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Robert Earl Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was an American film director, producer and editor. He won Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for Best Director and Best Picture for both West Side Story (1961) and The Sound of Music (1965). He was also nominated for Best Film Editing for Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) and directed and produced The Sand Pebbles (1966), which was nominated for Best Picture. Among his other films are The Body Snatcher (1945), Born to Kill (1947), The Set-Up (1949), The Day the Earth Stood Still
The Day the Earth Stood Still
(1951), Destination Gobi
Destination Gobi
(1953), This Could Be The Night (1957), Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
(1958), The Haunting (1963), The Andromeda Strain (1971), The Hindenburg (1975) and Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979). Wise was the president of the Directors Guild of America
Directors Guild of America
from 1971 to 1975 and the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences from 1984 through 1987. Often contrasted with auteur directors such as Stanley Kubrick, who tended to bring a distinctive directorial "look" to a particular genre, Wise has been viewed as a craftsman, inclined to let the (sometimes studio-assigned) story concept set the style. Later cineastes, such as Martin Scorsese, insist that despite Wise's legendary workaday concentration on stylistic perfection within the confines of genre and budget, his choice of subject matter and approach still functioned to identify Wise as an artist and not merely an artisan. Wise achieved critical success as a director in a striking variety of film genres: horror, noir, western, war, science fiction, musical and drama, with many repeat successes within each genre. Wise's meticulous preparation may have been largely motivated by studio budget constraints, but advanced the moviemaking art. Robert Wise received the AFI Life Achievement Award
AFI Life Achievement Award
in 1998.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Early career 3 Director and producer 4 Later years 5 Personal life 6 Accolades 7 Filmography 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 External links

