Rinconada Bikol or simply Rinconada, spoken in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines, is one of several languages that compose the Inland Bikol (or Southern Bicol) group of the Bikol macrolanguages. It belongs to the Austronesian language family that also includes most Philippine languages, the Formosan languages of Taiwanese aborigines, Bahasa Indonesia, Malay, Māori, Hawaiian, and Malagasy.
Rinconada is surrounded and shared common features with other Bikol languages. It is bordered by Coastal Bikol to the north, Buhinon to the east, and West Miraya language immediately to the south. The closest relatives to this language outside the Bicol region are Aklanon, Waray-waray, and to a lesser extent, Tagalog specifically the dialect of Batangas and Marinduque.
Rinconada Bikol is the language adopted by the indigenous population of Agta/Aeta (the Negrito) in the surrounding mountainous areas of Mount Iriga (old name is Mount Asog). The Austronesian people that have migrated to the foot of Mount Asog from the lowland Nabua introduced the language to Negritos when they began conducting trade and commerce, thus replacing the native language of the latter. The original language of Negritos is Inagta also known to linguists as Mount Iriga Agta, an extinct or nearly extinct language. Inagta is said to have 86% intelligibility with Rinconada Bikol but with lexical similarity of 76%. Most Negritos or commonly called as Agta or Aeta (Ŋod for camaraderie) today are fluent in Rinconada Bikol though with a different variation.
The name "Rinconada" is derived from the Rinconada District in Camarines Sur where the language originated, developed and is largely spoken. However, the precise origins of how the term "Rinconada" was assigned to the area are still unclear. Popular wisdom ascribes the name to have come from the Spanish arrinconada, "cornered", from the root rincón that means "corner or small district". Rinconada might have been given by the Spaniards to the then-newly explored and established colony in the southeastern corner of Luzon Island; natives formerly called the area Sumagang (Sumagaŋ), meaning "far east".
The language is divided into two main dialects and subdivided into six variants:
(Strong accent, flat intonation only, and with /ə/)
(Soft accent with different types of intonation, and without /ə/)
|Nabua – Balatan variant
|Bula – Pili variant
|Coastal Bikol translation||Filipino/Tagalog translation||English translation|
|Namāmaɣəw iyā sadtō gilid ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ, dāwâ ədâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣəw iyā sadtō iris ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ, dāwâ ədâ pa katbag adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow 'yā sadtō gilid ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ, dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow iyā sadtō gilid ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo naŋgad ku akos niyā su ragâ, dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow siyā sadtō gilid ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo jāday ku igin niyā su ragâ, dāwâ udâ pa kin tubig adtoŋ omā nindā.||Namāmaɣow siyā sadtō gilid ku sālog ku nabaretāan niyā na inarādo dayday ku igin niyā su ragâ, dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nindā.||Namamahaw siya duman sa gilid nin salog kan mabaretaan niyang inarado giraray kan aki niya si daga, dawa dae pa nin tubig idtong oma ninda.||Nag-aalmusal siya sa may tabi ng ilog nang mabalitaan niyang inararong muli ng kaniyang anak ang lupa, kahit na wala pang tubig ang kanilang bukirin.||He was eating breakfast by the river when he heard the news about his child plowed the land again, even though the rice field has no water yet.|
• The Nabua-Balatan variant features high pitch intonation. Though it is the direct descendant of Rinconada Bikol but it lost some features of the original spoken language. The speakers can be found in the entire municipalities of Nabua and Balatan.
• Iriga variant on the other hand has the most speakers. The speakers are concentrated in the district's center - Iriga City, in some of the important barangays of Buhi (West and East Sta. Justina and De Los Angeles), and the urban barangay of Matacon located in Polangui, Albay. The Iriga variant has a flat intonation and is spoken rapidly.
• The Bato variant, on the other hand, has a distinctive mellow intonation. It is said that regardless of one's mood, the Bato speaker always sounds sleepy, as if they are chanting. The Bato variant is primarily being spoken in Bato, Camarines Sur and also spoken in Agos, Polangui, Albay.
