARLY BALLADS (I.E., SURVIVING IN 15TH- OR EARLY-16TH-CENTURY COPIES)
A Gest of Robyn Hode
Robin Hood and the Monk
Robin Hood and the Potter
BALLADS APPEARING IN 17TH-CENTURY PERCY FOLIO
NB. The first two ballads listed here (the "Death" and "Gisborne"),
although preserved in 17th century copies, are generally agreed to
preserve the substance of late medieval ballads. The third (the
"Curtal Friar") and the fourth (the "Butcher"), also probably have
late medieval origins.
* Robin Hood\'s Death
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne
Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar
Robin Hood and the Butcher
Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly
Robin Hood Rescuing Three Squires
* The Jolly Pinder of
Robin Hood and Queen Katherine
A True Tale of Robin Hood
Robin Hood and the Bishop
Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford
Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow
Robin Hood and the Prince of Aragon
Robin Hood and the Ranger
Robin Hood and the Scotchman
Robin Hood and the Tanner
Robin Hood and the Tinker
Robin Hood and the Valiant
Robin Hood Newly Revived
* Robin Hood\'s Birth, Breeding, Valor, and Marriage
* Robin Hood\'s Chase
* Robin Hood\'s Delight
* Robin Hood\'s Golden Prize
* Robin Hood\'s Progress to
* The Bold Pedlar and
* The King\'s Disguise, and Friendship with
The Noble Fisherman
Some ballads, such as
Erlinton , feature
Robin Hood in some variants,
where the folk hero appears to be added to a ballad pre-existing him
and in which he does not fit very well. He was added to one variant
Rose Red and the White Lily , apparently on no more connection than
that one hero of the other variants is named "Brown Robin". Francis
James Child indeed retitled Child ballad 102; though it was titled The
Birth of Robin Hood, its clear lack of connection with the Robin Hood
cycle (and connection with other, unrelated ballads) led him to title
it Willie and Earl Richard\'s Daughter in his collection.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Robin Hood in popular culture and List of films and
television series featuring
MAIN CHARACTERS OF THE FOLKLORE
Robin Hood (a.k.a. Robin of Loxley or Locksley)
* The band of "
Merry Men "
* Much the Miller\'s Son
Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart
* Prince John
Sir Guy of Gisbourne
* The Sheriff of
Chucho el Roto
Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd
* Hong Gildong
Kobus van der Schlossen
* Mike the
Redistribution of wealth
* Redmond O\'Hanlon
Robin Hood tax
Utuwankande Sura Saradiel
William de Wendenal
* ^ The
Child Ballads 117 "
A Gest of Robyn Hode " (c. 1450) 'Whan
they were clothed in Lincoln Green'.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor "Rhymes of Robin Hood" quoting "Percy's
Reliques of Ancient Poetry" (first published 1765) 'The personal
courage of this celebrated outlaw, his skill in archery, his humanity,
and especially his levelling principle of taking from the rich and
giving to the poor, have in all ages rendered him the favourite of the
* ^ A B Stephen Thomas
Knight 2003 Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography
p43 quoting John Stow, 1592,Annales of England 'poor men's goodes hee
spared, aboundantly releeving them with that, which by thefte he gote
from Abbeyes and the houses of riche Carles'.
A Gest of Robin Hood stanzas 10–15, stanza 292 (archery)
117A: The Gest of Robyn Hode. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 203.
Friar Tuck is mentioned in the play
Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham dated to c. 1475.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, pp. 5, 16.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, pp. 14–16.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 34.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, pp. 34–35.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, pp. 33, 44, and 220–223.
* ^ Singmam, 1998, Robin Hood; The Shaping of the Legend p. 62.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 41. 'It was here that he encountered and
assimilated into his own legend the jolly friar and Maid Marian,
almost invariably among the performers in the 16th century morris
dance,' Dobson and Taylor have suggested that theories on the origin
Friar Tuck often founder on a failure to recognise that 'he was the
product of the fusion between two very different friars,' a 'bellicose
outlaw', and the May Games figure.
* ^ "
Robin Hood and the Monk". Lib.rochester.edu. Retrieved 12
* ^ Introduction accompanying
Knight and Ohlgren's 1997 ed.
* ^ Ohlgren, Thomas, Robin Hood: The Early Poems, 1465–1560,
(Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2007), From Script to Print:
Robin Hood and the Early Printers, pp. 97–134.
* ^ "
Robin Hood and the Potter". Lib.rochester.edu. Retrieved 12
* ^ A B Holt
* ^ A B "Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham".
