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The Info List - Right- And Left-hand Traffic


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The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.[1] RHT is used in 163 countries and territories, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads.[2] In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.[3] Many of the countries with LHT were formerly part of the British Empire. In addition, Cyprus, Japan, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries have retained the LHT tradition. Conversely, many of the countries with RHT were formerly part of the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
or, in Europe, were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests. For rail traffic, LHT predominates in Western Europe (except Spain), Latin America, in countries formerly in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT. According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water.[4] In healthy populations, traffic safety is thought to be the same regardless of handedness, although some researchers have speculated that LHT may be safer for ageing populations[5] since humans are more commonly right-eye dominant than left-eye dominant.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Changing sides

1.1.1 Europe 1.1.2 Asia and the Pacific 1.1.3 Africa

2 Safety 3 Changing sides at borders 4 Road
Road
vehicle configurations

4.1 Driver seating position 4.2 Headlamps and other lighting equipment

4.2.1 Rear fog lamps

4.3 Crash testing differences

5 Worldwide distribution by country 6 Traffic
Traffic
rules 7 Rail traffic 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Left-hand traffic in Vienna, Austria
Austria
circa 1930.

Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman troops kept to the left when marching.[7] In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England. The grooves in the road on the left side (viewed facing down the track away from the quarry) were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty.[8] The first reference in English law
English law
to an order for LHT was in 1756, with regard to London Bridge.[9]

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
drives on the left.

Mainland China
China
drives on the right.

Some historians, such as C. Northcote Parkinson, believed that ancient travellers on horseback or on foot generally kept to the left, since most people were right-handed. If two men riding on horseback were to start a fight, each would edge toward the left.[7] In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
directed pilgrims to keep left.[7] In the late 1700s, traffic in the United States
United States
was RHT based on teamsters' use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no driver's seat, so the (typically right-handed) postilion held his whip in his right hand and thus sat on the left rear horse. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons.[10] In France, traditionally foot traffic had kept right, while carriage traffic kept left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic kept right.[9] Following the Napoleonic Wars, the French imposed RHT on parts of Europe.[citation needed] During the colonial period, RHT was introduced by the French in New France, French West Africa, the Maghreb, French Indochina, the West Indies, French Guiana
French Guiana
and the Réunion, among others. Meanwhile, LHT was introduced by the British in parts of Canada ( Atlantic Canada
Atlantic Canada
and British Columbia), Australia, New Zealand, the East Africa Protectorate
East Africa Protectorate
(now Kenya, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Uganda), British India, Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(now Zambia, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and South Africa), British Malaya
British Malaya
(now Malaysia, Brunei
Brunei
and Singapore), British Guiana, and British Hong Kong. LHT was also introduced by the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in Portuguese Macau, Colonial Brazil, Portuguese Timor, Portuguese Mozambique, and Portuguese Angola. The first keep-right law for driving in the United States
United States
was passed in 1792 and applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike.[11] New York formalized RHT in 1804, New Jersey
New Jersey
in 1813 and Massachusetts in 1821.[12] In the early 1900s some countries including Canada, Spain, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. Currently nearly all countries use one side or the other throughout their entire territory. Most exceptions are due to historical considerations and/or involve islands with no road connection to the main part of a country. China
China
is RHT except the Special
Special
Administrative Regions of China
China
of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau. The United States
United States
is RHT except the United States
United States
Virgin Islands.[13] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. Changing sides[edit]

Traffic
Traffic
moves from left to right in Stockholm, Sweden, on 3 September 1967