• The Agta variant is the smallest in the group. The speakers are exclusively the indigenous population of Agta/Aeta, the aboriginal people of different tribes surrounding Mount Iriga and Buhi lake. Like Iriga, the Agta variant also has a flat intonation but they speak the language with distinct form of pronunciation which can be traced from the group's extinct language.
• The variants of Baao and Bula-Pili are considered twins. They have the same accent and only slight differences in vocabulary. Of the two variants, Baao often uses rising intonation, while Bula-Pili is moderately flat but both are using high pitch when reasoning. The latter variant is used entirely in Bula and in the southern half of the provincial capital town of Pili. It also has significant speakers in Ocampo, Cam. Sur and Minalabac, Cam. Sur. These two variants have borrowed some vocabularies of Coastal Bikol but at the same time, Bikol-Partido (a dialect of Coastal Bikol) can be heard with borrowed vocabularies from these two variants.
List of phrases and expressions that are unique to each variant:
Baao variant: "Gaorag na!"
Nabua – Balatan variant: "Labinā kan."
Agta variant: "Mayaŋ na ŋod."
Bato variant: "Ay tarā?"
Bula – Pili variant: "Paiŋōrag.."
Iriga variant: "Labinā man nâ!"
Like other Visayan and Bikol languages, Rinconada Bikol has a short form for the imperative.
The phrase "iyəwən mo" (grill it) is often shortened to "iyəwā" and the command phrase "punāsan mo a salmiŋ" (wipe the mirror) can be shortened to "punāsa a salmiŋ".
A special form is used when talking to elderly people in a polite manner. Instead of putting the letters "ā/a" after the root word of the verb, it has to be replaced by the letters "e/ē" if the statement will be politely delivered. The letter "e" or "ē" stands for "tābî" which means "please" in English, or "po" in Tagalog.
"iyəw" is a root word that means "grill".
"iyəwən" means "grill it".
"iyəwən mo" roughly means "you, grill it".
"iyəwā" is the shortcut of the command "iyəwən mo".
"iyəwē" is the shortened polite form for "iyəwən mo tābî" (grill it please).
"punas" is a root word that means "wipe".
"punasan" means "wipe it".
"punasan mo" roughly means "you, wipe it".
"punāsa" is the shortcut of the command "punāsan mo".
"punāse" is the shortened polite form for "punāsan mo tābî" (wipe it please).
"īmo" is a root word that means "prepare".
"imōɣon" means "prepare it".
"imōɣon mo" means "you, prepare it".
"imōɣa" is the shortcut of the command "imōɣon mo".
"imōɣe" is the shortened polite form for "imōɣon mo tābî" (please prepare it).
|1st person singular||akō||ko||kanakə, saakə|
|2nd person singular||ikā, ka||mo||kanimō, saimō|
|3rd person singular||iyā, siyā||niyā||kaniyā, saiyā|
|1st person plural inclusive||kitā||ta||kanatə, saatə|
|1st person plural exclusive||kamī||namə, amə||kanamə, saamə|
|2nd person plural||kamō||ninyō||kaninyō|
|3rd person plural||sirā, sindā||nirā, ninda||kanirā, saindā, kandā|
What is your name? - Onō a ŋaran mo?
My name is Joseph. - Usē a ŋaran ko. (Usē is a rinconadized name of Spanish Jose)
Where do you come from? - Tagasārî ikā?
I'm from Pili, Camarines Sur. - Taga-Pili, Camarines Sur akō.
I love you so much. - Payabâ ta ikā sa igô./Payabâ ko ikā sa igô.
Do you like me? - Bəət mo 'kō?
What are you doing? - Onō a ginigībo mo?
I will go home. - Migpaulî na 'kō.
John is my brother - Ŋod ko si Uwan. (Uwan is a rinconadized name of Spanish Juan)
Do you want to eat breakfast? - Bəət mo na'ŋ mamaɣəw?
I'm already eating - Nagkākaən na 'kō.
What time is it?/May I know what time is it? - Onōŋ ōras na?/Onōŋ ōras na tābî?
I will go out - Migluwas akō.
I can't sleep. - Dirî akō makatorog.
