RIKSDAG OF THE ESTATES (formally: Swedish : Riksens ständer;
informally: Swedish : Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the
Sweden when they were assembled. Until its dissolution in
1866, the institution was the highest authority in
Sweden next to the
king . It was a Diet made up of the Four Estates , which historically
were the lines of division in Swedish society:
* 1 Important assemblies
* 2 Replaced by the new
Riksdag in Finland
* 4 See also
* 5 References
The House of Nobility , seat of the Nobility .
The meeting at
Arboga in 1435 is usually considered to be the first
Riksdag, but there is no indication that the fourth estate, the
peasants, had been represented there.
* The actual first meeting is likely the one that took place at
Uppsala in 1436 after the death of rebel leader
* At the
Riksdag in 1517, regent
Sten Sture the Younger
Sten Sture the Younger and the
Privy Council deposed archbishop
Gustav Trolle .
Västerås in 1527
Lutheranism was adopted as the new state
religion instead of
Roman Catholicism .
Arboga in 1561, the term
Riksdag was used for the first time.
Söderköping in 1595, duke Charles was elected regent of
Sweden instead of king Sigismund , who was a Catholic and the king of
Sweden and Poland .
* In 1612 the
Riksdag gave the nobility the privilege and right to
hold all higher offices of government, after successful lobbying by
Axel Oxenstierna .
* The first open conflict between the different estates happened in
* At the
Riksdag in 1680 a large scale reduction (a return of lands
to the Crown earlier granted to the nobility) was enacted, and Sweden
became an absolute monarchy .
* In 1719, the
Riksdag elected Ulrika Eleonora as heir in place of
her older sister's son, and Ulrika Eleonora accepted a new
constitution restoring the powers of the Riksdag.
* In 1809, the
Riksdag elected Charles XIII king after his nephew
Gustav IV Adolf had been deposed, and after the new king had accepted
a new constitution that ended Sweden's second Autocracy (1789–1809).
* At the sessions in 1634, 1719, 1720, 1772 and 1809 new
constitutions were adopted.
REPLACED BY THE NEW RIKSDAG
Representatives of the four estates on a commemorative coin
The constitution of 1809 divided the powers of government between the
monarch and the
Riksdag of the Estates, and after 1866 between the
monarch and the new
In 1866 all the Estates voted in favor of dissolution and at the same
time to constitute a new assembly, Sveriges
The four former estates were abolished. The House of Nobility ,
Swedish : Riddarhuset, remains as a quasi-official representation of
Swedish nobility . The modern Centre Party which grew out of the
Swedish farmers' movement, could be construed as a modern
representation with a traditional bond to the Estate of the Peasants.
RIKSDAG IN FINLAND
Diet of Finland
Finnish War in 1809,
Sweden ceded its eastmost
provinces to the
Russian Empire . Comprising much of present-day
Finland, these became a Grand Duchy under the Emperor , but the
political institutions were kept practically intact. The Finnish
estates assembled in 1809 at Porvoo to confirm the change in their
Diet of Finland followed the forms of the Swedish
Riksdag, being the legislative body of the new autonomous region.
However, during the reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I it was not
assembled and no new legislation was enacted. The diet was next
assembled by tsar Alexander II in 1863, due to the need to modernize
the laws. After this the Diet met regularly until 1905, when it passed
an act forming a new unicameral parliament. That assembly has been
Finland's legislative body since then. The Finnish House of Nobility
— Finnish : Ritarihuone; Swedish : Riddarhuset — carries on the
tradition of the Estate of Nobility, but no new families have been
ennobled since 1906.
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* History of the
* ^ Eriksson, Bo (2007). Lützen 1632: ett ödesdigert beslut (in
Swedish) (New ed.). Stockholm: Norstedt. p. 47. ISBN 9789172637900 .