Early years[edit] Wise was born in Winchester, Randolph County, Indiana, the youngest son of Olive R. (née Longenecker) and Earl W. Wise, a meat packer.[1][2] The family moved to Connersville, Fayette County, Indiana, where Wise attended public schools. As a youth Wise's favorite pastime was going to the movies.[3] As a student at Connersville High School, Wise wrote humor and sports columns for the school's newspaper and was a member of the yearbook staff and poetry club.[4][5] Wise initially sought a career in journalism and following graduation from high school attended Franklin College, a small liberal arts college south of Indianapolis, Indiana, on a scholarship.[6] In 1933, due to the family's poor financial situation during the Great Depression, Wise was unable to return to college for his second year and moved to Hollywood to begin a lifelong career in the film industry.[7] Wise's older brother, David, who had gone to Hollywood several years earlier and worked at RKO Pictures, found his younger brother a job in the shipping department at RKO.[8] Wise worked odd jobs at the studio before moving into editing.[7] Early career[edit] Wise began his movie career at RKO as a sound and music editor. In the 1930s, RKO was a small, budget-minded studio with "a strong work ethic" and "willingness to take artistic risks", which was fortunate for a newcomer to Hollywood such as Wise.[9] At RKO, Wise became an assistant to T.K. Wood, the studio's head sound-effects editor.[10] Wise's first screen credit was a ten-minute short subject called A Trip through Fijiland (1935), which was made from RKO footage salvaged from an abandoned feature film.[11] As Wise gained experience, he became more interested in editing film content, rather than sound, and went to work for RKO film editor William "Billy" Hamilton.[12] Wise's first film as Hamilton's assistant was Alfred Santell's Winterset (1936). Wise continued to work with Hamilton on other films, including Stage Door (1937), Careful (1938), Having Wonderful Time (1938) and The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle (1939).[12] In The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939) and Fifth Avenue Girl (1939), Hamilton and Wise, as assistant film editor, shared screen credit; it was Wise's first credit on a feature film.[13] Wise's first solo film editing work was on Bachelor Mother (1939) and My Favorite Wife
My Favorite Wife
(1939).[14] At RKO, Wise worked with Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) and was nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Film Editing.[8] Wise was the film's last living crew member.[15] Although Wise worked as an editor on Citizen Kane, it is likely that while working on the film he became familiar with the optical printer techniques employed by Linwood Dunn, inventor of the practical optical printer, to produce effects for Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
such as the image projected in the broken snowglobe which falls from Kane's hand as he dies.[16] Though Wise was never known as a special-effects-driven director, echoes of this 1940s high-tech special effects technology were to emerge in several of his important later films, such as The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), West Side Story (1961), The Andromeda Strain (1971), and Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979).[citation needed] In Citizen Kane, Welles used a deep-focus technique, in which heavy lights are employed to achieve sharp focus for both foreground and background in the frame. Wise later used the technique in films that he directed.[17] Welles's Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
also influenced Wise's innovations in the use of sound in films such as The Set-Up (1949), where Wise limited music to in-film sources, and in Executive Suite (1954), which used no music.[18] In addition, biographical films or biographical profiles of fictionalized characters such as Kane were often the subjects of Wise's later work, including Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
(1958), The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
(1965), So Big (1953), Run Silent, Run Deep (1958) and The Sand Pebbles (1966), among others.[19] Wise also worked as editor on Welles's next film for RKO, The Magnificent Ambersons (1942). While working as a film editor, Wise was called on to shoot additional scenes for the film.[20] After Welles was dismissed from the studio, Wise continued editing films such as Seven Days Leave (1942), Bombardier (1943) and The Fallen Sparrow (1943), before he received his first directing assignment.[21] Director and producer[edit] For Wise, connecting to the viewer was the "most important part of making a film."[22] Wise also had a reputation for a strong work ethic and budget-minded frugality.[23] In addition, he was known for his attention to detail and well-researched preparation for a film. For example, before directing Until They Sail
Until They Sail
(1957), set in New Zealand during World War II, Wise traveled to New Zealand to interview women whose lives were similar to those portrayed in the film. Wise's attention to detail also extended to foreign locales. While in New Zealand doing research for the film, Wise also scouted background shots for the film's second-unit crew, even though the main film was shot on MGM's back lot in California.[24] He also shot films on location, such as Mystery in Mexico (1948), a minor B-movie thriller filmed in Mexico City.[25] Wise's films often included lessons on racial tolerance. For example, Native Americans, Muslims, and African Americans were featured in such films as Two Flags West
Two Flags West
(1950), This Could Be the Night (1957), The Set-Up (1949) and Odds Against Tomorrow
Odds Against Tomorrow
(1959). The Sand Pebbles (1966) featured the story of a biracial couple, and Jewish characters were included in Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) and The House on Telegraph Hill
The House on Telegraph Hill
(1951).[26] At RKO, Wise got his first credited directing job in 1944 while working for Hollywood horror film producer Val Lewton. Wise replaced the original director on the horror film The Curse of the Cat People (1944), when it fell behind schedule.[27][28] The film, a well received "dark fantasy about a solitary child and her imaginary friend", was a departure from the horror films of the day.[29] In many of Wise's films, but especially in Curse of the Cat People and Audrey Rose (1977), the melodrama used a vulnerable child or childlike character to challenge a dark, adult world.[30] Lewton promoted Wise to his superiors at RKO, beginning a collaboration that produced the notable horror film The Body Snatcher (1945), starring Boris Karlof with Bela Lugosi.[31] The film's stylization and atmosphere deliberately evoked the groundbreaking horror films of the 1930s, while presenting a psychological horror film more in tune with the uncertainty of the 1940s.[citation needed] Wise identified the film as a personal favorite and its rave reviews also helped establish his career as a director.[32] Between Curse and Snatcher, Wise directed Mademoiselle Fifi (1944), an adaptation of two Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