Europe[edit] Influential in Europe was the 1920 Paris Convention, which advised driving on the right-hand side of the road, in order to harmonise traffic across a continent with many borders. This was despite the fact that left-hand traffic was still widespread: in 1915 for example, LHT was introduced everywhere in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[14] However, three years later the Empire was split up into several countries, and they all changed eventually to RHT, notably including when Nazi Germany
Germany
introduced RHT with almost immediate effect in Czechoslovakia in 1938-39.[15] Sweden
Sweden
was LHT from about 1734 to 1967,[16] despite having land borders with RHT countries, and approximately 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive (LHD) vehicles.[17] A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT. Nevertheless, some years later the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped sharply after the change,[18] but soon rose back to near its original level.[19] The day was known as Dagen H
Dagen H
("H-Day"), the 'H' being for Högertrafik ("right traffic"). When Iceland
Iceland
switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn, again meaning "H-Day".[20] In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport
Department for Transport
considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation.[21] Road
Road
building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length.[22] Asia and the Pacific[edit] Nationalist China
China
adopted RHT in 1946. This convention was preserved when the CCP took the mainland and the KMT retreated to Taiwan. Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
continue to be LHT. Both North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
switched to RHT in September 1945 after liberation from Japan
Japan
which was defeated and surrendered by the Allies. Myanmar
Myanmar
switched to RHT in 1970.[23] Samoa, a former German colony, had been RHT for more than a century. It switched to LHT in 2009,[24] being the first territory in almost 30 years to switch.[25] The move was legislated in 2008 to allow Samoans to use cheaper right-hand drive (RHD) vehicles--which are better suited for left-hand traffic--imported from Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
or Japan, and to harmonise with other South Pacific nations. A political party, The People's Party, was formed to try to protest against the change, a protest group which launched a legal challenge,[26] and an estimated 18,000 people attending demonstrations against it.[27] The motor industry was also opposed, as 14,000 of Samoa's 18,000 vehicles are designed for RHT and the government has refused to meet the cost of conversion.[25] After months of preparation, the switch from right to left happened in an atmosphere of national celebration. There were no reported incidents.[2] At 05:50 local time, Monday 7 September, a radio announcement halted traffic, and an announcement at 6:00 ordered traffic to switch to LHT.[24] The change coincided with more restrictive enforcement of speeding and seat-belt laws.[28] That day and the following day were declared public holidays, to reduce traffic.[29] The change included a three-day ban on alcohol sales, while police mounted dozens of checkpoints, warning drivers to drive slowly.[2] The Philippines
Philippines
was mostly LHT during its Spanish[30] and American colonial periods,[31][32] as well as during the Commonwealth era.[33] During the Japanese occupation the Philippines
Philippines
remained LHT,[34] also because LHT had been required by the Japanese;[35] but during the Battle of Manila the liberating American forces drove their tanks to the right for easier facilitation of movement. RHT was formally finalised by Executive Order No. 34 signed by President Sergio Osmeña on 10 March 1945.[36] Africa[edit] A number of non-contiguous former British colonies in West Africa originally drove LHT and switched to RHT in the early 1970s to match the surrounding countries. Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
switched to RHT in 1971, Nigeria
Nigeria
in 1972 and Ghana
Ghana
in 1974. Before this period The Gambia, a country entirely contained within RHT Senegal, had officially switched to RHT in 1965.[37] Rwanda, a former Belgian colony in central Africa, is RHT but is considering switching to LHT, to bring the country in line with other members of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC).[38] A survey, carried out in 2009, indicated that 54% of Rwandans were in favour of the switch. Reasons cited were the perceived lower costs of RHD vehicles as opposed to LHD versions of the same model, easier maintenance and the political benefit of harmonisation of traffic regulations with other EAC countries. The same survey also indicated that RHD cars are 16 to 49 per cent cheaper than their LHD equivalents.[39] In 2014 an internal report from consultants to the Ministry of Infrastructure recommended a switch to LHT.[40] In 2015, the ban on RHD vehicles was lifted; RHD trucks from neighbouring countries cost $1000 less than LHD models imported from Europe.[41][42] Safety[edit] In one study, researchers concluded that left-hand traffic may be safer for elderly drivers,[43] since humans are more commonly right-eye dominant than left-eye dominant.[44] Comparing accident statistics between countries operating either LHT or RHT, Leeming concluded that LHT is superior.[45] However, Watson has criticised the small sample size and dismisses the notion.[3] Changing sides at borders[edit]

A road sign in the British county of Kent
Kent
placed on the right-hand side of the road.

Border between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
in 1934

Although many LHT jurisdictions are on islands, there are cases where vehicles may be driven from LHT across a border into a RHT area. The Vienna
Vienna
Convention on Road
Road
Traffic
Traffic
regulates the use of foreign registered vehicles in the 74 countries that have ratified it. LHT Thailand
Thailand
has three RHT neighbours: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar. Most of its borders use a simple traffic light to do the switch, but there are also interchanges which enable the switch while keeping up a continuous flow of traffic.[46] There are four road border crossing points between Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Mainland China. In 2006, the daily average number of vehicle trips recorded at Lok Ma Chau was 31,100.[47] The next largest is Man Kam To, where there is no changeover system and the border roads on the mainland side Wenjindu intersect as one-way streets with a main road. The Takutu River Bridge
Takutu River Bridge
(which links LHT Guyana
Guyana
and RHT Brazil[48]) is the only border in the Americas where traffic changes sides. Although the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is separated from Continental Europe
Continental Europe
by the English Channel, the level of cross-Channel traffic is very high; the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
alone carries 3.5 million vehicles per year, by rail, between the UK and France. Road
Road
vehicle configurations[edit] Driver seating position[edit]

Bolivia
Bolivia
is RHT, with the exception of Yungas Road
Yungas Road
which is LHT to help drivers see their outer wheel.

