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The River
River
Conwy
Conwy
(Welsh pronunciation: [ˈkɔnʊɨ]; Welsh: Afon Conwy) is a river in north Wales. From its source to its discharge in Conwy
Conwy
Bay it is a little over 27 miles (43 km) long. "Conwy" was formerly Anglicised as "Conway." The name 'Conwy' derives from the old Welsh words 'cyn' (chief) and 'gwy' (water), the river being originally called the 'Cynwy'.[1][2][3][4] It rises on the Migneint
Migneint
moor where a number of small streams flow into Llyn Conwy, then flows in a generally northern direction, being joined by the tributaries of the rivers Machno and Lledr before reaching Betws-y-Coed, where it is also joined by Afon Llugwy. From Betws-y-coed the river continues to flow north through Llanrwst, Trefriw
Trefriw
(where it is joined by the Afon Crafnant) and Dolgarrog
Dolgarrog
(where it is joined by Afon Porth-llwyd and Afon Ddu) before reaching Conwy Bay at Conwy. During spring tides the river is tidal as far as Tan-lan, near Llanrwst.

Contents

1 Tributaries
Tributaries
of the River
River
Conwy 2 Geology and geomorphology 3 SSSI 4 Culture and history 5 Water quality 6 Situation 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Tributaries
Tributaries
of the River
River
Conwy[edit]

Named tributaries of the Conwy
Conwy
(and their tributaries)

listed from source to sea -

Afon Machno Afon Lledr Afon Llugwy Afon Gallt y Gwg Nant y Goron Afon Crafnant
Afon Crafnant
& Fairy Falls

Afon Geirionydd

Afon Ddu (1) Afon Porth-llwyd Afon Dulyn

Afon Ddu (2) Afon Garreg-wen Ffrwd Cerriguniawn Afon Melynllyn

Afon Hiraethlyn Afon Roe

Afon Tafolog

Afon Gyffin

Geology and geomorphology[edit]

Llyn Conwy, the source of the River
River
Conwy

The Conwy
Conwy
is bounded to the east by the rolling ancient mudstone hills of the Silurian
Silurian
period, the Migneint
Migneint
Moors. These acid rocks are generally covered in thin, often acid soils and for large parts of the upland areas the cover is of moor-grass — Mollinia spp and Erica communities. As a result, the water entering the river tends to be acidic and often coloured brown with humic acids To the west, the catchment is underlain by older Cambrian
Cambrian
rocks which are harder and the landscape is, as a consequence, more dramatic with high craggy hills and mountains through which the river falls in cascades and waterfalls. Excellent examples of torrential river geomorphology can be seen at Conwy
Conwy
Falls and in the Lledr Gorge. The land to the East is highly forested with planted non-native conifers. On the western side of the valley are a number of lakes and reservoirs. The rocks are also rich in minerals and there are many abandoned mine sites where copper, lead and silver have been mined since Roman times. The river valley down-stream of Betws-y-Coed
Betws-y-Coed
is relatively wide and fertile, and supports dairying and sheep rearing. In wintertime these pastures are used to nurture the sheep brought down from the mountains to avoid the worst of the winter weather.