Are you afraid of the dark? - Nakatātakot ikā sa maŋitŋit?
He said he will pick me up. - Sabi niyā susuŋkātən konō 'kō.
How old are you? - Gaamnō na ikā (naykā) kaguraŋ?
When will you be back? - Kūnu ikā migbalik?
Amâ - Father
Inâ - Mother
Itay - Dad
Inay - Mom
Mānoy - older brother
Mānay - older sister
Tāta - Uncle
Nāna - Auntie
Basic question words:
Onō - What
Isay - Who
Kūnu - When
Ŋātâ - Why
Sārî - Where
Paōno - How
Arî - Which
Pirā - How many
Mamirā - How much
Gaamnō - (Indefinite question) Used to describe the degree or extent to which something is covered such as period or age, vastness or immensity and etc.
Maray na aldəw - Good day (from sunrise to sunset)
Maray na gab-ī - Good evening (from sunset to sunrise)
Maray na ramrag - Good morning (from 6AM to 11AM)
Maray na mudtū - Good noon (from 11AM to 1PM)
Maray na apon - Good afternoon (from 1PM to 6PM)
Maray na gab-ī - Good evening (from 6PM to 11PM)
Maray na lawəd - Good midnight (from 11PM to 1AM)
Maray na mararamrāgən - Good dawn (from 1AM to 6AM)
People of Rinconada classify dim or dark hours as nighttime and light hours as daytime. As such, even with the introduction of Modern Standard Time, they consider the hours of 12 midnight until 6 o'clock in the morning as nighttime. Therefore, the general greeting from 6AM to 6PM is "Maray na aldəw", and "Maray na gab-ī" for the hours that start from 6PM to 6AM.
e.g. Maray na mudtū tabî kaninyō ŋāmin!
Mamə̄yaŋ Pagkaməndag! - Happy Birthday.
Mamə̄yaŋ Bāgoŋ Taon! - Happy New Year.
Mamə̄yaŋ Anibersāryo! - Happy Anniversary.
Rinconada Bikol vocabulary is rich in words with short or unstressed letter "i" sound. In fact, most root words with letter "i" are unstressed. However, not all words with "i" should be read and pronounced as such since there are several words that have stressed " ī ", especially loanwords, e.g. sīli (chili). Native words (root word) with stressed "ī" are very rare.
The language retains the proto-Philippine schwa vowel /ə/ that have disappeared in most Philippine languages like Cebuano, Tagalog and even the neighboring Coastal Bikol language. In Nabua, Camarines Sur (where the language is believed to be originated), the vowel also disappeared through the normal development and evolution. However, it was preserved by those who moved and migrated to the highland part of Rinconada around Mount Iriga (formerly Mount Asog) due to severe flooding on lowland, particularly in Nabua and Bula. Thus, preserving the vowel and has survived until this day in Sinabukid dialect.
People who are new to the highland accent may find the Sinabukid dialect sounds like Ilokano, Pangasinense, or Karay-a of Antique province. The vowel can also be heard from the population in towns and cities speaking the Albay Bikol group of languages. The native word for this vowel in Rinconada is "gəpə", and this has divided the language into two dialects – Sinabukid or Highland (with /ə/) and Sinaranəw or Lowland (without /ə/).
Aside from the vowel /ə/, the other interesting thing in Rinconada language is the occurrence of an extra consonant phoneme /ɣ/. This consonant bears the sound of mixed letters "h, y and "w". The neighboring language of Buhinon also uses this sound - a clear evidence of close ties between the two languages. Unfortunately, this phoneme neither has a corresponding letter in Philippine alphabet nor an equivalent character on Philippine standard keyboard. Thus, Rinconada Bikol speakers have no option but to use "h" as an alternative letter. However, in the spoken Sinaranəw dialect, the consonant /ɣ/ and the vowel /ə/ are often replaced by the letters "w" and "o" respectively.
Examples of letter ⟨ɣ⟩
1. Mimaɣəw – will eat breakfast. (Mudtū na, mimaɣəw pa sanā ikā?)
2. Baɣəw – cold cooked rice. (Naŋagnəw na man na kānən na adī, malākabaɣəw!)
3. Taɣəp – a process of separating rice from its outside layer after milling. "Tahip" in Filipino/Tagalog. (A pagtaɣəp, əsad na gīboŋ dirî dāpat pinagdə̄dəlagan.)