In RHT jurisdictions, vehicles are configured with LHD, with the driver sitting on the left side. In LHT jurisdictions, the reverse is true. The driver's side, the side closest to the centre of the road, is sometimes called the offside, while the passenger side, the side closest to the side of the road, is sometimes called the nearside.[49] Historically there was less consistency in the relationship of the position of the driver to the handedness of traffic. Most American cars produced before 1910 were RHD.[11] In 1908 Henry Ford standardised the Model T
Model T
as LHD in RHT America,[11] arguing that with RHD and RHT, the passenger was obliged to "get out on the street side and walk around the car" and that with steering from the left, the driver "is able to see even the wheels of the other car and easily avoids danger."[50] By 1915 other manufacturers followed Ford's lead, due to the popularity of the Model T.[11] In specialised cases, the driver will sit on the nearside, or kerbside. Examples include:

Where the driver needs a good view of the nearside, e.g. street sweepers, or vehicles driven along unstable road edges.[51] Where it is more convenient for the driver to be on the nearside, e.g. delivery vehicles. The Grumman LLV
Grumman LLV
postal delivery truck is widely used with RHD configurations in RHT North America. Some Unimogs are designed to switch between LHD and RHD to permit operators to work on the more convenient side of the truck.

Generally, the convention is to mount a motorcycle on the left,[52] and kickstands are usually on the left[53] which makes it more convenient to mount on the safer kerbside[53] as is the case in LHT. Some jurisdictions prohibit fitting a sidecar to a motorcycle's offside.[54][55] Headlamps and other lighting equipment[edit] Main article: Headlamp

Bird's-eye view of low beam light pattern for RH traffic, with long seeing range on the right and short cutoff on the left so oncoming drivers are not dazzled.

Most low-beam headlamps produce an asymmetrical light suitable for use on only one side of the road. Low beam headlamps in LHT jurisdictions throw most of their light forward-leftward; those for RHT throw most of their light forward-rightward, thus illuminating obstacles and road signs while minimising glare for oncoming traffic. In Europe, headlamps approved for use on one side of the road must be adaptable to produce adequate illumination with controlled glare for temporarily driving on the other side of the road,[56]:p.13 ¶5.8. This may be achieved by affixing masking strips or prismatic lenses to a part of the lens or by moving all or part of the headlamp optic so all or part of the beam is shifted or the asymmetrical portion is occluded.[56]:p.13 ¶5.8.1 Some varieties of the projector-type headlamp can be fully adjusted to produce a proper LHT or RHT beam by shifting a lever or other movable element in or on the lamp assembly.[56]:p.12 ¶5.4 Some vehicles adjust the headlamps automatically when the car's GPS
GPS
detects that the vehicle has moved from LHT to RHT and vice versa.[citation needed]

Headlamp
Headlamp
sold in Sweden
Sweden
not long before Dagen H
Dagen H
change from left- to right-hand traffic. Opaque decal blocks lens portion that would provide low beam upkick to the right, and bears warning "Not to be removed before 3 September 1967".

Because blackout strips and adhesive prismatic lenses reduce the safety performance of the headlamps, most countries require all vehicles registered or used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis within the country to be equipped with headlamps designed for the correct traffic-handedness.[citation needed] Without sidecars attached, motorcycles, motor scooters, mopeds, and bicycles are almost symmetric with their handlebars in the centre. However, motorcycles are often equipped with automotive-type asymmetrical-beam headlamps that likewise require adjustments or replacement when brought into a country with opposite traffic-handedness.[citation needed] Rear fog lamps[edit] In the European Union, vehicles must be equipped with one or two red rear fog lamps. A single rear fog lamp must be located between the vehicle's longitudinal centreline and the outer extent of the driver's side of the vehicle.[57][not in citation given] Crash testing differences[edit] An Australian news source reports that some RHD cars imported to that country didn't perform as well on crash tests than the LHD versions, although the cause is unknown, and may be due to differences in testing methodology.[58] Worldwide distribution by country[edit] Of the 193 countries currently recognised by the United Nations
United Nations
(and the unrecognised Palestine), 140 use RHT and 54 use LHT. A country and its territories and dependencies is counted once.