short stories that explored man's darker side with a political subtext.[33] Fifi's feminist perspective and a memorable chase sequence helped make it a "template picture for Wise".[34] Wise also directed film noir, among them the Lawrence Tierney noir classic Born to Kill (1947), and Blood on the Moon (1948), a noir Western starring Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
as a cowboy drifter that included memorable night sequences.[35] Wise's last film for RKO, The Set-Up (1949), was a realistic, well researched boxing movie in which Wise exposed the sport's cruel and exploitative nature.[36] The film also included choreographed fight scenes and "set the bar" for other fight films.[37] The film earned the Critic's Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.[38] Wise's use and mention of time in this film would echo in later noir films such as Stanley Kubrick's The Killing (1956) and Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction (1994).[39][40] In the 1950s, Wise proved adept in several genres, including science fiction in The Day the Earth Stood Still
The Day the Earth Stood Still
(1951); melodrama in So Big (1953);[41] Western in Tribute to a Bad Man
Tribute to a Bad Man
(1956), starring James Cagney;[42] fictionalized biography in the boardroom drama Executive Suite (1954); and the epic Helen of Troy (1955) based on Homer. Three Secrets (1950), a soap opera/family melodrama, gave Wise a chance to work with actress Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
"in a landmark performance about gender double standards".[43] Neal starred in two more Wise films: The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) and Something for the Birds (1952). The Day the Earth Stood Still
The Day the Earth Stood Still
(1951), a science fiction thriller that warned about the dangers of atomic warfare, included a realistic setting and an emphasis on the story instead of special effects.[44] The film received "overwhelmingly positive" reviews[45] and has become "one of the most enduring and influential science fiction films ever made, and among the first produced by a major studio."[46] The biography of convicted killer Barbara Graham in I Want to Live! (1958), featured Susan Hayward's Oscar-winning performance as Graham and earned Wise his first nomination for Best Director.[47] The film became one of the top-grossing pictures of 1959 and was also nominated for an Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Screenplay from another medium and Best (black and white) Cinematography.[48] In addition, Executive Suite earned Wise a Best Director nomination from the Motion Picture Academy, the Venice Film Festival, and the Director's Guild of America. The film was awarded Special
Special
Jury Prize at the Venice Film Festival and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts nominated it for Best Film.[49] Other Wise-directed films from the 1950s include Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), a portrait of boxer Rocky Graziano, starring Paul Newman;[50][51] Wise's first overt comedy, the problem film, Something for the Birds (1952);[52] the action comedy Destination Gobi
Destination Gobi
(1953);[53] and The Desert Rats (1953), a more traditional war film.[54] In the 1960s, Wise directed three films adapted from the Broadway stage: West Side Story (1961), Two for the Seesaw
Two for the Seesaw
(1962) and The Sound of Music (1965).[55] In 1961, teamed with Jerome Robbins, Wise won the Academy Award for Best Director
Academy Award for Best Director
for West Side Story, which Wise also produced. Wise and Robbins were the first duo to share an Academy Award for directing.[56] Wise won a second Oscar, for Best Picture, as the film's producer,[57] West Side Story won ten out of its eleven Academy Award
Academy Award
nominations: Best Picture, Director, Supporting Actor (George Chakiris), Supporting Actress (Rita Moreno), Cinematography (color), Art/Set Decoration (color), Sound, Scoring of a Musical Picture, Editing, and Costume Design (color). It lost for Best Screenplay based on material from another medium to Judgement at Nuremberg (1961).[58] West Side Story was a box office hit, "a cinema masterpiece".[59] Prior to directing The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
(1965), Wise directed the psychological horror film The Haunting (1963), starring Julie Harris, in an adaptation of Shirley Jackson's novel, The Haunting of Hill House.[60] Wise's big-budget adaptation of Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
and Oscar Hammerstein's family-oriented musical The Sound of Music, with Julie Andrews as Maria and Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
as Captain von Trapp, became one of film history's top-grossing movies.[61] Wise won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture for The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
in 1965.[62] Wise struggled to keep The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
from being an overly sweet, sentimental story by cutting lesser-known songs and adding new dialogue to improve transitions.[63] In addition to garnering Wise two Oscars, the film won three more for editing, sound and scoring of music for an adaptation.[64] The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
was an interim film for Wise, produced to mollify the studio while he developed the difficult film The Sand Pebbles (1966), starring Steve McQueen, Richard Attenborough, and Candice Bergen. The Sand Pebbles, Wise's critically acclaimed film epic, was a parable of the Vietnam War, with an antiwar director and message.[65][66] McQueen received his only Oscar nomination for his performance in the film.[57] Set in the late 1920s in China, this was an early entry in a series of Vietnam war
Vietnam war
era films (Catch-22, M*A*S*H), which, though set in other periods of wartime, nevertheless sounded with its depictions of gunboat diplomacy what would come to be recognized as timeless themes.[citation needed] Wise would later speak of The Sand Pebbles as the film he most wanted to direct,[citation needed] even though he had already explored such antiwar themes in earlier films such as The Day the Earth Stood Still
The Day the Earth Stood Still
(1951).[67] Excellent reviews for The Sand Pebbles marked Wise's last "creative peak" in his long career.[68] Star! (1968), with Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