4. Daɣun – plant leaf. (Kadakəl ka daɣun ka tanəm ni Tāta Isko.)
5. Taɣob – cover, protect, or conceal. (Pakarāyən mo a pagkātaɣob ka bobon ta mauŋkaŋ ikā sīton!)
The letter ⟨e⟩ in Rinconada is not the typical pronunciation of the vowel /e/ in other languages - such as the word beg and bell in English language, or the word metung in Kapampangan that means "one" - which sounds [ɛ] in IPA (open- or low-mid front unrounded vowel). The letter ⟨e⟩ in Rinconada is pronounced similar to the letter-sequence ⟨ee⟩ in English, or the letter ⟨i⟩ of most languages, but mouth is more open and tongue is a bit relaxed. In IPA it is [e], a close- or high-mid front unrounded vowel. So its pronunciation lies in-between leed´s [i] sound and led´s [ɛ].
The difference between the letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨ē⟩ is that the latter pronounced longer or prolonged.
Example: mutēte (IPA: muteːte) - chide, scold.
Unlike other letters in Rinconada native alphabet, letter [ j ] is always accompanied by letter [ d ] if it is in the middle of a word. Otherwise, single [j] is to be placed. Moreover, it's the only non-gliding consonant that cannot be found at the end of a word in any native Rinconada vocabulary.
Some words in native Rinconada and rinconadized words of foreign origin with letter [j]:
jamantē - diamond (from Spanish 'diamante').
jāday - again, always.
jāryo - newspaper (from Spanish 'diario').
jōlen - marble (toy).
pastidjō - nuisance (from Spanish 'fastidio')
idjəw - a large and venomous snake.
oodjon - *no counterpart in English and Filipino (nearest meaning: 'jealous' or 'envious').
sudjâ - prompted, investigated, an action for questioning.
kadjapā - a thorny plant abundant in Bicol region, 'kulitis' in Tagalog (scientific name: Amaranthus Spinosus).
padjak - a bicycle converted into tricycle powered by a human force (mode of transportation known in Metro Manila as 'kuliglig').
sodjaŋ - a sharp piece of wood, metal or bamboo that gets in and stuck to the flesh accidentally.
lokadjô - a word used to address a dislike person being discussed in a conversation. It is a word included in Bikol Angry Speech Register.
paŋadjî - prayer.
Through language evolution, Rinconada Bikol almost lost the phoneme [h], hence, rare. It is often absent in most Rinconada words that are usually present in other Philippine languages.
There is no real [h] sound in Rinconada. It is either silent or glided that sounds like a long tonal vowel, or vowel lengthening. The [h] sound is silent if positioned at the beginning of a word, and glided if it is in between vowels. The Tagalog words such as hangin, higop and hanggan are almost the same with Rinconada words but letter [h] is eliminated since it is not pronounced. The corresponding equivalent is aŋin, igop and aŋgan. Same with other Bikol words like harani, harayo, and habo which are arāni, arayô, and abə in Rinconada. While the glided [h] can be found in between two same letters like in baha, saha, kohol, and mohon.
The disappearance of phoneme [h] is an occurrence comparable (but not the same degree) to that of Kapampangan language. Nevertheless, Rinconada Bikol speakers can pronounce it with clarity and emphasis whenever they are speaking other languages where it is present.
For centuries under Spanish rules, Rinconada has adopted many words from Spanish language. There is a considerable number of Latin loans (sometimes obscured by being subject to Rinconada phonology and grammar for centuries), for example: estar ("address or dwelling place", from estar that means "stay"), soltēro ("single" but only applicable to male, from soltero), ɣūben ("young" from joven), ilyābe ("key", from llave).
Older generations tend to use Spanish loanwords more often but younger generations tend to use Tagalog words and rinconadized words from English language especially the modern terminologies with no counterpart in native Rinconada Bikol vocabulary.