Country Road
Road
traffic Road
Road
switched sides Multi-track rail traffic generally Notes

Afghanistan RHT

RHT/LHT Was LHT until the 1950s, in line with neighbouring British Raj
British Raj
and later Pakistan.[59]

Albania RHT[60]

RHT

Algeria RHT[60]

RHT

Andorra RHT[60]

Angola RHT[60] 1928

Antigua and Barbuda LHT[60]

Former British colony.

Argentina RHT 1945 10 June

LHT The anniversary on 10 June is still observed each year as Día de la Seguridad Vial (road safety day).[61] The Premetro and Metrotranvía Mendoza
Metrotranvía Mendoza
use RHT.

Armenia RHT[60]

RHT

Australia LHT[62]

LHT Commonwealth. Includes Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Norfolk Island

Austria RHT 1921–1938 RHT[63] Originally LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia
Carinthia
and East Tyrol, and in 1938 in the rest of the country.

Azerbaijan RHT[60]

RHT

Bahamas LHT[60]

In Bahamas
Bahamas
LHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from the United States.[64][65]

Bahrain RHT 1967

Former British protectorate. Switched to same side as neighbours.[66]

Bangladesh LHT[60]

LHT

Barbados LHT

Belgium RHT[60] 1899 LHT The Brussels Metro
Brussels Metro
is nominally RHT, with LHT on the circle line west of Halle Gate. This was done to enable unidirectional vehicles to use island platforms.

Belarus RHT[60]

RHT

Belize RHT 1961[1]

Former British colony. Switched to same side as neighbours.

Benin RHT[60]

Bhutan LHT[60]

Under British protection before 1949.

Bolivia RHT[60]

Bosnia and Herzegovina RHT[60] 1918 RHT[67] Switched sides after the collapse of Austria-Hungary.

Botswana LHT[60]

Brazil RHT 1928[60] RHT A Portuguese colony until the early 19th century
19th century
as LHT and retained following independence, switched most states to RHT in 1928 like Portugal.[68][69] While some areas in present-day Brazil
Brazil
formerly belonged to Bolivia
Bolivia
were already in RHT.

Brunei LHT[60]

Bulgaria RHT[60]

RHT

Burkina Faso RHT[60]

Burundi RHT

Considering switching to LHT[70] in line with neighbours Tanzania, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda.

Cambodia RHT

RHT implemented while part of French Indochina. RHD cars, many of which were smuggled from Thailand, were banned from 2001, even though they accounted for 80% of vehicles in the country.[71]

Cameroon RHT[60] 1961

Canada RHT 1920s RHT Territories now in Canada
Canada
have always been RHT, except British Columbia, which changed to RHT in stages from 1920 to 1923,[72][73] and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
which changed in 1922, 1923, and 1924 respectively.[74] Newfoundland and Labrador changed to RHT in 1947 while still a dominion of the British Empire, two years before joining Canada.[75]

Cape Verde RHT[60] 1928

Central African Republic RHT[60]

Chad RHT[60]

Chile RHT[60] 1920s LHT The Santiago Metro
Santiago Metro
uses RHT.

China RHT 1946 RHT/LHT At one time, northern provinces were RHT due to American influence, while southern provinces were LHT due to British influence. LHT was uniform in the 1930s. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
are all on LHT due to their colonial heritage. Most metro systems use RHT, except for the Hong Kong MTR and the Macau
Macau
LRT.

Colombia RHT[60]

RHT

Comoros RHT[60]

Congo RHT[60]

Democratic Republic of Congo RHT[60]

Costa Rica RHT[60]

Côte d'Ivoire RHT[60]

Croatia RHT[60]

RHT Istria and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
were RHT, while Croatia-Slavonia
Croatia-Slavonia
was LHT when Croatia
Croatia
was part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
[76]. The LHT regions switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Cuba RHT[60]

Cyprus LHT[60]

Former British colony.

Czech Republic RHT[60] 1939 RHT Was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary, switched during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.

Denmark RHT

RHT[77] Includes Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland

Djibouti RHT[60]

Dominica LHT[60]

Former British colony.

