The RIVER CONWY (Welsh pronunciation: ; Welsh : Afon Conwy) is a
river in north
The name 'Conwy' derives from the old Welsh words 'cyn' (chief) and 'gwy' (water), the river being originally called the 'Cynwy'.
It rises on the Migneint moor where a number of small streams flow into Llyn Conwy , then flows in a generally northern direction, being joined by the tributaries of the rivers Machno and Lledr before reaching Betws-y-Coed , where it is also joined by Afon Llugwy . From Betws-y-coed the river continues to flow north through Llanrwst , Trefriw (where it is joined by the Afon Crafnant ) and Dolgarrog (where it is joined by Afon Porth-llwyd and Afon Ddu ) before reaching Conwy Bay at Conwy . During spring tides the river is tidal as far as Tan-lan, near Llanrwst.
TRIBUTARIES OF THE RIVER CONWY
NAMED TRIBUTARIES OF THE CONWY (AND THEIR TRIBUTARIES)
listed from source to sea -
The Conwy is bounded to the east by the rolling ancient mudstone hills of the Silurian period, the Migneint Moors. These acid rocks are generally covered in thin, often acid soils and for large parts of the upland areas the cover is of moor-grass — Mollinia spp and Erica communities. As a result, the water entering the river tends to be acidic and often coloured brown with humic acids
To the west, the catchment is underlain by older Cambrian rocks which are harder and the landscape is, as a consequence, more dramatic with high craggy hills and mountains through which the river falls in cascades and waterfalls . Excellent examples of torrential river geomorphology can be seen at Conwy Falls and in the Lledr Gorge. The land to the East is highly forested with planted non-native conifers.
On the western side of the valley are a number of lakes and reservoirs . The rocks are also rich in minerals and there are many abandoned mine sites where copper , lead and silver have been mined since Roman times.
The river valley down-stream of
Betws-y-Coed is relatively wide and
fertile, and supports dairying and sheep rearing. In wintertime these
pastures are used to nurture the sheep brought down from the mountains
to avoid the worst of the winter weather.
Aber Afon Conwy is a site of special interest. It has acquired such a status due to its marine and terrestrial biology. The tidal reach of the site reaches around 16 kilometres. Its upstream boundary is south of Tal y Cafn, and the whole site encompasses Conwy Bay. The shoreline is supported by natural rock, in addition to boulder clay cliff, sand dune, salt marsh and woodland.
CULTURE AND HISTORY
The scattered communities along the
Conwy valley have ancient
traditions with archeological evidence of habitation back to the Stone
Age . The Romans occupied this area up to 400 AD and there has been
continuous habitation since that time. The valley is home to two of
the oldest churches in
Much of the
Conwy valley was laid waste in the
Wars of the Roses by
Earl of Pembroke , under the orders of
At the mouth of the
Conwy as it discharges into
Conwy Bay is the town
Conwy with its
World Heritage Site castle —
The Conwy is noted for its salmon and sea trout although increasing acidification in the second half of the 20th century, especially in the poorly buffered upland waters has significantly impacted upon their spawning success. The construction of an artificial fish pass in the 1990s to allow migratory salmonids access to the river above Conwy falls was intended to help mitigate the effects of acidification.
The Conwy Crossing, an immersed tube tunnel was built under the estuary during the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was opened by the Queen in October 1991. This resulted in the loss of some saltmarsh but also led to the creation of Conwy RSPB Reserve .
Since 2002 the valley has been overlooked by the turbines of the Moel Maelogan wind farm .
The panorama shows the mouth of the