Lib.rochester.edu. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
* ^ Singman, Jeffrey L. Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend
(1998), Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 51. ISBN 0-313-30101-8 .
Robin Hood and the Monk . From Child's edition of the ballad,
online at Sacred Texts, 119A:
Robin Hood and the Monk Stanza 16: Then
Robyn goes to Notyngham, Hym selfe mornyng allone, And Litull John to
mery Scherwode, The pathes he knew ilkone.
* ^ Holt, p. 11.
Child Ballads 117A:210, ie
A Gest of Robyn Hode stanza 210.
* ^ for it being the earliest clear statement see Dobson and Taylor
(1997), Rhymes of Robyn Hood p. 290.
* ^ "The Child Ballads: 117. The Gest of Robyn Hode".
* ^ Holt, p. 36.
* ^ Holt, pp. 37–38.
* ^ Holt, p. 10.
* ^ Singman, Jeffrey L Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend, 1998,
Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 46, and first chapter as a whole. ISBN
* ^ A B Hutton, 1997, pp. 270–271.
* ^ Hutton (1996), p. 32.
* ^ Hutton (1996), p. 31.
* ^ Holt, pp. 148–149.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 42.
Maurice Keen The Outlaws of Medieval England Appendix 1, 1987,
Routledge, ISBN 0-7102-1203-8 .
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 42.
* ^ Jeffrey Richards, Swordsmen of the Screen: From Douglas
Fairbanks to Michael York, p. 190, Routledge ">"". Lib.rochester.edu.
Retrieved 12 March 2010.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 231.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, "Rhymes of Robyn Hood", p. 286.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), "Rhymes of Robin Hood", p. 47.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, "Rhymes of Robyn Hood", p. 49.
* ^ Rhymes of Robyn Hood" (1997), p. 50.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, "Rhymes of Robin Hood", pp. 51-52.
* ^ Basdeo, Stephen (2016). "
Robin Hood the Brute: Representations
Outlaw in Eighteenth Century Criminal Biography". Law, Crime
and History. 6: 2: 54–70.
* ^ 1887 reprint, publisher J.C.Nimmo,
https://archive.org/details/robinhoodcollect01ritsrich accessed 18
January 2016, digitized 2008 from book provided by University of
* ^ A B Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 54.
Retrieved 12 January 2016.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 54–55.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 56.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 58f.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 47.
* ^ Egan, Pierce the Younger (1846).
Robin Hood and
Little John or
Merry Men of Sherwood Forest. Pub. George Peirce, London.
* ^ "Robin Hood: Development of a Popular Hero". From The Robin
Hood Project at the
University of Rochester . Retrieved 22 November
* ^ Allen W. Wright, "
Wolfshead through the Ages Revolutions and
* ^ A B Allen W. Wright, "
Wolfshead through the Ages Films and
* ^ Movies, Andrew E. Larsen - An Historian Goes to the Movies.
"The Inspiration For Disney\'s
Robin Hood Wasn\'t Actually Robin
Hood". Retrieved 13 August 2016.
* ^ See Richard Utz, "Robin Hood, Frenched", in: Medieval
Afterlives in Popular Culture, ed. by Gail Ashton and Daniel T. Kline
(New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012): 145–58.
* ^ Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names, EG Withycombe, 1950.
Albert Dauzat , Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de familles
et prénoms de France, Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1980, Nouvelle
édition revue et commentée par
Marie-Thérèse Morlet , p. 523b.
* ^ A B A number of such theories are mentioned at Chisholm, Hugh,
ed. (1911). "Robin Hood". Encyclopædia Britannica . 23 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 420–421. .
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 12, 39n, and chapter on place-names.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 5.
* ^ J. R. Maddicott, "Sir Edward the First and the Lessons of
Baronial Reform" in Coss and Loyd ed, Thirteenth century England:1
Proceedings of the Newcastle Upon Tyne Conference 1985, Boydell and
Brewer, p. 2.
* ^ Maurice Hugh Keen The Outlaws of Medieval England (1987),
* ^ Passage quoted and commented on in Stephen Knights, Robin Hood;
A Mythic Biography, Cornell University Press (2003), p. 5.
* ^ Luxford, Julian M. (2009). "An English chronicle entry on Robin
Journal of Medieval History . 35 (1): 70–76. doi
* ^ Rot. Parl. v. 16.
* ^ Hunter, Joseph, "Robin Hood", in Robin Hood: An Anthology of
Scholarship and Criticism, ed. by Stephen
Knight (Cambridge: D.S.
Brewer, 1999) pp. 187–196. Holt, pp. 75–76, summarised in Dobson
and Taylor, p. xvii.
