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Robert Bresson (French: [ʁɔbɛʁ bʁɛsɔ̃]; 25 September 1901 – 18 December 1999)[1] was a French film director. Known for his ascetic approach, Bresson contributed notably to the art of cinema; his non-professional actors, ellipses, and sparse use of scoring have led his works to be regarded as preeminent examples of minimalist film. Bresson is among the most highly regarded French filmmakers of all time.[2][3] His works A Man Escaped (1956)[4], Pickpocket (1959)[5] and Au hasard Balthazar
Au hasard Balthazar
(1966)[6] were ranked among the 100 greatest films ever made in the 2012 Sight & Sound critics' poll. Other films of his, such as Mouchette
Mouchette
(1967) and L'Argent (1983), also received many votes.[7] Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
once wrote, " Robert Bresson is French cinema, as Dostoyevsky
Dostoyevsky
is the Russian novel and Mozart
Mozart
is German music."[8]

Contents

1 Life and career 2 Themes 3 Legacy

3.1 Worldwide 3.2 French Cinema and French New Wave

4 Awards and nominations 5 Filmography

5.1 Feature films 5.2 Short films

6 Bibliography

6.1 By Robert Bresson 6.2 About Robert Bresson

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

9.1 Informational 9.2 Interviews

Life and career[edit] Bresson was born at Bromont-Lamothe, Puy-de-Dôme, the son of Marie-Élisabeth (née Clausels) and Léon Bresson.[9] Little is known of his early life. He was educated at Lycée Lakanal
Lycée Lakanal
in Sceaux, Hauts-de-Seine, close to Paris, and turned to painting after graduating.[10] Three formative influences in his early life seem to have a mark on his films: Catholicism, art and his experiences as a prisoner of war. Robert Bresson lived in Paris, France, in the Île Saint-Louis. Initially also a photographer, Bresson made his first short film, Les affaires publiques (Public Affairs) in 1934. During World War II, he spent over a year in a prisoner-of-war camp−an experience which informs Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut (A Man Escaped). In a career that spanned fifty years, Bresson made only 13 feature-length films. This reflects his meticulous approach to the filmmaking process and his non-commercial preoccupations.[citation needed] Difficulty finding funding for his projects was also a factor. Although many writers claim that Bresson described himself as an "Christian atheist",[11][12] no source ever confirmed this assertion, neither are the circumstances clear under which Bresson would have said it. On the contrary, in an interview in 1973 he said,

There is the feeling that God is everywhere, and the more I live, the more I see that in nature, in the country. When I see a tree, I see that God exists. I try to catch and to convey the idea that we have a soul and that the soul is in contact with God. That's the first thing I want to get in my films.[13]

Bresson was sometimes accused of an "ivory tower existence".[14] Critic Jonathan Rosenbaum, an admirer of Bresson's work, argued that the filmmaker was "a mysterious, aloof figure", and wrote that on the set of Four Nights of a Dreamer (1971) the director "seemed more isolated from his crew than any other filmmaker I've seen at work; his widow and onetime assistant director, Mylene van der Mersch, often conveyed his instructions."[15] Themes[edit]

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Bresson's early artistic focus was to separate the language of cinema from that of the theater, which often relies heavily upon the actor's performance to drive the work. With his 'actor-model' technique, Bresson's actors were required to repeat multiple takes of each scene until all semblances of 'performance' were stripped away, leaving a stark effect that registers as both subtle and raw. This, as well as Bresson's restraint in musical scoring, would have a significant influence on minimalist cinema. In the academic journal CrossCurrents, Shmuel Ben-gad writes:[16]

There is a credibility in Bresson's models: They are like people we meet in life, more or less opaque creatures who speak, move, and gesture [...] Acting, on the other hand, no matter how naturalistic, actively deforms or invents by putting an overlay or filter over the person, presenting a simplification of a human being and not allowing the camera to capture the actor's human depths. Thus what Bresson sees as the essence of filmic art, the achievement of the creative transformation involved in all art through the interplay of images of real things, is destroyed by the artifice of acting. For Bresson, then, acting is, like mood music and expressive camera work, just one more way of deforming reality or inventing that has to be avoided.