Dominican Republic RHT[60]

East Timor LHT 1976

Originally LHT, like its colonial power Portugal. Switched to RHT with Portugal
Portugal
in 1928.[1] Under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, changed back to LHT in 1976.

Ecuador RHT[60]

LHT The Quito Metro
Quito Metro
and Cuenca tram system will use RHT.

Egypt RHT[60]

LHT Road
Road
vehicles are RHT due to French influence, but railway system was built by British companies.

El Salvador RHT[60]

Equatorial Guinea RHT[60]

Eritrea RHT[60] 1964

Estonia RHT[60]

RHT

Ethiopia RHT[60] 1964 LHT The Addis Ababa Light Rail
Addis Ababa Light Rail
uses RHT.

Fiji LHT

Finland RHT 1858 RHT/LHT Formerly ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT as the Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
by Russian decree.[78] Most of the Helsinki commuter rail lines use LHT, but the Helsinki Metro
Helsinki Metro
uses RHT.

France RHT 1792 LHT[79]/RHT Includes French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, French Guiana, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Guadeloupe, Mayotte. Railways in Alsace
Alsace
and Moselle use RHT as a former part of German Empire. CDGVAL
CDGVAL
uses RHT. Most metro systems use RHT, except for the Lyon Metro.

Gabon RHT[60]

Gambia RHT 1965[37]

Georgia RHT[60]

RHT About 40% vehicles in Georgia are RHD due to low cost of used cars from Japan[80]. The Batumi Ropeway uses LHT.

Germany RHT[81]

RHT

Ghana RHT 1974[82]

Former British colony. When changing to RHT, a Twi language
Twi language
slogan was "Nifa, Nifa Enan" or "Right, Right, Fourth".[83]

Greece RHT[60]

RHT

Grenada LHT[60]

Guatemala RHT[60]

Guinea RHT[60]

Guinea-Bissau RHT[60] 1928

Guyana LHT[60]

Haiti RHT[60]

Honduras RHT[60]

Hungary RHT[60] 1941 RHT Originally LHT, like most of Austria-Hungary.

Iceland RHT 1968

The day of the switch was known as H-dagurinn. Most passenger cars were already LHD.

Iran RHT[60]

RHT

Iraq RHT[60]

LHT

India LHT[60]

LHT Former British colony.

Indonesia LHT[62]

RHT[84] Roads were built by British, but railways are RHT due to Netherlands influence. The Jakarta MRT
Jakarta MRT
will also use RHT.

Ireland LHT[60]

LHT Part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
until 1922.

Israel RHT[60]

LHT The Jerusalem Light Rail
Jerusalem Light Rail
uses RHT.

Italy RHT 1920s LHT Until 1927 the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT.[85] Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
and Lancia
Lancia
did not produce LHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 respectively, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout even in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls.[86] The metro systems in Brescia, Genoa, Milan, and Turin use RHT, as well as all tram systems.

Jamaica LHT[60]

Japan LHT[87]

LHT Post- World War II
World War II
Okinawa
Okinawa
was ruled by the United States
United States
Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and was RHT. It was returned to Japan
Japan
in 1972 but did not convert back to LHT until 1978.[88] The conversion operation was known as 730 (Nana-San-Maru, which means Nana(7)-San(3)-Maru(0)). Okinawa
Okinawa
is one of few places to have changed from RHT to LHT in the late 20th century. The Hakone Ropeway
Hakone Ropeway
uses RHT.

Jordan RHT[60]

RHT, despite the Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum being under British rule till 1946.

Kazakhstan RHT[60]

RHT

Kenya LHT[89]

British colony until 1963.

Kiribati LHT[60]

North Korea RHT 1946 LHT/RHT Korea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan
Japan
in the 1900s. Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after 1945. The metro system in Pyongyang uses a mixture of RHT and LHT.

South Korea RHT 1946 LHT/RHT Korea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan
Japan
in the 1900s. Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after 1945. Most metro systems in South Korea
South Korea
use RHT (exceptions include lines 1 and 4 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Bundang Line, and the Shinbundang Line).

Kuwait RHT[60]

Kyrgyzstan RHT

RHT Former part of RHT Soviet Union. In 2012, over 20,000 cheaper used RHD cars were imported from Japan.[90]

Laos RHT[60]

LHT RHT implemented while part of French Indochina.

Latvia RHT[60]

RHT

Lebanon RHT[60]

Former French mandate.