Bawas-bawāsan mo man ŋanî a pagkātiŋ mo lalô na kin arāni na a eksam. (Limit your habit of escaping class sessions especially when examination is approaching near).
The Tagalog word "bawas-bawāsan" is "inâ-ināan" in Rinconada and the word "lalô" is used in favor of the native word "orog". The word "kātiŋ" and "eksam" are rinconadized words of the English "cutting" (cutting classes or leaving the room during school hours with no permission), and "exam" (examination) respectively.
There is no official or de jure standard dialect of this language, though the Iriga dialect is used as the de facto standard for the following reasons:
1. It retains the proto-Austronesian schwa vowel /ə/ that helps eliminate homographs (words that are spelled the same way but have different pronunciations and meanings).
2. The consonant phoneme /ɣ/ is evident and pronounced more clearly.
3. It has a neutralized and flat intonation which serves to moderate between variants.
4. It has no continuum accent or fusion of variants in between boundaries.
One example of continuum accent can be heard in barangays bordering Bula and Nabua which the speakers have mixed accents of Bula-Pili variant and Nabua-Balatan variant. Same thing can be heard in the boundaries of Baao and Nabua.
5. Iriga City is the center of learning, trade and commerce in Rinconada.
6. It has fewer loan words and is less influenced by neighboring languages than any other variant except Agta.
7. It has been used for decades to represent Rinconada as a whole at the local and national level.
8. It has the most number of speakers inside and outside the Rinconada area.
9. There's no or little variation in accent among speakers. Whether a person resides in the northeasternmost part of Iriga bordering Bikol-Partido speakers or in the southernmost part of Matacon, Polangui bordering West Miraya speakers or in East Sta. Justina, Buhi bordering Buhinon speakers, all use the same accent with centralized intonation.
e.g. "lawəd" (midnight) can be pronounced as "lawod, lawəd or lawud" by speakers but MUST be written officially as "lawəd" across variants.
The language is commonly called as Rinconada but officially called as Rinconada Bikol (de jure) and not Iriga Bikol, Irigueño, Baaoeño or Bikol Nabua.
The angry register is unique to Bicol languages as it cannot be found in other Austronesian languages inside and outside the Philippines. It is generally used only among same-age speakers or by older speakers to younger listeners, as usage by younger speakers in addressing their elders would constitute great disrespect. On occasion, the angry register is used in sarcasm or humor, but the majority of its usage is in anger.
Rinconada Bikol has contributed much to this unique feature of spoken languages of Bicolanos.
|Normal Register||Angry Register
|eat||kaən||ablô / gətək||ablô / gotok|
|drink||inom||til-ab / lablab||til-ab / lablab|
|chicken||manok||soltok / galtok||soltok / galtok|
|hungry||aləp||gəsləp / gəlsək||guslup / gulsuk|
|woman||babayī||babaknit / siknit||babaknit / siknit|
|old||guraŋ||gusnab / gusgus||gusnab / gusgus|
Sainigin is a group of selected words for babies and newly born. It is being used by parents to communicate with their babies easily and to train them how to talk, hence, an introductory language. It is often described as language for babies and commonly called as "baby talk". Words are limited to two syllables and features basic command. Several letters are absent such as "r, g, s, j, and h". Sainigin literally means "talking or acting like a baby".
|Normal words||Sainigin words||English equivalent|
|wāwâ||kakâ||spit it out|
|ədâ na||nāna||no more|
Rinconada Bikol has several diphthongs or gliding vowel.