* ^ Crook, David "The Sheriff of
Nottingham and Robin Hood: The
Genesis of the Legend?" In Peter R. Coss, S. D. Lloyd, ed. Thirteenth
Century England University of Newcastle (1999).
* ^ E372/70, rot. 1d, 12 lines from bottom.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. xvii.
* ^ See
BBC website, accessed 19 August 2008 on the Godberd theory.
The real Robin Hood.
* ^ J. R. Maddicott, "Edward the First and the Lessons of Baronial
Reform" in Coss and Loyd ed, Thirteenth century England:1 Proceedings
of the Newcastle Upon Tyne Conference 1985, Boydell and Brewer, p. 2.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, introduction.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, pp. xxi–xxii.
* ^ D. Crook English Historical Review XCIX (1984) pp. 530–534;
discussed in Dobson and Taylor, pp. xi–xxii.
* ^ Holt, p. 55.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor (1997), p. 63.
Reginald Scot "Discourse upon divels and spirits" Chapter 21,
quoted in Charles P. G. Scott "The Devil and His Imps: An Etymological
Investigation" p. 129 Transactions of the American Philological
Association (1869–1896) Vol. 26, (1895), pp. 79–146 Published by:
The Johns Hopkins University Press jstor.org 2004, Imagining Robin
Hood: The Late-Medieval Stories in Historical Context, Routledge ISBN
* ^ The Outlaws of Medieval England Appendix 1, 1987, Routledge,
ISBN 0-7102-1203-8 .
* ^ Holt, p. 57.
* ^ Robert Graves English and Scottish Ballads. London: William
Heinemann, 1957; New York: Macmillan, 1957. See, in particular,
Graves' notes to his reconstruction of Robin Hood\'s Death .
* ^ Thomas H. Ohlgren, Robin Hood: The Early Poems, 1465–1560,
Texts, Contexts and Ideology (Newark: The University of Delaware
Press, 2007) p. 18.
* ^ Luxford, Julian. "An English Chronicle entry on Robin Hood",
Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009) pp. 70–76.
* ^ "Edwinstowe".
Edwinstowe Parish Council. Retrieved 2 August
* ^ "
Nottingham 360 Images - Where to go : Inside the Major
* ^ Holt,
Robin Hood pp. 90–91.
* ^ Matheson, Lister, "The Dialects and Language of Selected Robin
Hood Poems", in Robin Hood: The Early Poems, 1465–1560 Texts,
Contexts and Ideology ed. by Thomas Ohlgren (Delaware: University of
Delaware Press, 2007 pp. 189–210).
* ^ Bellamy, John, Robin Hood: An Historical Enquiry (London: Croom
Helm, 1985). Bradbury, Jim,
Robin Hood (Stroud: Amberley Publishing:
2010). Dobson, R. B., "The Genesis of a Popular Hero" in
Robin Hood in
Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression and Justice, ed. by Thomas
Hahn (Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2000) pp. 61–77. Keen, Maurice, The
Outlaws of Medieval Legend, 2nd edn (London and Henley: Routledge and
Kegan Paul; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1977).
Maddicot, J. R., Simon De Montfort (Cambridge: Cambridge University
* ^ Bradbury, p. 180.
* ^ Dr Eric Houlder, PontArch Archaeological Society.
* ^ The Gest, stanza 135, p. 88.
* ^ Joseph Hunter, "The Great
Hero of the Ancient Minstrelsy of
England", Critical and Historical Tracts, 4 (1852) (pp. 15–16).
* ^ Borthowick Institute of Historical Research, St Anthony's Hall,
York: R.III. F I xlvi b; R. III. F.16 xlvi (
Kirk Smeaton Glebe
Terriers of 7 June 1688 and 10 June 1857).
* ^ Dobson, Dobson and Taylor, p. 22.
* ^ Davis, John Paul, Robin Hood: The Unknown Templar (London:
Peter Owen Publishers, 2009) See locations associated with Robin Hood
below for further details.
* ^ The Gest, Stanza 440 p. 111.
Historic England . "Details from listed building database
National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 2 October
* ^ http://www.heritageinspiredbyorg.uk/partner?partner_ID=97
* ^ Roberts, Kai (20 March 2010). "Robin Hood’s Grave, Kirklees
Park". Ghosts and Legends of the Lower Calder Valley. Retrieved 13
* ^ David Hepworth, "A Grave Tale", in Robin Hood: Medieval and
Post-Medieval, ed. by Helen Phillips (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005)
pp. 91–112 (p. 94.)
* ^ Grafton, Richard, A Chronicle at Large (London: 1569) p. 84 in
Early English Books Online.