in the lead as Gertrude Lawrence, failed at the box office,[69] although it was consistent with Wise's other successful films that portrayed a strong woman "whose life choices invite melodramatic relationships."[70] Andrews was cast against type, but Wise, as the film's director, took responsibility for the film's shortcomings.[70] In the 1970s, Wise directed such films as The Andromeda Strain (1971), The Hindenburg (1975), the horror film Audrey Rose (1977) and Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), the first Star Trek
Star Trek
feature film.[71] By this time, Wise's style included much use of split-diopter lenses to create a deep focus effect across the widescreen frame.[citation needed] Wise's adaptation of Michael Crichton's science-fiction thriller, The Andromeda Strain (1971), an anti-biological warfare film, was a "modest critical hit."[72] His next film, Two People (1973), starring Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
and Lindsay Wagner
Lindsay Wagner
in another anti-Vietnam War film, got "poor reviews" and is "one of Wise's least-seen movies."[73] The Hindenburg (1975), which profiles the famous 1937 Hindenburg disaster that newsreel cameramen recorded live as the German dirigible burned, was panned by critics, but it won Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for Best Visual Effects and Best Sound Effects.[74] Wise's Audrey Rose (1977), a reincarnation thriller, received mixed reviews and was "sometimes criticized for being an Exorcist (1973) knockoff."[75] Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), the first of the feature films based on the popular television series, was a difficult shoot for Wise. Popular film critic Leonard Maltin called it "Slow, talky, and derivative, somewhat redeemed by terrific special effects".[76] The film was a box office hit but a critical failure. In 1989, Wise directed Rooftops, his last theatrical feature film. The low-budget musical "opened and closed with no fanfare."[76] At age 86, Wise directed A Storm in Summer (2000) for Showtime (cable television). Starring Peter Falk, it was his only made-for-television movie, airing in 2001,[57] and won a Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Children's Special.[77] Later years[edit] Wise, a lifelong liberal, contributed to charitable organizations, including the American Civil Liberties Union, and established the Robert E. Wise Foundation to provide financial assistance to causes in the Los Angeles area.[78] Wise's private papers are housed at the University of Southern California.[79] During the 1980s and 1990s Wise served on the advisory board of the National Student Film Institute.[80][81] As Wise's directing career slowed, he took a more active role in supporting the film industry. Wise was president of the Director's Guild of America from 1971 to 1975 and served as the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
from 1984 through 1987. He also sat on the Board of Trustees of the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
and chaired its Center for Advanced Film Studies. Wise was named chairman of the Directors Guild of America's special projects committee in 1980, organizing its fiftieth anniversary celebration in New York in 1986. In addition, Wise was a leading member of the National Council of the Arts and Sciences, the Department of Film at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital.[citation needed] Wise also encouraged young filmmakers and responded to inquiries from fans and film students. Wise supervised Emilio Estevez's debut as a director in Wisdom (1986) and was its executive producer.[77] Wise also did a cameo performance in John Landis's The Stupids (1996).[77] In his later years, Wise continued to be active in productions of DVD versions of his films, including making public appearances promoting those films. His last contributions were to the DVD commentaries of The Sound of Music, The Haunting and The Set-Up. He also oversaw the DVD commentaries of The Sand Pebbles and Executive Suite. He also oversaw and provided DVD commentary for the director's edition of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, which included re-edited scenes, new optical effects and a new sound mix. This was the director's final project before his death.[citation needed] Personal life[edit] On May 25, 1942, Wise married actress Patricia Doyle.[82] Throughout their long life together, Wise and his wife enjoyed entertaining and traveling, before she died of cancer on September 22, 1975.[83] The couple had one son, Robert, who became an assistant cameraman.[84] On January 29, 1977, Wise married Millicent Franklin.[85] As a successful and wealthy Hollywood director, Wise had an expansive "bungalow" on the Universal Studios lot and owned a modern California beach house. He continued to screen films for personal enjoyment and had "final cut" decisions on his films.[86] Wise suffered a heart attack and was rushed to UCLA Medical Center, where he died of heart failure on September 14, 2005, four days after his 91st birthday.[7][15][87] Accolades[edit] The four-time Oscar-winner (1961 and 1965) also received the Academy's Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
(1966);[88] the D.W. Griffith Award (1988) from the Director's Guild of America for outstanding lifetime achievement;[77] the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
(1992);[89] AFI's Lifetime Achievement Award (1998); and the Society of Motion Picture and Television Art Directors career award for "outstanding contribution to cinematic imagery" (1998).[77] Wise also has a star (#6340) on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[90] In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild published a list of the 75 best-edited films of all time based on a survey of its membership. Citizen Kane, which Wise had edited early in his career, was listed second.[91] In Indiana, Governor Roger D. Branigin
Roger D. Branigin
proclaimed March 1, 1967, as Robert Wise
Robert Wise
Day, in honor of the 1967 premiere of The Sand Pebbles in Indianapolis. Wise was also named a Sagamore of the Wabash.[57] In 1968, Wise was awarded an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts from Franklin College and in 1981 cochaired a $10 million fundraising campaign for the college.[57] Connersville, Indiana, proclaimed June 4, 1968, as Robert Wise
Robert Wise
Day, while his birthplace, Winchester, Indiana, made a similar proclamation the following day.[92] On November 3, 1990, Wise attended the dedication of the Robert E. Wise Center for Performing Arts at the new Connersville High School.[92] In 1992, Wise was named the first recipient of the Indianapolis-based Heartland Film Festival's Crystal Heart Career Achievement Award.[92] In 2002, the Indiana Historical Society
Indiana Historical Society
named Wise a Living Legend.[93] Wise is also depicted in a mural of famous Randolph County, Indiana, natives in the county's courthouse.[57] This mural was painted local artist, Roy L Barnes. Filmography[edit]