|[ja]||yamən||'play'||[aw]||balaw||'fermented shrimp or krill'|
|[jo]||payō||'head'||[ow]||aldow (sinaranəw dialect)||'sun'|
|[ju]||tayû||'nice/pretty'||[uw]||taluw (sinaranəw dialect)||'scared'|
|[we]||suwê||'upside down'||[ɤe]||pondoɣē||'stop it please'|
|[wu]||rawut (sinaranəw dialect)||'locked'||[ɤu]||daɣun||'leaf'|
|[wə]||pāwət||'stressful'||[ɤə]||baɣəw||'cold cooked rice'|
|[aj]||maray||'good'||[ɔj]||kawoy (sinaranəw dialect)||'wood/tree'|
|[jɔ]||baluy (sinaranəw dialect)||'house'||[əɪ]||sabləy||'hang'|
Rinconada uses a variation of Latin alphabet modeled on the Tagalog alphabet. But unlike the modern Tagalog - Filipino, Rinconada retains and uses diacritics ('kul-it' in Rinconada Bikol, and 'kudlit' in Tagalog). This is to highlight the meaning of the words and to differentiate words with different meanings but the same spelling. In return, the diacritics provide Rinconada Bikol with a unique orthography among Philippine languages. Diacritics for this language are limited to the macron and circumflex which is unlike other languages, for example Vietnamese that has several. However, due to technical difficulties and a scarcity of resources, diacritics are sometimes not available. Thus, two Rinconada alphabets were created to meet the needs of the speakers: the NATIVE and the SIMPLIFIED. Both can be used at the same time depending on the situation, purpose and availability of resources.
The Rinconada name for the letter which represents the glottal stop is "rəgsad". This can only be found in the native form of alphabet, and it is limited to final vowels or vowels at the end of a word. Rəgsad is represented by the circumflex ( ˆ ).
For examples of the glottal stop, consider the Rinconada words salâ (wrong) and turô (drop of water/fluid), often simply sala and turo in the simplified alphabet and in Filipino and English orthographies.
Rinconada Bikol was historically written in a form of Abugida writing system called Baybayin in Tagalog and Kul-ītan in Rinconada.
The Rinconada Native alphabet has 6 short vowels, 6 long vowels, and 17 consonants, a total of 29 letters representing all phonemes in Rinconada Bikol. A long or stressed vowel is written with a macron (a diacritic placed above a vowel). It also includes the velar nasal special character /ŋ/ that represents "NG". Native alphabet contains phonemes that are native to Rinconada, thus considering it as the standard Rinconada Bikol alphabet.
|Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
Example of a Filipino proverb written in the Rinconada native alphabet:
"A dirî tattaoŋ maglīlî sa pinaŋgalinan, dirî makaaābot sa pig-iyānan." (Tagalog: Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan)
|J||tadjok||hit by a sharp pointed tool or thing|
|Ō||ōmol; sōdô||a person who is not funny anymore; remote area or place|
|T||tagbâ||a way of harvesting with a use of bolo or knife|
The Rinconada Simplified alphabet is just the same as the Philippine alphabet. It has 28 letters:
|Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
The letters F, V and Z are included because they are native to other Philippine languages like Itawis and Ibanag. Letters C, Ñ, and Q are also included, but their usages are limited to foreign names, Filipinized words of foreign origins or loans, especially from Spanish, English and Arabic.
The simplified alphabet doesn't use diacritics like the macron ⟨◌̄⟩ for stressed and long vowels, the circumflex ⟨◌̂⟩ for glottal stop, or the letters for velar nasal ⟨ŋ⟩, schwa ⟨ə⟩, or velar fricative ⟨ɣ⟩, as they don't appear on a standard "qwerty" keyboard. The velar nasal ⟨ŋ⟩ is replaced by the digraph ⟨ng⟩, and the two latter sounds can be replaced by ⟨o⟩ and ⟨h⟩, ⟨w⟩, and ⟨y⟩ respectively. But even with the absence of diacritics in the modern and simplified alphabet, pronunciations in the spoken language are not altered. Moreover, the long vowel sound in a word should not be omitted. One good example of this is "bə̄ət" (kind) and "bəət" (want/like). The word bə̄ət in the native alphabet is written as bəət in the simplified alphabet making the two words the same in spelling albeit with different meanings. In this case, the pronunciation of the words depends on their place and usage in a sentence. To avoid confusion and aid in ease of reading, it is strongly recommended to use the native alphabet in writing Rinconada Bikol.