* ^ La' Chance, A, "The Origins and Development of Robin Hood".
Kapelle, William E., The Norman Conquest of the North: The Region and
Its Transformation, 1000–1135 (London: Croom Helm, 1979).
* ^ Monkbretton Priory, Abstracts of the Chartularies of the Priory
of Monkbretton, Vol. LXVI, ed. by J. W. Walker (Leeds: The Yorkshire
Archaeological Society, 1924) p. 105.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 18.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 22.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 18: "On balance therefore these
15th-century references to the
Robin Hood legend seem to suggest that
during the later
Middle Ages the outlaw hero was more closely related
Barnsdale than Sherwood."
* ^ "According to Ancient Custom: Research on the possible Origins
and Purpose of Thynghowe Sherwood Forest". Issuu.com. 9 March 2012.
Retrieved 23 March 2012.
* ^ Holt, pp. 34–35.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, Appendix 1.
* ^ Dobson and Taylor, p. 133.
* ^ Dobson & Taylor, see introduction to each individual ballad.
* ^ Child, v. 1, p. 178
* ^ Child, v. 2, p. 416
* ^ Child, vol. 2, p. 412.
* Baldwin, David (2010). Robin Hood: The English
Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84868-378-5 .
* Barry, Edward (1832). Sur les vicissitudes et les transformations
du cycle populaire de Robin Hood. Rignoux.
* Blamires, David (1998). Robin Hood: A
Hero for All Times. J.
Rylands Univ. Lib. of Manchester. ISBN 0-86373-136-8 .
* Child, Francis James (1997). The English and Scottish Popular
Ballads. 1–5. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-43150-5 .
* Coghlan, Ronan (2003). The
Robin Hood Companion. Xiphos Books.
ISBN 0-9544936-0-5 .
* Deitweiler, Laurie, Coleman, Diane (2004). Robin Hood
Comprehension Guide. Veritas Pr Inc. ISBN 1-930710-77-1 .
* Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (2006). The
Robin Hood Handbook. Sutton
Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3977-X .
* Dobson, R. B.; Taylor, John (1977). The Rymes of Robin Hood: An
Introduction to the English Outlaw. Sutton Publishing. ISBN
* Doel, Fran, Doel, Geoff (2000). Robin Hood:
Outlaw and Greenwood
Myth. Tempus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-1479-8 .
* Green, Barbara (2001). Secrets of the Grave. Palmyra Press. ISBN
* Hahn, Thomas (2000).
Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence,
Transgression and Justice. D.S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-564-6 .
* Harris, P. V. (1978). Truth About Robin Hood. Linney. ISBN
* Hilton, R.H., The Origins of Robin Hood, Past and Present, No. 14.
(Nov. 1958), pp. 30–44.
* Holt, J. C. (1982). Robin Hood. Thames & Hudson. ISBN
* Holt, J.C. (1989). "Robin Hood", Perspectives on culture and
society, vol. 2, 127–144
* Hutton, Ronald (1997). The Stations of the Sun: A History of the
Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-288045-4 .
* Hutton, Ronald (1996). The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The
Ritual Year 1400–1700. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285327-9 .
* Knight, Stephen Thomas (1994). Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the
English Outlaw. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-19486-X .
* Knight, Stephen Thomas (2003). Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography.
Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3885-3 .
* Phillips, Helen (2005). Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-medieval.
Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-931-8 .
* Pollard, A. J. (2004). Imagining Robin Hood: The Late Medieval
Stories in Historical Context. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor &
Francis Books Ltd. ISBN 0-415-22308-3 .
* Potter, Lewis (1998). Playing Robin Hood: The Legend as
Performance in Five Centuries. University of Delaware Press. ISBN
* Pringle, Patrick (1991). Stand and Deliver: Highway Men from Robin
Hood to Dick Turpin. Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-698-4 .
* Ritson, Joseph (1832). Robin Hood: A Collection of All the Ancient
Poems, Songs, and Ballads, Now Extant Relative to That Celebrated
English Outlaw: To Which are Prefixed Historical Anecdotes of His
Life. William Pickering. ISBN 1-4212-6209-6 .
* Rutherford-Moore, Richard (1999). The Legend of Robin Hood. Capall
Bann Publishing. ISBN 1-86163-069-7 .
* Rutherford-Moore, Richard (2002). Robin Hood: On the
Capall Bann Publishing. ISBN 1-86163-177-4 .
* Vahimagi, Tise (1994). British Television: An Illustrated Guide.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-818336-4 .
* Wright, Thomas (1847). Songs and Carols, now first imprinted.
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