Film critic Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
wrote that Bresson's directorial style resulted in films "of great passion: Because the actors didn't act out the emotions, the audience could internalize them."[17] Some feel that Bresson's Catholic upbringing and belief system lie behind the thematic structures of most of his films.[18] Recurring themes under this interpretation include salvation, redemption, defining and revealing the human soul, and metaphysical transcendence of a limiting and materialistic world. An example is A Man Escaped (1956), where a seemingly simple plot of a prisoner of war's escape can be read as a metaphor for the mysterious process of salvation. Bresson's films can also be understood as critiques of French society and the wider world, with each revealing the director's sympathetic, if unsentimental, view of its victims. That the main characters of Bresson's most contemporary films, The Devil, Probably (1977) and L'Argent (1983), reach similarly unsettling conclusions about life indicates to some the director's feelings towards the culpability of modern society in the dissolution of individuals. Indeed, of an earlier protagonist he said, " Mouchette
Mouchette
offers evidence of misery and cruelty. She is found everywhere: wars, concentration camps, tortures, assassinations."[19] Bresson published Notes sur le cinématographe (also published in English translation as Notes on the Cinematographer) in 1975, in which he argues for a unique sense of the term "cinematography". For him, cinematography is the higher function of cinema. While a movie is in essence "only" filmed theatre, cinematography is an attempt to create a new language of moving images and sounds. Legacy[edit] Worldwide[edit] Bresson is often referred to as a patron saint of cinema, not only for the strong Catholic themes found throughout his oeuvre, but also for his notable contributions to the art of film. His style can be detected through his use of sound, associating selected sounds with images or characters; paring dramatic form to its essentials by the spare use of music; and through his infamous 'actor-model' methods of directing his almost exclusively non-professional actors. He has influenced a number of other filmmakers, including Andrei Tarkovsky, Michael Haneke, Jim Jarmusch, the Dardenne brothers, Aki Kaurismäki, and Paul Schrader, whose book Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer includes a detailed critical analysis. Andrei Tarkovsky[20] held Bresson in very high regard, noting him and Ingmar Bergman as his two favourite filmmakers, stating "I am only interested in the views of two people: one is called Bresson and one called Bergman".[21] In his book Sculpting in Time, Tarkovsky describes Bresson as "perhaps the only artist in cinema, who achieved the perfect fusion of the finished work with a concept theoretically formulated beforehand."[8] Bresson's book Notes on the Cinematographer (1975) is one of the most respected books on film theory and criticism. His theories about film greatly influenced other filmmakers, such as the French New Wave directors. French Cinema and French New Wave[edit] Opposing the established pre-war French Cinema (Tradition de la Qualité) by offering his own personal responses to the question 'what is cinema?',[22] and by well-formulating his ascetic style, Bresson gained a high position among Founders of the French New Wave. He is often listed (along with Alexandre Astruc
Alexandre Astruc
and André Bazin) as one of the main figures who theoretically influenced the French New Wave. New Wave pioneers often praised Bresson and posited him as a prototype for or precursor to the movement. However, Bresson was neither as overtly experimental nor as outwardly political as the New Wave filmmakers, and his religious views ( Catholicism
Catholicism
and Jansenism) would not have been attractive to most of the filmmakers associated with the movement.[22] In his development of auteur theory, François Truffaut
François Truffaut
lists Bresson among the few directors to whom the term "auteur" can genuinely be applied, and later names him as one of the only examples of directors who could approach even the so-called "unfilmable" scenes, using the film narrative at its disposal.[23] Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
also looked back at Bresson with high admiration (" Robert Bresson is French cinema, as Dostoevsky is the Russian novel and Mozart
Mozart
is the German music."[8]) Screenwriter and director Alain Cavalier describes Bresson's role as pivotal not only in the New Wave movement, but for French cinema in general, writing, "In French cinema you have a father and a mother: the father is Bresson and the mother is Renoir, with Bresson representing the strictness of the law and Renoir warmth and generosity. All the better French cinema has and will have to connect to Bresson in some way."[2] Awards and nominations[edit] Robert Bresson was given the Career Golden Lion in 1989 by the Venice Film Festival