Numbers and words (in native alphabet) are as follow:
There are no written records to indicate that Rinconada has native words for two-digit numbers (11 - 99). On the other hand, there is also no proof that the language has no indigenous words for those numbers. It is intriguing that Rinconada has native words for three-digit numbers (e.g. "sanggatos" for 100) but not for two digit numbers. Utilization and adaptation of foreign words via 333 years of Spanish colonization could be a reason why the native terminologies may not have been passed to the new generations. But a long established language needs a complete numbering system in words. Therefore, the reconstruction of words for 11-99 is necessary but needs to follow and retain the indigenous or original structural form of Rinconada's orthography.
The number words of 1 to 10 and 100 are all native Rinconada while numbers 11 to 99 are all reconstructed. However, the reconstructed numbers are based on the original structure. Sampōlô (number ten) or sampu in Filipino is the only two-digit number that has a native word with a perfect indigenous structural form. The evolution of the word "sampōlô" from "əsadnapōlô" follows the orthography of Rinconada and developed naturally over the years. Being said, it is imperative that all reconstructed numbers must follow the same format of number 10.
The word sampōlô is derived from a portmanteau of the words əsad + na + pōlô (əsadnapōlô) which is the based tenth of one. In the evolution of this number, the schwa letter ⟨ə⟩ of ⟨əsadnapōlô⟩ became silent and so the word became "sadnapōlô". Same with other Philippine languages, /na/ is converted into /ŋ/, replaces the last consonant letter of the first word (which is /d/) and become the connector to the second word (which is pōlô) - thus, the letter /d/ is omitted and the word became "saŋ". The connector /ŋ/ becomes /m/ naturally if the next letter is /p/ or /b/ (which is also the case in other Philippine languages). So then, the word became sampōlô.
Structure of sampōlô (10):
1. əsad + na + pōlô = əsadnapōlô
2. əsadnapōlô – /ə/ = sadnapōlô
3. sadnapōlô – /d/ = sanapōlô
4. /na/ replaced by /ŋ/ = saŋpōlô
5. /ŋ/ replaced by /m/ before /p/ = sampōlô.
From sampōlô, all two-digit numbers were given a name that was copied from it. The number 40 (pampōlô) and 60 (nəmpōlô) follow the same exact format of sampōlô. The exception to the naming system of numbers is the number zero (0). Though zero (0) is single digit, there is no native word for it. Since sampōlô (10) is a combination of 1 and 0, the word pōlô was taken out from it to represent zero (0) rather than using "sīro" or "sēro". As a result, Rinconada has a complete basic set of numbers without using foreign words.
The number referenced in Php 356,817,142,590 can be translated into Rinconada Bikol as:
"Toloŋgatos limamnəm na bilyon, waloŋgatos sampitoŋ milyon, saŋgatos pamdarwaŋ rībo ag limaŋgatos yampōloŋ pīso."
In ENGLISH language it is:
"Three hundred fifty six billion, eight hundred seventeen million, one-hundred forty two thousand and five hundred ninety pesos."
In FILIPINO language it is:
"Tatlong daan limampu't anim na bilyon, walong daan at labing pitong milyon, sandaan at apatnapu't dalawang libo at limang raan siyamnapung piso."
|PAN, circa 4000 BC||*isa||*DuSa||*telu||*Sepat||*lima||*enem||*pitu||*walu||*Siwa||*puluq|
|Māori||tahi||rua||toru||whā||rima||ono||whitu||waru||iwa||tekau (archaic: ngahuru)|
|Marquesan||e tahi||e 'ua||e to'u||e fa||e 'ima||e ono||e fitu||e va'u||e iva||'onohu'u|
Although properly considered separate languages, speakers of Rinconada Bikol or Rinconada can communicate with Albay Bikol speakers with ease and without code switching. A student from Ligao City (West Miraya speaker) studying in a university in Iriga City can understand Rinconada (any variant) and can be understood by Rinconada speakers as well. The same thing will happen if a local tourist from Rinconada visits the Cagsawa Ruins in Albay or visits Donsol, Sorsogon (East Miraya speaker) for the annual whale shark sightings. The difference between Rinconada and Albay Bikol (both are included in Inland Bikol group) is comparable to German and Yiddish or Portuguese and Galician, while the differences between variants are comparable to those between English US, English British and English Australian. The mutual intelligibility of Rinconada and Albay Bikol is 80% to 85%, while intelligibility between variants is 95% to 98%.
