HistoryTagalog settlement arrived some time in the pre-Spanish period. The provincial territory began with the organization of the Tondo province and Laguna (province), Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like , Parañaque, Taytay, Rizal, Taytay and Cainta, Rizal, Cainta were already thriving. From the reports of the ''Encomiendas'' in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of ''Moron'' (Morong) was under the jurisdiction of Laguna (province), La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of ''Passi'' (Pasig), ''Taitay'' (Taytay) and ''Tagui'' (Taguig) belonged to the Province of Tondo. It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna; and the Encomiendas of ''Nabotas'' (Navotas), ''Tambobo'' (Malabon), Tondo, Parañaque (then La Huerta, Parañaque), ''Longalo'' (Don Galo, Parañaque), Tagui and Pasig were under the jurisdiction of the Augustinians in the Province of Tondo. In 1853 a new political subdivision was formed. This consisted of the towns of (now a city), Bosoboso, Cainta and Taytay from the Province of Tondo; and the towns of Morong, Rizal, Morong, Baras, Rizal, Baras, Tanay, Rizal, Tanay, Pililla, Angono, Rizal, Angono, Binangonan, Rizal, Binangonan and Jalajala, Rizal, Jala-jala from the Province of La Laguna, with the capital at Morong. This district was changed to ''Distrito de Morong, Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong'' after four years. In 1860, by virtue of ''Circular No. 83'', dated September 2, 17854345678, the Province of Tondo became the Manila (province), Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision and control of the Governor of the new province. The town of ''Mariquina'' (Marikina) became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. The Province of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo for the period 1898-1899, and the town of Tanay for 1899-1900. On February 6, the First Philippine Commission sought to establish civil government in the country through a provincial organization act after the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American conflicts. Therefore, on June 5, 1901, a historic meeting was held at the Pasig Catholic Church for the organization of a civil government in the Provinces of Manila and Distrito de Morong, Morong, with 221 delegates in attendance. The first Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean Conant Worcester, Dean C. Worcester, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with Morong Province, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province. Although the delegates from Morong, Hilarion Raymundo, and José Tupas, objected to the proposal, Juan Sumulong of Antipolo strongly advocated the move. After much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila. The new province was aptly named after Jose Rizal, the country's national hero. On June 11, 1901, the province of Rizal was officially and legally created by virtue of an ''Act No. 137'' by the First Philippine Commission which during the time was acting as the unicameral legislative body in the island of Luzon. The new province was composed of 29 municipalities, 18 from the old Manila (province), Province of Manila (Cainta, Rizal, Cainta, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Marikina, Mariquina (Marikina), Rodriguez, Rizal, Montalban (Rodriguez), Muntinlupa, Navotas, Novaliches, Parañaque, , Pateros, Pasay, Pineda (Pasay), Mandaluyong, San Felipe Neri (Mandaluyong), San Juan, Metro Manila, San Juan del Monte (San Juan), San Mateo, Rizal, San Mateo, Makati, San Pedro Macati (Makati), Taguig, Malabon, Tambobong (Malabon)); and 11 from the Politico-Militar District of Morong, (Angono, Rizal, Angono, Baras, Rizal, Baras, Binangonan, Rizal, Binangonan, , Cardona, Rizal, Cardona, Jalajala, Rizal, Jalajala, Morong, Rizal, Morong, Pililla, Rizal, Pililla, Tanay, Rizal, Tanay, Taytay, Rizal, Taytay and Teresa, Rizal, Teresa). The Manila, City of Manila from the old Province of Manila was treated as a separate entity. The seat of the provincial government was Pasig. In year 1939, Quezon City was established, which included parts of Caloocan, and later on, Novaliches and parts of Marikina and San Juan towns.
World War IIMarking's and the Hunter's ROTC Guerrillas operated in Rizal Province throughout the war.
Post-warThrough ''Presidential Decree No. 824'', Rizal was Partition (politics), partitioned on 7 November 1975 to form . The municipalities of Las Piñas, Parañaque, Muntinlupa, Taguig, Pateros, Makati, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Metro Manila, San Juan, Malabon, Navotas, and Marikina, and the three cities of Caloocan, Pasay and Quezon City were excised to form the new region, while the other 14 towns remained in Rizal.
