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The Robertians, or Robertines, was the Frankish predecessor family of origin to the ruling houses of France; it emerged to prominence in the ancient Frankish kingdom of Austrasia
Austrasia
as early as the eighth century—in roughly the same region as present-day Belgium—and later emigrated to West Francia, between the Seine and the Loire rivers. The members were ‘forefathers’ of the Capetian dynasty. With fealty (sometimes mixed with rancor) to the Carolingians they held the power of West Francia
Francia
through the whole period of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire; and from 888 to 987 theirs was the last extant kingdom of that house until they were succeeded by their own (Robertian) lineage, the house of Capet. The family frequently named its sons Robert, including Robert of Hesbaye
Hesbaye
(c. 800), Robert III of Worms (800-834), Robert the Strong
Robert the Strong
(d. 866) and Robert I of France
Robert I of France
(866-923). It figured prominently amongst the Carolingian
Carolingian
nobility and married into this royal family. Eventually the Robertians themselves delivered Frankish kings such as the brothers Odo (reigned 888-898) and Robert I (r. 922-923), then Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
(r. 987-996), who ruled from his seat in Paris
Paris
as the first Capetian king of France. Although Philip II was officially the last king of the Franks
Franks
(rex Francorum) and the first king of France
France
(roi de France), in (systematic application of) historiography, Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
holds this distinction. He is the founder of the Capetians, the royal dynasty that ruled France
France
until the revolution of the Second French Republic in 1848—save during the interregnum of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleonic Wars. It still reigns in Europe today; both King Felipe VI of Spain
Spain
and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
are descendants of this family through the Bourbon cadet branch of the dynasty.

Contents

1 Origin 2 From Robert the Strong 3 Family branches 4 References 5 Sources

Origin[edit]

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The oldest known Robertians probably originated in the county Hesbaye, around Tongeren
Tongeren
in modern-day Belgium. The first certain ancestor is Robert the Strong
Robert the Strong
count of Paris,[1] probably son of Robert III of Worms, grandson of Robert of Hesbaye, and nephew of Ermengarde of Hesbaye, who was the daughter of Ingram, and wife of Louis the Pious. Other related family includes Cancor, founder of the Lorsch Abbey, his sister Landrada and her son Saint Chrodogang, archbishop of Metz. From Robert the Strong[edit] The sons of Robert the Strong
Robert the Strong
were Odo and Robert, who were both king of Western Francia
Francia
and ruled during the Carolingian
Carolingian
era. His daughter Richildis married a count of Troyes. The family became Counts of Paris under Odo and "Dukes of the Franks" under Robert, possessing large parts of the ancient Neustria. Although quarrels continued between Robert's son Hugh the Great and Louis IV of France, they were mended upon the ascension of Lothair I of France
France
(954-986). Lothair greatly expanded the Robertian dominions when he granted Hugh Aquitaine as well as much of Burgundy,[2] both rich and influential territories, arguably two of the richest in France. The Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
ceased to rule France
France
upon the death of Louis V (d. 987). After the death of Louis, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet was chosen as king of the Franks, nominally the last ruler of West Francia. Given the resurgence of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
title and dignities in the West Francian kingdom, Europe was later believed to have entered a new age, so became to be known in historiography as the first king of France, as western civilization was perceived to have entered the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
period. Hugh was crowned at Noyon
Noyon
on July 3, 987 with the full support from Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Otto III. With Hugh's coronation, a new era began for France, and his descendants came to be named, after him, the Capetians. They ruled France
France
as the Capetians, Valois, and Bourbons
Bourbons
until the French Revolution. They returned after 1815 and ruled until Louis Philippe was deposed in 1848. However they continue to rule Spain, with two republican interruptions, through the Bourbon Dynasty right down to Felipe VI. Family branches[edit] See also: Robertian kings family tree

Ro(d)bert (-764), dux of Hesbaye
Hesbaye
from 732, married Williswinda of Worms

Ingerman of Hesbaye

Ermengarde of Hesbaye
Hesbaye
(780-818), wife of Emperor Louis the Pious

Cancor (-782), founder of Lorsch Abbey

Heimrich (-795), count in the Lahngau

Poppo of Grapfeld (-839/41), ancestor of the Frankish House of Babenberg

Landrada, married Sigram

Saint Chrodogang (-766), Archbishop of Metz, Abbot of Lorsch Abbey

Robert II of Hesbaye
Hesbaye
(770-807)

Robert III of Worms (800-822)

Robert IV the Strong (820-866)

Odo of Paris
Paris
(860-898), king of West Francia
Francia
from 888, married Théodrate of Troyes

Raoul Arnulf Guy

Richildis, or Regilindis, married to William I of Périgueux, son of Count Wulgrin I of Angoulême Robert (866-923), king of West Francia
Francia
from 922, second marriage to Béatrice of Vermandois

Emma (894-934), married Rudolph of Burgundy Adela, married Herbert II, Count of Vermandois Hugh the Great (898-956), married for the 3rd time to Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of German king Henry the Fowler

Béatrice (939-987), married Frederick of Bar Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
(940-996), ancestor of the Capetian dynasty Otto of Paris
Paris
(944-965), Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
from 956 Odo-Henry (946-1002), Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
from 965 Emma (-966), married Richard I, Duke of Normandy Herbert (-994), Bishop of Auxerre

References[edit]

^ Urbanski, Charity (2013-09-20). Writing History for the King: Henry II and the Politics of Vernacular Historiography. Cornell University Press. p. 160. ISBN 9780801469718.  ^ Bourchard, Constance Brittain (1999). "Burgundy and Provence:879-1032". In Reuter, Timothy; McKitterick, Rosamond; Abulafia, David. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Vol. III, c.900 - c.1024 (Link is extract=Volume III, Chapter 1 "Introduction: Reading the Tenth Century") (PDF). III (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 336. ISBN 0521364477. Retrieved 28 Feb 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Pierre Riché. The Carolingians, a Family who Forged Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press. Christian Settipani and Patrick van Kerrebrouck. La Préhistoire des Capetiens, Premiére Partie: Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et

.