Rinconada Bikol is a minority language in the Bicol region despite having hundreds of thousands of speakers. It is currently not used in commercial media (print, radio, television) despite the fact that there are numerous prominent Rinconada speakers in the music and entertainment industry, media, and Philippine politics. It is not among the recognized regional languages in the Philippines and remains unknown to many Filipinos as it is poorly documented, researched and promoted.
Currently, the major obstacle to the diffusion of the usage and teaching of Rinconada is the lack of written material in Rinconada Bikol language, namely books, newspapers, software, magazines, etc. Thus, Rinconada, along with other Inland Bikol languages and the minor indigenous languages of Bicol region, remains essentially a spoken language.
Due to everyday exposure of younger generations to Filipino/Tagalog and English languages in mass media and social networking sites, native words that are rarely used are now disappearing and being replaced by their counterparts from other languages. If cannot be salvaged by any means, this trend is more likely to continue and might endanger the language in the near future.
The only dictionary written for this language is Rinconada: Bikol-Filipino-English Phrasebook: with Mini-dictionary (2001) of Jason Lobel and Grace Bucad of Nabua, Camarines Sur. Several books were successfully created and published by native speakers and non-speakers alike. Some were published by Frank Peñones, Jason Chancoco, Rizaldy Manrique, Jonher Cañeba and Kristian Cordero of Iriga City. In 2004, the Ragang Rinaranga: mga rawitdawit which was published by Frank Peñones is the first anthology written in Rinconada Bikol.
On June 25, 2013, The Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges (CSPC), a state college in Nabua, Camarines Sur, established the Center for Rinconada Studies that will serve as the research center for Rinconada Bikol language and heritage.
In Bicol region, the language and its speakers earned the moniker: Pa-sādi pa-san, pa-sīni pa-sīton, that literally means 'will go here will go there, will go here will go there' (two different Rinconada words with the same meaning, which is a form of humor if said repeatedly). The moniker is the result of the prominence of Rinconada speakers in the region. This is due to the fact that a native speaker travelling in the region can easily be distinguished and identified because his language is different from the vast majority of Bicolanos, and to the fact that several prominent Bicolanos in the Philippines are of Rinconada heritage, gives the language and the speakers a "familiarity" to others. That makes one throwing a humorous line (the moniker) to a person telling him that he is a Rinconada speaker.
Rinconada is spoken by majority in Bula, Baao, Nabua, Balatan, Iriga and Bato in Camarines Sur (politically the 5th district of Camarines Sur province except the municipality of Buhi, where the majority speaks Buhinon). The language is dominant and the lingua franca in the southern half of the provincial capital town of Pili, the west barangays of Ocampo, and the far west barangays of Buhi; it can also be heard in neighboring places such as the northern barangays of Polangui and Libon in Albay.
|Baao, Cam. Sur||54,971||100%|
|Balatan, Cam. Sur||28,699||100% (25% of the population is bilingual with Coastal Bikol)|
|Bato, Cam. Sur||48,306||100%|
|Buhi, Cam. Sur||24,603||1/3 of the population|
|Bula, Cam. Sur||68,011||100%|
|Nabua, Cam. Sur||80,111||100%|
|Pili, Cam. Sur||41,153||(half of the population)|
|Polangui, Albay||27,435||(1/3 of the population)|
Based from the population of towns and city with a concentration of Rinconada Bikol speakers, the total number is 479,208 or almost half a million. This number is based from the population of the fifth district of Camarines Sur (Rinconada) and neighboring towns of Polangui and Pili, in which, Rinconada Bikol is their de facto daily language. Moreover, the total number does not include speakers outside Rinconada area. Some linguists place the native speaker population at 600,000 (estimate) because there are many speakers of this language outside the region who left in search for better job opportunities. Example of this are the Filipinos enlisted in US Navy that comes from Nabua, Camarines Sur which comprised the 10% of all Filipino US Servicemen. Most of these Rinconada speakers are now residing mostly in San Diego, California.
url=value (help). Retrieved Nov 24, 2015.
|Rinconada Bikol language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|