Year Film Director (Executive) Producer Editor Actor Notes

1934 The Gay Divorcee

Sound effects editor (uncredited)

Of Human Bondage

1935 Top Hat

The Informer

1939 The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle

Assistant editor (uncredited)

Bachelor Mother

Yes

5th Ave Girl

Yes

The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Yes

1940 My Favorite Wife

Yes

Dance, Girl, Dance

Yes

1941 Citizen Kane

Yes

Nominated— Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Editing

The Devil and Daniel Webster

Yes

1942 The Magnificent Ambersons

Yes

Director of Additional Sequences (Uncredited)

Seven Days' Leave

Yes

1943 Bombardier

Yes

The Fallen Sparrow

Yes

The Iron Major

Yes

1944 Action in Arabia

Second unit director (uncredited)

The Curse of the Cat People Yes

Replaced director Gunther von Fritsch

Mademoiselle Fifi Yes

1945 The Body Snatcher Yes

A Game of Death Yes

1946 Criminal Court Yes

1947 Born to Kill Yes

1948 Blood on the Moon Yes

Mystery in Mexico Yes

1949 The Set-Up Yes

1950 Three Secrets Yes

Two Flags West Yes

1951 The Day the Earth Stood Still Yes

The House on Telegraph Hill Yes

1952 Something for the Birds Yes

The Captive City Yes

1953 Return to Paradise

Yes

So Big Yes

Destination Gobi Yes

The Desert Rats Yes

1954 Executive Suite Yes

1956 Somebody Up There Likes Me Yes

Tribute to a Bad Man Yes

Helen of Troy Yes

1957 Until They Sail Yes

This Could Be the Night Yes

1958 Run Silent, Run Deep Yes

I Want to Live! Yes

Nominated— Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Director Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Director