River
River
Conwy
Conwy
near Dolgarrog

SSSI[edit] Aber Afon Conwy
Conwy
is a site of special interest. It has acquired such a status due to its marine and terrestrial biology. The tidal reach of the site reaches around 16 kilometres. Its upstream boundary is south of Tal y Cafn, and the whole site encompasses Conwy
Conwy
Bay. The shoreline is supported by natural rock, in addition to boulder clay cliff, sand dune, salt marsh and woodland.[5] Culture and history[edit] The scattered communities along the Conwy
Conwy
valley have ancient traditions with archeological evidence of habitation back to the Stone Age. The Romans occupied this area up to 400 AD and there has been continuous habitation since that time. The valley is home to two of the oldest churches in Wales, those at Llanrhychwyn
Llanrhychwyn
and Llangelynin, which respectively date back to the 11th and 12th centuries. Much of the Conwy
Conwy
valley was laid waste in the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
by the Earl of Pembroke, under the orders of Edward IV, the Yorkist king, following a Lancastrian attack on the town of Denbigh
Denbigh
in 1466. At the mouth of the Conwy
Conwy
as it discharges into Conwy
Conwy
Bay is the town of Conwy
Conwy
with its World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
castle — Conwy
Conwy
Castle
Castle
and two famous bridges. One of the earliest road suspension bridges by Thomas Telford now carries a footpath whilst Robert Stephenson's tubular iron bridge still carries the main Holyhead
Holyhead
to London
London
railway line. A third bridge now takes road traffic, and more recently still the A55 now runs in a tunnel under the estuary. Water quality[edit] The River
River
Conwy
Conwy
is routinely monitored for quality by Natural_Resources_Wales. The river quality tends to be acidic in the headwaters with very low concentrations of the common anions and cations. Whilst conductivity rises as the river flows towards the sea, the overall organic quality remains very good despite some slight increases in ammonia due to diffuse agricultural inputs. Natural Resources Wales
Wales
also constantly monitors water levels in the valley, with a view to giving flood warnings. There are measuring stations at Betws-y-coed (Cwmlanerch),[6] Llanrwst
Llanrwst
[7] and Trefriw.[8] The Conwy
Conwy
is noted for its salmon and sea trout although increasing acidification in the second half of the 20th century, especially in the poorly buffered upland waters has significantly impacted upon their spawning success. The construction of an artificial fish pass in the 1990s to allow migratory salmonids access to the river above Conwy falls was intended to help mitigate the effects of acidification.[9] The Conwy
Conwy
Crossing, an immersed tube tunnel was built under the estuary during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[10] It was opened by the Queen in October 1991. This resulted in the loss of some saltmarsh but also led to the creation of Conwy
Conwy
RSPB Reserve. Since 2002 the valley has been overlooked by the turbines of the Moel Maelogan wind farm. Situation[edit] The panorama shows the mouth of the Conwy
Conwy
Estuary
Estuary
from Deganwy
Deganwy
Castle, the original defensive position of the area. However, problems with resupply in the event of siege and its destruction by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales
Wales
in 1263 to prevent it falling into King Edward's hands, led to a new castle being built across the water in Conwy
Conwy
town.

Panorama of six pictures stitched together showing the mouth of the Conwy
Conwy
Estuary
Estuary
(right) and the location of Conwy
Conwy
Castle
Castle
(left of centre)

See also[edit]

Conwy
Conwy
Valley Line (railway line) Rivers of Great Britain List of rivers of Europe

References[edit]

^ Llandudno: its history and natural history, 1861, Richard Parry ^ A guide through North Wales, 1860, William Cathrall & Andrew Crombie Ramsay ^ Transactions, 1822, Cymmrodorion society ^ The pedestrian's guide through North Wales, 1838, George John Bennett ^ http://www.ccgc.gov.uk/landscape--wildlife/protecting-our-landscape/special-landscapes--sites/protected-landscapes-and-sites/sssis/sssi-sites/aber-afon-conwy.aspx ^ " River
River
Levels Maintenance". Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ " River
River
Levels Maintenance". Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ " River
River
Levels Maintenance". Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ REINA, PETER. "Technology: The fish ladder with a twist". Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ The Motorway Archive - The North Wales
Wales
Coast A55

External links[edit]

www.geograph.co.uk : photos of the River
River
Conwy

v t e

Conwy
Conwy
County Borough

Principal settlements

Abergele Colwyn Bay Conwy Deganwy Kinmel Bay Llandudno Llandudno
Llandudno
Junction Llanfairfechan Llanrwst Old Colwyn Penmaenmawr Penrhyn Bay

