Robert O. Keohane
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Robert Owen Keohane (born October 3, 1941) is an American
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the w ...

academic
working within the fields of
International Relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions betwe ...
and
International Political Economy International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), pro ...
. Following the publication of his influential book ''
After Hegemony ''After Hegemony'' (full title: ''After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy'') is a book by Robert Keohane first published in 1984. It is a leading text in the Neoliberalism in international relations, neo-liberal schoo ...
'' (1984), he has become widely associated with the theory of
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; ...
institutionalism, as well as transnational relations and
world politics ''World Politics'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a ...
in
international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions betwe ...
in the 1970s. He is Professor Emeritus of International Affairs at the
Princeton School of Public and International Affairs The Princeton School of Public and International Affairs (formerly the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) is a professional public policy school at Princeton University Princeton University is a private university, pr ...

Princeton School of Public and International Affairs
, and has also taught at
Swarthmore College Swarthmore College (locally pronounced , or ; sometimes pronounced ) is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, with its first classes being held in 1869, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational co ...
,
Duke University Duke University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decad ...
,
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard University
and
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Stan ...

Stanford University
. A 2011 survey of International Relations scholars placed Keohane second in terms of influence and quality of scholarship in the last twenty years. According to the Open Syllabus Project, Keohane is the most frequently cited author on college syllabi for political science courses.


Early life

Keohane was born at the
University of Chicago Hospitals The University of Chicago Medical Center (UChicago Medicine) is a nationally ranked academic medical center located in Hyde Park on the South Side of Chicago. It is the flagship campus for the University of Chicago Medicine system and was establi ...
. His education through the fifth grade was at the
University of Chicago Laboratory Schools The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (also known as Lab or Lab School and abbreviated UCLS; the upper classes are nicknamed U-High) is a private, co-educational day school in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map ...

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools
. When he was 10, the family moved to
Mount Carroll, Illinois Mount Carroll is a city in Carroll CountyCarroll County is the name of thirteen counties in the U.S.A. All, except for the one in Tennessee, are named after Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence from Maryla ...
, where he attended public school and his parents taught at
Shimer College Shimer College (pronounced ) is the name of an American Great Books college established in 1853. At times an independent institution, and at times part of another institution, it is, as of 2021, part of North Central College in Naperville, Illi ...
. After the 10th grade, Keohane enrolled at Shimer through the school's early entrance program, which since 1950 has allowed selected high school students to enter college before completing high school. When later asked to compare his undergraduate education as an early entrant at Shimer with his graduate work at Harvard, Keohane remarked "it is not clear to me that I have ever been with a brighter set of people than those early entrants." Keohane currently serves on the Board of Trustees of Shimer College. He earned a BA, with honors, from
Shimer College Shimer College (pronounced ) is the name of an American Great Books college established in 1853. At times an independent institution, and at times part of another institution, it is, as of 2021, part of North Central College in Naperville, Illi ...
in 1961. He obtained his PhD from
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
in 1966, one year after he joined the faculty of
Swarthmore College Swarthmore College (locally pronounced , or ; sometimes pronounced ) is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, with its first classes being held in 1869, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational co ...
. He was the student of Harvard University Professor
Stanley Hoffmann Stanley Hoffmann (27 November 1928 – 13 September 2015) was the Paul and Catherine Buttenwieser University Professor at Harvard University, specializing in French politics and society, European politics, U.S. foreign policy, and international ...
. He described
Judith Shklar Judith Nisse Shklar (September 24, 1928 – September 17, 1992) was a philosopher and political theorist {{unreferenced, date=June 2015 A political theorist is someone who engages in constructing or evaluating political theory, including political ...
as his strongest intellectual mentor during his graduate studies. He has also described Kenneth Waltz and Karl Polanyi as influences.


Career

Keohane has taught at Swarthmore,
Stanford , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of American Universities, AAUNational Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, Space-grant , establishe ...