1959 Odds Against Tomorrow Yes Yes

1961 West Side Story Yes Yes

Directed with Jerome Robbins Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Director Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Picture Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Director

1962 Two for the Seesaw Yes

1963 The Haunting Yes Yes

Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Director

1965 The Sound of Music Yes Yes

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Director Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Picture Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Director

1966 The Sand Pebbles Yes Yes

Nominated— Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Picture Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Director Nominated— Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Motion Picture – Drama

1968 Star! Yes

1970 The Baby Maker

Yes

1971 The Andromeda Strain Yes Yes

1973 Two People Yes Yes

1975 The Hindenburg Yes Yes

1977 Audrey Rose Yes

1979 Star Trek: The Motion Picture Yes

Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Director

1985 The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal

Yes Appeared as himself

1986 Wisdom

Yes

1989 Rooftops Yes

1996 The Stupids

Yes Stanley's Neighbor

2000 A Storm in Summer Yes

Telemovie

References[edit]

^ Robert E. Wise Biography (1914-). Filmreference.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-22. ^ Gehring, Wes D. (2012). Robert Wise: Shadowlands. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society
Indiana Historical Society
Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-87195-296-7.  ^ Gehring, p. 3. ^ Gehring, p. 6 and 17. ^ The Connersville High School's auditorium, the Robert E. Wise Center for Performing Arts, was named in his honor in 1990. See Selke, Mike (September 16, 2005). "Connersville's Hollywood star director gives in to heart failure". Connersville News Examiner. Connersville, Indiana. p. A1 and A9.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Gehring, p. 17, 19. ^ a b c Smith, David L. (2006). Hoosiers in Hollywood. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society
Indiana Historical Society
Press. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-87195-194-6.  ^ a b Gehring, p. 20. ^ Gehring, p. 20–21. ^ Gehring, p. 26. ^ Gehring, p. 27–28. ^ a b Gehring, p. 28. ^ Gehring, p. 29–30. ^ Gehring, p. 30. ^ a b Fichtinger, Lukas. "Biography for Robert Wise". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved November 1, 2012.  ^ Carringer, Robert L. (1996). The Making of Citizen Kane. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 89–99. ISBN 0520205677. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Gehring, p. 44. ^ Gehring, p. 44–45. ^ Gehring, p. 45. ^ Gerhring, p. 51. ^ Gehring, p. 63 and 65. ^ Gehring, p. 160. ^ Gehring, p. 66. ^ Gehring, p. 164. ^ Gehring, p. 113–114. ^ Gehring, p. 196 and 199. ^ Gehring, p. 65–66. ^ Smith, p. 405. ^ Gehring, p. 71. ^ Gehring, p. 75. ^ Gerhing, p. 77–78. ^ Gehring, p. 78. ^ Gehring, p. 86 and 88. ^ Gehring, p. 93–95. ^ Gehring, p. 119–120, 122. ^ Gehring, p. 128. ^ Gehring, p. 130 and 133. ^ Gehring, p. 126. ^ "Killing (Motion picture : 1956)". UCLA Library, Film and Television Archive. Retrieved 2012-11-01.  ^ "Pulp Fiction". UCLA Library, Film and Television Archive. Retrieved November 1, 2012.  ^ So Big "foreshadowed the family values" that later appeared in The Sound of Music (1965). See Gehring, p. 179 and 181. ^ Gehring p. 190–191. ^ Gehring, p. 137. ^ Gehring, p. 142–143. ^ Gehring, p. 149. ^ Gehring, p. 150–151. ^ Gehring, p. 200. ^ Gehring, p. 204. ^ Gehring, p. 187. ^ Gehring, p. 193–194. ^ Wise accepted the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Actor on behalf of his absent friend, Paul Newman, who won for his performance in The Color of Money (1986). See Gehring, p. 200 and Fichtinger, Lukas. "Biography for Robert Wise". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved November 1, 2012.  ^ Gehring, p. 152. ^ Gehring, p. 157. ^ Gehring, p. 158. ^ Gehring, p. 208. ^ Gehring, p. 221. ^ a b c d e f Smith, p. 406. ^ Gehring, p. 223–224. ^ The Entertainment Weekly Guide to the Greatest Movies Ever Made also named West Side Story at the top of its 100 best musicals list. See Gehring, p. 222–223. ^ Gehring, p. 227. ^ Gehring, p. 233. ^ Wise initially turned down the project, but later agreed after reaching a compromise with the film's producer. He directed the film in exchange for a percentage of the film's net profit and an agreement to finance The Sand Pebbles, one of Wise's film projects that had stalled due to budget concerns. See Gehring, p. 233. ^ Gehring, p. 234. ^ Gehring, p. 240. ^ Gehring, p. 246. ^ The film's premier was held at the Lyric Theater in Indianapolis, Indiana, where Wise had seen films in his youth on family outings to the city. See Gehring, p. 253. ^ Gehring, p. 245–246. ^ Gehring, p. 253 and 255. ^ Gehring, p. 256–258 ^ a b Gehring, p. 258. ^ Gehring, p. 260, 263, 271, and 273. ^ Gehring, p. 260. ^ Gehring, p. 263. ^ Gehring, p. 264 and 270. ^ Gehring, p. 271. ^ a b Gehring, p. 275. ^ a b c d e Gehring, p. 276. ^ Gehring, p. 266. ^ Gehring, p. 267. ^ Editor (June 10, 1994). National Student Film Institute/L.A: The Sixteenth Annual Los Angeles Student Film Festival. The Directors Guild Theatre. pp. 10–11.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Editor (June 7, 1991). Los Angeles Student Film Institute: 13th Annual Student Film Festival. The Directors Guild Theatre. p. 3.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Gerhing, p. 59. ^ Gehring, p. 264. ^ Gehring, p. 60. ^ Franklin was a Star Trek
Star Trek
fan and had a cameo in her husband's Star Trek film. See Gehring, p. 274. ^ Gehring, p. 265 and 271. ^ "Robert Wise". Chicago Sun Times, Associated Press. September 15, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2012.  ^ Smith, p. 517. ^ "Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2012.  ^ Smith, p. 525. ^ "The 75 Best Edited Films". Editors Guild Magazine. 1 (3). May 2012.  ^ a b c Gehring, p. 277. ^ Britton, Bonnie; Steve Slosared (September 16, 2005). "Director of classic movies dies at 91". Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis, IN. The Associated Press. p. A12.  access-date= requires url= (help)