Other towns and villages

Betws yn Rhos Betws-y-Coed Bylchau Caerhun Capel Curig Capel Garmon Cerrigydrudion Craig-y-Don Dinmael Dolgarrog Dolwyddelan Eglwysbach Glan Conwy Henryd Llanbedr-y-Cennin Llanddoged Llanddulas Llanfair Talhaiarn Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr Llangernyw Llangwm Llannefydd Llanrhychwyn Llansannan Llysfaen Maenan Melin-y-Coed Mochdre Pandy Tudur Penmachno Pentrefoelas Rhos-on-Sea Rowen Tal-y-bont Tal-y-Cafn Trefriw Towyn Ysbyty Ifan

Communities

Abergele Betws-y-Coed Betws yn Rhos Bro Garmon Bro Machno Caerhun Capel Curig Cerrigydrudion Colwyn Bay Conwy Dolgarrog Dolwyddelan Eglwysbach Henryd Kinmel Bay
Kinmel Bay
and Towyn Llanddoged
Llanddoged
and Maenan Llanddulas
Llanddulas
and Rhyd-y-foel Llandudno Llanfair Talhaiarn Llanfairfechan Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr Llangernyw Llangwm Llannefydd Llanrwst Llansanffraid Glan Conwy Llansannan Llysfaen Mochdre Old Colwyn Penmaenmawr Pentrefoelas Rhos on Sea Trefriw Ysbyty Ifan

Rivers

River
River
Conwy River
River
Crafnant River
River
Geirionydd River
River
Lledr River
River
Llugwy River
River
Machno Afon Ddu Afon Ddu (Drum) Afon Dulyn Afon Eigiau Afon Lloer Afon Melynllyn Afon Porth-llwyd Afon Roe Afon Tafolog

Castles and forts

Canovium Conwy
Conwy
Castle Deganwy
Deganwy
Castle Dolwyddelan
Dolwyddelan
Castle Gwrych Castle Gwydir Castle Pen y Gaer

Headlands

Great Orme Little Orme Penmaenmawr

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Schools Country houses SSSIs Scheduled Monuments Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Museums

v t e

Conwy
Conwy
Valley

Towns

Llanrwst Conwy

Other settlements

Betws-y-Coed Caerhun Dolgarrog Eglwysbach Glan Conwy Henryd Llanbedr-y-Cennin Llanddoged Llangelynnin Llanrhychwyn Maenan Rowen, Conwy Tal-y-bont Tal-y-Cafn Trefriw Tyn-y-groes

Rivers & streams

Afon Conwy Afon Crafnant Afon Geirionydd Afon Hiraethlyn Afon Machno Afon Lledr Afon Llugwy Afon Gallt y Gwg Nant y Goron Afon Ddu (1) Afon Porth-llwyd Afon Dulyn Afon Ddu (2) Afon Garreg-wen Ffrwd Cerriguniawn Afon Melynllyn Afon Roe Afon Tafolog Afon Gyffin

Lakes

Llyn Crafnant Llyn Elsi Llyn Geirionydd Llyn Parc

Waterfalls

Conwy
Conwy
Falls Grey Mare's Tail Fairy Falls

Hills & mountains

Mynydd y Dref Tal y Fan Bwlch-y-Ddeufaen Cefn Cyfarwydd Mynydd Hiraethog

Castles & forts

Canovium Conwy
Conwy
Castle Gwydir Castle Pen y Gaer

Bridges

Conwy
Conwy
Suspension Bridge Pont Fawr (Llanrwst) Tal-y-Cafn
Tal-y-Cafn
Bridge Waterloo Bridge (Betws-y-coed)

Other features

Bodnant Garden Cadair Ifan Goch Conwy
Conwy
RSPB reserve Gwydir Forest Klondyke mill Moel Maelogan Snowdonia National Park Surf Snowdonia Trefriw
Trefriw
Woollen Mills

Transport

A470 B5106 Conwy
Conwy
Valley line

Railway stations

Betws-y-Coed
Betws-y-Coed
railway station Dolgarrog
Dolgarrog
railway station Glan Conwy
Conwy
railway station Llanrwst
Llanrwst
railway station North Llanrwst
Llanrwst
railway station Tal-y-Cafn
Tal-y-Cafn
railway station

Coordinates: 53°18′N 3°50′W / 53.300°N 3.833°W / 53

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