Contemporary historyRizal Governor Dr. Casimiro Ynares III announced on June 17, 2008, the transfer of the Capitol from . Its ₱ 270-million capitol building, constructed in by Ortigas & Co., owner thereof, was completed by December of that year. Built on a five-hectare lot at the Ynares Center, it employs 2,008 employees. The New Capitol was successfully inaugurated on March 4, 2009, bringing back the Capitol Building inside the provincial territory, from which it was absent for 33 years (when Pasig was incorporated into ). On June 19, 2020, President Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11475 into law, which officially transferred the capital of the Rizal province from to . The law was published on June 22, 2020 and took effect on July 7, 2020. The publication of the law coincided with the 159th birth anniversary of Rizal.
GeographyRizal covers a total area of occupying the northern-central section of the in . The province is bordered on the north by , east by , southeast by Laguna (province), Laguna, south by the Laguna de Bay, and west by . Located east of Manila, commuters take approximately an hour to reach the provincial seat which is in . Generally hilly and mountainous in terrain, most of the province's southern towns lie in the shores of Laguna de Bay, the country's largest inland body of water. The province has an area of . Talim Island, the largest island situated within the Laguna de Bay, is under the jurisdiction of the province.
Administrative divisionsRizal comprises 13 Philippine municipality, municipalities and Antipolo, 1 Cities of the Philippines, city.
DemographicsThe population of Rizal in the was people, with a density of . Due to its location being in the heart of the Katagalugan, almost all of the residents of Rizal mainly speak Tagalog language, Tagalog. English language in the Philippines, English and Filipino language, Filipino are used as second languages respectively.
ReligionRoman Catholicism in the Philippines, Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion with about 80 percent adherence ''(Roman Catholic Diocese of Antipolo, Diocese of Antipolo, [Catholic-Hierarchy], 2004)''. And 2% are from Members Church of God International of Bro. Eli Soriano. Various Christianity in the Philippines, Christian groups exist such as Oneness Apostolic or Pentecostalism, Pentecostal like UPC, ALJC and ACJC, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Born-again Christians, Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide, Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptists, Baptist, Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, El Shaddai (movement) Methodists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventist and other Evangelical Christians. Muslims, Dambana, Anitists, animists, and atheists are also present in the province.
EconomyBefore the 1990s, the primary source of economy in Rizal province were the huge piggery estates owned by Manila-based families. In recent years, the province became one of the most progressive provinces in the country, owing to its proximity to , the economic center of the . , Taytay, Rizal, Taytay and Cainta serve as the economic centers of the province, while Angono, Rodriguez, Rizal, Rodriguez, Morong, Rizal, Morong, San Mateo, Rizal, San Mateo, Tanay, Rizal, Tanay, Binangonan and Teresa are taking successful steps to urbanize areas within their jurisdiction. Other areas of the province are having difficulty to start the urbanization process, mainly because of the lack of main roads to connect these to economic centers. In a study recently conducted by the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB), Rizal province came out to be the Philippines' least poor province with a poverty incidence rate of 3.4%, even lower than that of the National Capital Region or Metro Manila. . On April 23, 2013, the National Statistics Coordination Board (NCSB) reported that Rizal, from being the least poor province in poverty incidence moved down to the 3rd Place, with Cavite taking over as the least province by 4.1% (compared to Rizal's 7.6%) and Laguna for 2nd with 6.3%. Antipolo, the province's capital city, is the center of trade and exchange, tourism, government, and economy. It is also a center of education and sports because of the availability of various educational and physical training facilities. Acclaimed of its scenic attractions, the city also produces agricultural products such as cashew nuts and rice cakes. Taytay, the province's center of garment and textile manufacturing, is also the town where the country's largest mall operator runs a store near the town center. Meanwhile, Cainta serves as the center of business-process outsourcing (BPO) businesses in the province, aside from being known for the presence of several shopping centers and delicacies such as bibingka or rice cakes.
Points of interest
GovernmentThe provincial legislature or the Sangguniang Panlalawigan is composed of ten elected members. Four members are elected from each of the province's Legislative districts of Rizal, legislative district, while each of 's Legislative districts of Antipolo City, legislative districts elect a single member.
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