Lesotho LHT[60]

Liberia RHT[60]

Libya RHT[60]

Liechtenstein RHT[60]

RHT

Lithuania RHT[60]

RHT

Luxembourg RHT[60]

RHT

Macedonia RHT[60]

RHT

Madagascar RHT[60]

Malawi LHT[60]

Malaysia LHT[60]

LHT Former British colony.

Maldives LHT[60]

Mali RHT[60]

Malta LHT[60]

British colony until 1964.

Marshall Islands RHT[60]

Mauritania RHT

Mining roads between Fdérik
Fdérik
and Zouérat
Zouérat
are LHT.[91]

Mauritius LHT[60]

Former British colony. Island nation.

Mexico RHT[60]

RHT

Micronesia RHT [60]

Moldova RHT[60]

RHT

Monaco RHT[60]

LHT

Mongolia RHT[60]

RHT

Montenegro RHT[60]

RHT

Morocco RHT[60]

RHT

Mozambique LHT[92]

LHT

Myanmar RHT 1970 LHT Much of infrastructure still geared to LHT, most cars are pre-owned RHD vehicles, imported from Japan.[93]

Netherlands RHT 1906[94] RHT Rotterdam was LHT until 1917.[95] Includes Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and Aruba

Namibia LHT 1918

RHT as a German colony. After South Africa
South Africa
occupied German South-West Africa during World War I, switched to LHT.[1] South- West Africa
West Africa
was made a South African mandate by the League of Nations, and the new rule of the road was established in law.[96]

Nauru LHT[60] 1918

Nepal LHT[97]

New Zealand LHT[62]

LHT Includes territories Niue
Niue
and Cook Islands

Nicaragua RHT[60]

Niger RHT[60]

Nigeria RHT 1972[98] LHT Former British colony. Switched to RHT as it is surrounded by former French RHT colonies.

Norway RHT[60]

RHT

Oman RHT

Not a party to the Vienna
Vienna
Convention on Road
Road
Traffic
Traffic
and bans all foreign-registered RHD vehicles.[99]

Palau RHT[60]

RHT

Palestine RHT[60]

Pakistan LHT[60]

LHT

Panama RHT 1943[100] RHT

Papua New Guinea LHT[60]

Paraguay RHT 1945[101]

Peru RHT[60]

LHT

Philippines RHT 1946[36] RHT Was LHT during the Spanish and American colonial periods. Switched to RHT during Battle of Manila in 1945.

Poland RHT

RHT Partitions of Poland
Poland
belonging to the German Empire
German Empire
and the Russian Empire were RHT. Partitions that were part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
were LHT and changed to RHT in the 1920s.[102]

Portugal RHT[62] 1928 LHT Colonies Goa, Macau
Macau
and Mozambique, which had land borders with LHT countries, did not switch and continue to drive on the left.[92] The Porto Metro
Porto Metro
uses RHT.

Qatar RHT[60]

Romania RHT[60]

RHT Transylvania
Transylvania
was LHT like most of former Austria-Hungary, while Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
were already RHT.

Russia RHT[60]

RHT In the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
RHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from nearby Japan.[103] Railway between Moscow
Moscow
and Ryazan
Ryazan
is LHT. Sormovskaya line
Sormovskaya line
in Nizhny Novgorod Metro
Nizhny Novgorod Metro
also uses LHT.

Rwanda RHT[70]

Former Belgian mandate. Considering switching to LHT[70][104] like its neighbours Tanzania, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda.

Saint Kitts and Nevis LHT

Former British colony.

Saint Lucia LHT

Former British colony.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines LHT

Former British colony.

Samoa LHT 2009

Switched to LHT to allow the import of cars more cheaply from Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Japan.[62]

San Marino RHT[60]

São Tomé and Príncipe RHT[60] 1928

Saudi Arabia RHT[60]

LHT The Makkah Metro
Makkah Metro
and the Riyadh Metro
Riyadh Metro
use RHT.

Senegal RHT[60]

Serbia RHT[60]

RHT Vojvodina
Vojvodina
was LHT while part of Austria-Hungary.

Seychelles LHT[60]

Sierra Leone RHT 1971[105]

Importation of RHD vehicles was banned in 2013.[106]

Singapore LHT[60]

LHT Former British colony.

Slovakia RHT[60] 1939–41 RHT Was LHT like most of former Austria-Hungary. Switched to RHT when it became a client state of Nazi Germany.