Bibliography[edit]

Gehring, Wes D (2012). Robert Wise: Shadowlands. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-296-7.  Selke, Mike (September 16, 2005). "Connersville's Hollywood star director gives in to heart failure". Connersville News Examiner. Connersville, Indiana. p. A1 and A9.  access-date= requires url= (help) Smith, David L (2006). Hoosiers in Hollywood. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-194-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Wise.

Robert Wise
Robert Wise
on IMDb Robert Wise
Robert Wise
at the TCM Movie Database Robert Wise
Robert Wise
at AllMovie Robert Wise
Robert Wise
at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek
Star Trek
wiki) "Lifetime Honors–National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2012.  " Robert Wise
Robert Wise
Obituary". Chicago Sun Times, Associated Press. September 15, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2012. 

v t e

Films directed by Robert Wise

The Curse of the Cat People
The Curse of the Cat People
(1944) Mademoiselle Fifi (1944) The Body Snatcher (1945) A Game of Death
A Game of Death
(1945) Criminal Court
Criminal Court
(1946) Born to Kill (1947) Mystery in Mexico (1948) Blood on the Moon
Blood on the Moon
(1948) The Set-Up (1949) Two Flags West
Two Flags West
(1950) Three Secrets (1950) The House on Telegraph Hill
The House on Telegraph Hill
(1951) The Day the Earth Stood Still
The Day the Earth Stood Still
(1951) The Captive City (1952) Something for the Birds (1952) Destination Gobi
Destination Gobi
(1953) The Desert Rats (1953) So Big (1953) Executive Suite (1954) Helen of Troy (1956) Tribute to a Bad Man
Tribute to a Bad Man
(1956) Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956) This Could Be the Night (1957) Until They Sail
Until They Sail
(1957) Run Silent, Run Deep (1958) I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
(1958) Odds Against Tomorrow
Odds Against Tomorrow
(1959) West Side Story (1961) Two for the Seesaw
Two for the Seesaw
(1962) The Haunting (1963) The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
(1965) The Sand Pebbles (1966) Star! (1968) The Andromeda Strain (1971) Two People (1973) The Hindenburg (1975) Audrey Rose (1977) Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979) Rooftops (1989)

