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RIKSDAG OF THE ESTATES (formally: Swedish : Riksens ständer; informally: Swedish : Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden
Sweden
when they were assembled. Until its dissolution in 1866, the institution was the highest authority in Sweden
Sweden
next to the king . It was a Diet made up of the Four Estates , which historically were the lines of division in Swedish society:

* Nobility * Clergy * Burghers * Peasants

CONTENTS

* 1 Important assemblies * 2 Replaced by the new Riksdag
Riksdag
* 3 Riksdag
Riksdag
in Finland * 4 See also * 5 References

IMPORTANT ASSEMBLIES

The House of Nobility , seat of the Nobility .

The meeting at Arboga
Arboga
in 1435 is usually considered to be the first Riksdag, but there is no indication that the fourth estate, the peasants, had been represented there.

* The actual first meeting is likely the one that took place at Uppsala
Uppsala
in 1436 after the death of rebel leader Engelbrekt . * At the Riksdag
Riksdag
in 1517, regent Sten Sture the Younger
Sten Sture the Younger
and the Privy Council deposed archbishop Gustav Trolle . * At Västerås in 1527 Lutheranism
Lutheranism
was adopted as the new state religion instead of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
. * At Arboga
Arboga
in 1561, the term Riksdag
Riksdag
was used for the first time. * At Söderköping
Söderköping
in 1595, duke Charles was elected regent of Sweden
Sweden
instead of king Sigismund , who was a Catholic and the king of both Sweden
Sweden
and Poland . * In 1612 the Riksdag
Riksdag
gave the nobility the privilege and right to hold all higher offices of government, after successful lobbying by Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna
. * The first open conflict between the different estates happened in 1650. * At the Riksdag
Riksdag
in 1680 a large scale reduction (a return of lands to the Crown earlier granted to the nobility) was enacted, and Sweden became an absolute monarchy . * In 1719, the Riksdag
Riksdag
elected Ulrika Eleonora as heir in place of her older sister's son, and Ulrika Eleonora accepted a new constitution restoring the powers of the Riksdag. * In 1809, the Riksdag
Riksdag
elected Charles XIII king after his nephew Gustav IV Adolf had been deposed, and after the new king had accepted a new constitution that ended Sweden's second Autocracy (1789–1809). * At the sessions in 1634, 1719, 1720, 1772 and 1809 new constitutions were adopted.

REPLACED BY THE NEW RIKSDAG

Representatives of the four estates on a commemorative coin (reverse).

The constitution of 1809 divided the powers of government between the monarch and the Riksdag
Riksdag
of the Estates, and after 1866 between the monarch and the new Riksdag
Riksdag
.

In 1866 all the Estates voted in favor of dissolution and at the same time to constitute a new assembly, Sveriges Riksdag
Riksdag
(the Riksdag
Riksdag
). The four former estates were abolished. The House of Nobility , Swedish : Riddarhuset, remains as a quasi-official representation of the Swedish nobility
Swedish nobility
. The modern Centre Party which grew out of the Swedish farmers' movement, could be construed as a modern representation with a traditional bond to the Estate of the Peasants.

RIKSDAG IN FINLAND

Main article: Diet of Finland

Following the Finnish War in 1809, Sweden
Sweden
ceded its eastmost provinces to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. Comprising much of present-day Finland, these became a Grand Duchy under the Emperor , but the political institutions were kept practically intact. The Finnish estates assembled in 1809 at Porvoo to confirm the change in their allegiance. This Diet of Finland followed the forms of the Swedish Riksdag, being the legislative body of the new autonomous region. However, during the reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I it was not assembled and no new legislation was enacted. The diet was next assembled by tsar Alexander II in 1863, due to the need to modernize the laws. After this the Diet met regularly until 1905, when it passed an act forming a new unicameral parliament. That assembly has been Finland's legislative body since then. The Finnish House of Nobility — Finnish : Ritarihuone; Swedish : Riddarhuset — carries on the tradition of the Estate of Nobility, but no new families have been ennobled since 1906.

SEE ALSO

* Sweden
Sweden
portal * Politics portal * History portal

* History of Sweden
Sweden
* History of Finland * History of the Riksdag
Riksdag
* Riksdagsmusiken

REFERENCES

* ^ Eriksson, Bo (2007). Lützen 1632: ett ödesdigert beslut (in Swedish) (New ed.). Stockholm: Norstedt. p. 47. ISBN 9789172637900 . LIBRIS 1

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