Journal d'un curé de campagne (1951) - Diary of a Country Priest

Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
International Award Winner Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Italian Film Critics Award Winner Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
OCIC Award Winner

Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut (1956) - A Man Escaped

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Prix de la mise en scène Winner

Pickpocket (1959) - Pickpocket

Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Nominee[24]

Procès de Jeanne d'Arc
Procès de Jeanne d'Arc
(1962) - The Trial of Joan of Arc

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Special
Special
Prix du Jury Winner Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
OCIC Award Winner

Au hasard Balthazar
Au hasard Balthazar
(1966) - Balthazar

Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
OCIC Award Winner Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Jury Hommage

Mouchette
Mouchette
(1967)

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
OCIC Award Winner Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Pasinetti Award Winner

Quatre nuits d'un rêveur (1971) - Four Nights of a Dreamer

Berlin Film Festival OCIC Award Winner[25]

Lancelot du Lac (1974)- Lancelot of the Lake

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
FIPRESCI Prize Winner (Bresson refused this award)

Le diable probablement (1977) - The Devil Probably

Berlin Film Festival Silver Bear - Special
Special
Jury Prize.[26] Berlin Film Festival Interfilm Award Winner Berlin Film Festival OCIC Award Winner

L'argent (1983) - Money

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Prix de la mise en scène Winner

Filmography[edit] Feature films[edit]

Les anges du péché
Les anges du péché
(Angels of Sin, 1943) Les dames du Bois de Boulogne
Les dames du Bois de Boulogne
(The Ladies of the Bois de Boulogne, 1945) Journal d'un curé de campagne (Diary of a Country Priest, 1951) Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut (A Man Escaped, 1956) Pickpocket (1959) Procès de Jeanne d'Arc
Procès de Jeanne d'Arc
(The Trial of Joan of Arc, 1962) Au hasard Balthazar
Au hasard Balthazar
(Balthazar, 1966) Mouchette
Mouchette
(1967) Une femme douce
Une femme douce
(A Gentle Woman, 1969) Quatre nuits d'un rêveur (Four Nights of a Dreamer, 1971) Lancelot du Lac (Lancelot of the Lake, 1974) Le diable probablement (The Devil Probably, 1977) L'argent (Money, 1983)

Short films[edit]

Les affaires publiques (Public Affairs , 1934)

Bibliography[edit] By Robert Bresson[edit]

Notes sur le Cinématographe (1975) – translated as Notes on Cinematography, Notes on the Cinematographer and Notes on the Cinematograph in different English editions. Bresson on Bresson: Interviews, 1943-1983 (2016) - translated from the French by Anna Moschovakis, edited by Mylène Bresson, preface by Pascal Mérigeau.

About Robert Bresson[edit]

Robert Bresson: A Passion for Film by Tony Pipolo (Oxford University Press; 407 pages; 2010) pays particular attention to psychosexual aspects of the French filmmaker's 13 features, from Les Anges du péché (1943) to L'Argent (1983). La politique des auteurs, edited by André Bazin. Robert Bresson (Cinematheque Ontario Monographs, No. 2), edited by James Quandt Transcendental Style in Film: Bresson, Ozu, Dreyer by Paul Schrader Robert Bresson: A Spiritual Style in Film, by Joseph Cunneen Robert Bresson, by Philippe Arnauld, Cahiers du cinema, 1986 The Films of Robert Bresson, Ian Cameron (ed.), New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969. Robert Bresson, by Keith Reader, Manchester University Press, 2000. "Robert Bresson", a poem by Patti Smith from her 1978 book Babel "Spiritual style in the films of Robert Bresson", a chapter in Susan Sontag's Against Interpretation
Against Interpretation
and other essays, New York: Picador, 1966. Robert Bresson (Revised), James Quandt (ed), Cinematheque Ontario Monographs, 2012 (752 pages) (ISBN 978-0-9682969-5-0) Neither God Nor Master: Robert Bresson and Radical Politics by Brian Price (University of Minnesota Press, 2011, 264 pages).