Awards for Robert Wise

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Director

1927–1950

Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1927) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1928) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1929) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1930) Norman Taurog
Norman Taurog
(1931) Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1932) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1933) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1934) John Ford
John Ford
(1935) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1936) Leo McCarey (1937) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1938) Victor Fleming
Victor Fleming
(1939) John Ford
John Ford
(1940) John Ford
John Ford
(1941) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1942) Michael Curtiz
Michael Curtiz
(1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950)

1951–1975

George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Carol Reed
Carol Reed
(1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

AFI Life Achievement Award

John Ford
John Ford
(1973) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1974) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1975) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1976) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1977) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1978) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1979) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1980) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1981) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1982) John Huston
John Huston
(1983) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(1984) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1985) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1986) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1987) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1988) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1989) David Lean
David Lean
(1990) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1991) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1992) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1993) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1994) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1997) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1998) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1999) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2000) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2001) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2002) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2004) George Lucas
George Lucas
(2005) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2006) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2007) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2008) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2009) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2010) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2011) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(2012) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2013) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2014) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(2015) John Williams
John Williams
(2016) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2017) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2018)

v t e

Directors Guild of America
Directors Guild of America
Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film

1948–1975

Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1948) Robert Rossen
Robert Rossen
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Anthony Harvey (1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Rob Marshall
Rob Marshall
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award

Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1938) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1939) David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
(1940) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1942) Sidney Franklin (1943) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1944) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1945) Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
(1947) Jerry Wald
Jerry Wald
(1949) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1951) Arthur Freed (1952) Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1953) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1954) Buddy Adler (1957) Jack L. Warner
Jack L. Warner
(1959) Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
(1962) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1964) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1966) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1967) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1968) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1971) Lawrence Weingarten (1974) Mervyn LeRoy
Mervyn LeRoy
(1976) Pandro S. Berman
Pandro S. Berman
(1977) Walter Mirisch (1978) Ray Stark (1980) Albert R. Broccoli
Albert R. Broccoli
(1982) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1988) David Brown and Richard D. Zanuck
Richard D. Zanuck
(1991) George Lucas
George Lucas
(1992) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1995) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(1997) Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(1999) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2000) Dino De Laurentiis
Dino De Laurentiis
(2001) John Calley (2009) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(2010)

v t e

Presidents of the Screen Directors Guild and the Directors Guild of America

King Vidor
King Vidor
(1936) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1939) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1941) Mark Sandrich
Mark Sandrich
(1943) John Cromwell (1944) George Marshall (1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950) George Sidney
George Sidney
(1951) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1960) George Sidney
George Sidney
(1961) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1967) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1971) Robert Aldrich (1975) George Schaefer (1979) Jud Taylor (1981) Gilbert Cates (1983) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1987) Gene Reynolds
Gene Reynolds
(1993) Jack Shea (1997) Martha Coolidge (2002) Michael Apted
Michael Apted
(2003) Taylor Hackford
Taylor Hackford
(2009) Paris Barclay
Paris Barclay
(2013) Thomas Schlamme (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 115354709 LCCN: n85344558 ISNI: 0000 0001 0938 1717 GND: 119268647 SUDOC: 027987949 BNF: cb12443420d (data) BIBSYS: 90881988 MusicBrainz: 65ffb9c5-fe07-4032-83a7-7c4014ee7a40 NLA: 35813633 NKC: pna2009495475 BNE: XX1068112 SN

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