Stanford
, Brandeis,
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
, and
Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of Royal family, royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, grand princes, grand dukes, and sovereign princes. As royalty or nobility, th ...
. At Harvard he was Stanfield Professor of International Peace, and at Duke he was the James B. Duke Professor of Political Science. He is the author of many works, including ''After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy'' (Princeton University Press, 1984), for which he was awarded the second annual
University of Louisville The University of Louisville (UofL) is a public university, public research university in Louisville, Kentucky. It is part of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the Unite ...
Grawemeyer Award The Grawemeyer Awards () are five awards given annually by the University of Louisville. The prizes are presented to individuals in the fields of education, ideas improving world order, music composition, religion, and psychology Psychology ...
in 1989 for "Ideas Improving World Order". Keohane describes the process of forming the theoretical insights of ''After Hegemony'' as follows during the late 1970s, Keohane has been characterized as a key figure in the development of a discipline of
International Political Economy International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), pro ...
in the United States. Along with Joseph Nye, Keohane coined the concept of
complex interdependence Complex interdependence in international relations is the idea put forth by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye that states and their fortunes are inextricably tied together. These complex relationships can be explored through both the liberal and realism ...
to capture the ways in which power had been fragmented and diffused in economic affairs. Robert Keohane coined the term
Hegemonic stability theory Hegemonic stability theory (HST) is a theory of international relations, rooted in research from the fields of political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and ...
in a 1980 article for the notion that the international system is more likely to remain stable when a single
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
is the dominant world power, or
hegemon Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (new ...
. Keohane's 1984 book ''
After Hegemony ''After Hegemony'' (full title: ''After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy'') is a book by Robert Keohane first published in 1984. It is a leading text in the Neoliberalism in international relations, neo-liberal schoo ...
'' used insights from the
new institutional economics New institutional economics (NIE) is an economic perspective that attempts to extend economics by focusing on the institutions (that is to say the sociology, social and legal Norm (sociology), norms and rules) that underlie economic activity and w ...
to argue that the international system could remain stable in the absence of a hegemon, thus rebutting hegemonic stability theory. Keohane showed that international cooperation could be sustained through repeated interactions, transparency, and monitoring. Keohane played an important role in steering the focus of the journal ''
International Organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was established in 1947 and is published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the ...
'' from scholarship focused on international organizations to a general IR journal; it is now the leading journal in the field of IR. He joined the journal in 1968. Between 1974 and 1980, he was editor of the journal. He has been president of the
International Studies Association The International Studies Association (ISA) is a professional association for scholars, practitioners and graduate students in the field of international studies. Founded in 1959, ISA now has over 7,000 members in 110 countries and is the most res ...
, 1988–1989, and of the
American Political Science Association The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis o ...
, 1999–2000. Keohane is a fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America, United States. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition, review, an ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
, the
American Academy of Political and Social Science The American Academy of Political and Social Science (AAPSS) was founded in 1889 to promote progress in the social sciences. Sparked by Professor Edmund J. James and drawing from members of the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, Swarthmo ...
and has held a
Guggenheim Fellowship Guggenheim Fellowships are grants Grant are funds given by an entity – frequently, a public body A statutory corporation is a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the ...
and fellowships at the
Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is an interdisciplinary research lab at Stanford University that offers a residential postdoctoral fellowship program for scientists and scholars studying "the five core social and ...
and the
National Humanities CenterThe National Humanities Center (NHC) is an independent institute for advanced study in the humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and re ...
. He was awarded the
Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science ), location=Uppsala Uppsala (, or all ending in , ; archaically spelled ''Upsala'') is the county seat of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Kon ...
in 2005, and elected to the
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
that same year. In 2007, he was elected to the
American Philosophical Society The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the mos ...
. He was listed as the most influential scholar of international relations in a 2005 ''
Foreign Policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...
'' poll. Political scientists he has taught include Lisa Martin, Andrew Moravcsik, Layna Mosley, Beth Simmons, Ronald Mitchell, and Helen V. Milner. Other students include Fareed Zakaria. In 2012, Keohane received the Harvard Centennial Medal. In fall 2013 he is the Allianz Distinguished Visitor at the American Academy in Berlin. In 2014, he was awarded the James Madison Award of the American Political Science Association. He was awarded the 2016 Balzan Prize for International Relations: History and Theory.


Personal life

While he was an assistant professor at Swarthmore College, he was an activist against the Vietnam War, and also campaigned for 1968 presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy. Keohane is married to Nannerl O. Keohane, former president of
Duke University Duke University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decad ...
and Wellesley College and herself a noted political scientist.Sharon Walsh and Jeffrey Brainard, 'Duke's Ex-President and Her Husband Head to Princeton; Penn's Medical School Denies Tenure to 2 Bioethicists', in ''The Chronicle of Higher Education'', October 29, 200

/ref> They have four grown children: Sarah, Stephan, Jonathan, and Nat Keohane, Nathaniel.


Books

* ''Transnational Relations and World Politics'', co-authored with Joseph S. Nye, Jr. (Harvard University Press, 1972) * ''After Hegemony, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy'' (Princeton University Press, 1984) * ''Neorealism and Its Critics'' (Columbia University Press, 1986) * ''International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory'' (Westview, 1989) * ''Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition'' (Little, Brown, 1977); with Nye * ''Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research'' (Princeton, 1994); with Gary King (political scientist), Gary King and Sidney Verba * ''Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World'' (Routledge, New York, 2002) * ''Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas'' (Cambridge University Press, 2003); with J. L. Holzgrefe * ''The Regime Complex for Climate Change'' with David G. Victor (2010)


References


External links


Robert Keohane's Faculty Profile at PrincetonRobert O. Keohane as the Allianz Distinguished Visitor
at the American Academy in Berlin {{DEFAULTSORT:Keohane, Robert 1941 births Living people American political scientists American male writers Brandeis University faculty Duke University faculty Harvard University alumni Harvard University faculty International relations scholars People from Mount Carroll, Illinois Political liberals (international relations) Princeton University faculty Shimer College alumni Stanford University Department of Political Science faculty Swarthmore College faculty University of Chicago Laboratory Schools alumni Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences Corresponding Fellows of the British Academy