See also[edit]

French New Wave Cinema of France Auteur Theory Robert Bresson Prize

References[edit]

^ "Robert Bresson". Les Gens du Cinéma (in French). 28 July 2004. Retrieved 19 February 2014.  This site uses Bresson's birth certificate as its source of information. ^ a b [1] ^ "The 1,000 Greatest Films (Top 250 Directors)". They Shoot Pictures, Don't They. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ "Votes for A Man Escaped (1956)". British Film Institute. Retrieved January 27, 2017.  ^ "Critics' Top 100". British Film Institute. Retrieved January 23, 2018.  ^ "Votes for Au hasard Balthazar
Au hasard Balthazar
(1966)". British Film Institute. Retrieved January 27, 2017.  ^ "Robert Bresson". British Film Institute. Retrieved January 27, 2017.  ^ a b c [2] ^ [3] ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Robert Bresson". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007.  ^ James Quandt, Cinémathèque Ontario (1998). Robert Bresson. Cinemathèque Ontario. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-9682969-1-2. Around the time of 'Lancelot du Lac' (1974), Bresson was said to have declared himself "a Christian atheist." CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Bert Cardullo (2009). The Films of Robert Bresson: A Casebook. Anthem Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1-84331-796-8. A deeply devout man—one who paradoxically described himself as a "Christian atheist" — Bresson, in his attempt in a relatively timeless manner to address good and evil, redemption, the power of love and self-sacrifice, and other such subjects, may seem to us, and perhaps was, something of a retrogression.  ^ Hayman, Ronald (Summer 1973). " Robert Bresson in Conversation". Transatlantic Review (46-47): 16–23.  ^ "Robert Bresson". The Guardian. December 22, 1999. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ Rosenbaum, Jonathan (April 1, 2004). "Defending Bresson". Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 2, 2017.  ^ Ben-gad, Shmuel (1997). "To See the World Profoundly: The Films of Robert Bresson". CrossCurrents. Retrieved September 25, 2015.  ^ Ebert, Roger (December 23, 1999). " Robert Bresson was master of understatement". Retrieved September 25, 2015.  ^ James Quandt, Robert Bresson (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998), 9. ^ Dictionary of Films: ISBN 0-520-02152-5, page 228. ^ Le Cain, Maximillian. "Andrei Tarkovsky". Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.  ^ [4] ^ a b [5] ^ [6] ^ "IMDB.com: Awards for Pickpocket". imdb.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.  ^ "IMDB.com: Awards for Four Nights of a Dreamer". imdb.com. Retrieved 14 March 2010.  ^ "Berlinale 1977: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 25 July 2010. 

External links[edit] Informational[edit]

Robert Bresson on IMDb Robert-Bresson.com: Resource dedicated to Bresson's films A Bresson bibliography Article about the cinema of Robert Bresson at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 June 2006) RobertBresson.org: Videos, Books, Notes ... (French)

Interviews[edit]

Interview with Bresson (1970) Interview footage with Bresson from French TV in 1960 Inside Bresson's L'Argent: Interview with Crew-member Jonathan Hourigan, by Colin Burnett

v t e

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Best Director Award

René Clément
René Clément
(1946) René Clément
René Clément
(1949) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1951) Christian-Jaque (1952) Jules Dassin
Jules Dassin
/ Sergei Vasilyev
Sergei Vasilyev
(1955) Sergei Yutkevich
Sergei Yutkevich
(1956) Robert Bresson (1957) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1958) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1959) Yuliya Solntseva
Yuliya Solntseva
(1961) Liviu Ciulei (1965) Sergei Yutkevich
Sergei Yutkevich
(1966) Ferenc Kósa
Ferenc Kósa
(1967) Glauber Rocha
Glauber Rocha
/ Vojtěch Jasný
Vojtěch Jasný
(1969) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1970) Miklós Jancsó
Miklós Jancsó
(1972) Michel Brault / Costa-Gavras
Costa-Gavras
(1975) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1976) Nagisa Oshima
Nagisa Oshima
(1978) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1979) Werner Herzog
Werner Herzog
(1982) Robert Bresson / Andrei Tarkovsky
Andrei Tarkovsky
(1983) Bertrand Tavernier
Bertrand Tavernier
(1984) André Téchiné
André Téchiné
(1985) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1986) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1987) Fernando Solanas
Fernando Solanas
(1988) Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
(1989) Pavel Lungin
Pavel Lungin
(1990) Joel Coen (1991) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1992) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1993) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(1994) Mathieu Kassovitz
Mathieu Kassovitz
(1995) Joel Coen (1996) Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(1997) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Edward Yang (2000) Joel Coen / David Lynch
David Lynch
(2001) Im Kwon-taek / Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2002) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
(2003) Tony Gatlif
Tony Gatlif
(2004) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2005) Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
(2006) Julian Schnabel
Julian Schnabel
(2007) Nuri Bilge Ceylan
Nuri Bilge Ceylan
(2008) Brillante Mendoza
Brillante Mendoza
(2009) Mathieu Amalric
Mathieu Amalric
(2010) Nicolas Winding Refn
Nicolas Winding Refn
(2011) Carlos Reygadas
Carlos Reygadas
(2012) Amat Escalante
Amat Escalante
(2013) Bennett Miller
Bennett Miller
(2014) Hou Hsiao-hsien
Hou Hsiao-hsien
(2015) Olivier Assayas
Olivier Assayas
/ Cristian Mungiu
Cristian Mungiu
(2016) Sofia Coppola
Sofia Coppola
(2017)

v t e

European Film Academy Lifetime Achievement Award

  Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988)   Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1988)   Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1989)   Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1990)   Alexandre Trauner (1991)   Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1992)   Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1993)   Robert Bresson (1994)   Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1995)   Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1996)   Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1997)   Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(1999)   Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(2000)   Monty Python
Monty Python
(2001)   Tonino Guerra
Tonino Guerra
(2002)   Claude Chabrol
Claude Chabrol
(2003)   Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(2004)   Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2005)   Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2006)   Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(2007)   Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2008)   Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2009)   Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
(2010)   Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2011)   Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(2012)   Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2013)   Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2014)   Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015)   Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
(2016) Alexander Sokurov
Alexander Sokurov
(2017)

v t e

National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Director

Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1966) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1967) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1968) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1969) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1970) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1971) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1972) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1975) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1976) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1977) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1978) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
/ Robert Benton (1979) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1980) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1981) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1982) Paolo Taviani and Vittorio Taviani (1983) Robert Bresson (1984) John Huston
John Huston
(1985) David Lynch
David Lynch
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) Philip Kaufman
Philip Kaufman
(1988) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
(1989) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1990) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(1994) Mike Figgis
Mike Figgis
(1995) Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
(1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
(1997) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(1998) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2003) Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
(2004) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2007) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(2011) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2012) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Todd Haynes
Todd Haynes
(2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
(2016) Greta Gerwig
Greta Gerwig
(2017)

v t e

Robert Bresson

Films directed

Les affaires publiques (short, 1934) Angels of the Streets
Angels of the Streets
(1943) Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne
Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne
(1945) Diary of a Country Priest
Diary of a Country Priest
(1951) A Man Escaped (1956) Pickpocket (1959) The Trial of Joan of Arc
The Trial of Joan of Arc
(1962) Au Hasard Balthazar
Au Hasard Balthazar
(1966) Mouchette
Mouchette
(1967) A Gentle Woman
A Gentle Woman
(1969) Four Nights of a Dreamer (1971) Lancelot du Lac (1974) The Devil Probably (1977) L'Argent (1983)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Notes on the Cinematographer

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100256742 LCCN: n50044288 ISNI: 0000 0001 1816 3914 GND: 118515160 SELIBR: 232412 SUDOC: 027361152 BNF: cb11893933q (data) NDL: 00463751 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV27682 BNE: XX905610 RKD: 236827 SNAC: w6p27547

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