Slovenia RHT[60]

LHT Was LHT like most of Austria-Hungary. Switched to RHT to unite with Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
to form with Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Solomon Islands LHT[60]

Somalia RHT 1968[107]

South Africa LHT[108][109]

LHT Former British colony.

South Sudan RHT 1973

Was LHT during the period of British colonial rule. Split from Sudan in 2011 after the majority of the population voted for independence.

Spain RHT 1924 RHT Up to the 1920s Barcelona
Barcelona
was RHT, and Madrid
Madrid
was LHT until 1924. The Madrid
Madrid
and Bilbao metro systems use LHT.[110]

Sri Lanka LHT[60]

LHT Former British colony.

Sudan RHT[60] 1973

Former British colony.

Suriname LHT[60]

Swaziland LHT[60]

Sweden RHT[60] 1967 3 September

LHT The day of the switch was known as Dagen H. Most passenger cars were already LHD. The tram systems in Gothenburg (except for a short part), Norrköping and Stockholm
Stockholm
are RHT.[111] The railways in Malmö
Malmö
use RHT due to the connection to Denmark.

Switzerland RHT[60]

LHT The tram system in Zurich
Zurich
and the Lausanne Metro
Lausanne Metro
use RHT.

Syria RHT[60]

Taiwan RHT 1946 LHT Was LHT during the period of Japanese rule. The government of the Republic of China
China
changed Taiwan
Taiwan
to RHT in 1946 along with the rest of China.[112] Most metro systems use RHT.

Tajikistan RHT[60]

RHT

Tanzania LHT[60]

Thailand LHT[62]

LHT One of the few LHT countries not a former British colony. Shares long land border with RHT Laos
Laos
and Cambodia.

Togo RHT[60]

Tonga LHT[60]

Trinidad and Tobago LHT[113]

Former British colony.

Tunisia RHT[60]

LHT French RHT was enforced in the French protectorate of Tunisia
Tunisia
from 1881.

Turkey RHT[60]

RHT

Turkmenistan RHT[60]

RHT

Tuvalu LHT[60]

Uganda LHT[60]

Ukraine RHT 1922[102] RHT West Ukraine
Ukraine
was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Carpathian Ruthenia remained LHT as part of Czechoslovakia before switching in 1941 as part of Hungary. The rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire, already drove on the right. Some sections of Kryvyi Rih Metrotram
Kryvyi Rih Metrotram
use LHT due to tramcars have doors only on right side, which makes it impossible to use RHT at stations with island platforms.[114]

United Arab Emirates RHT[60]

RHT

United Kingdom LHT (Mainland UK) RHT (Gibraltar) 1929 (in Gibraltar) LHT Includes Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories Isle of Man, Guernsey, Jersey, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
are all LHT. Gibraltar
Gibraltar
has been RHT since 1929 because of its land border with Spain.[115] The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
( Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey) drove on the right under German occupation until their liberation in 1945.[116] The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
similarly drove on the right during their occupation by Argentina
Argentina
in 1982.[117] The PRT system at London Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 uses RHT.

United States RHT LHT (U.S. Virgin Islands)

RHT/LHT[118] Includes American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico. U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
is LHT, like much of the Caribbean.

Uruguay RHT 1945[119] LHT Became LHT in 1918, but as in some other countries in South America, changed to RHT on 2 September 1945.[119] A speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph) was observed until 30 September for safety.

Uzbekistan RHT[60]

RHT

Vanuatu RHT[120]

Venezuela RHT[60]

LHT The Caracas Metro
Caracas Metro
uses RHT.

Vietnam RHT[60]

LHT Became RHT as French Indochina.

Yemen RHT 1977[1]

South Yemen, formerly the British colony of Aden, changed to RHT in 1977. A series of postage stamps commemorating the event was issued.[121] North Yemen
Yemen
was already RHT.

Zambia LHT[60]

Zimbabwe LHT

LHT Former British colony. In 2010 the government attempted to ban LHD vehicles.[122]

Traffic
Traffic
rules[edit]

LHT

RHT

Manoeuvre LHT RHT

Unless overtaking stay on the left right

In roundabouts traffic rotates clockwise anti-clockwise

Oncoming traffic is seen coming from the right left

Traffic
Traffic
must cross oncoming traffic when turning right left

Most traffic signs are on the left right

Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their right left

Dual carriageway
Dual carriageway
ramps are on the left right

After stopping at a red light it may be legal to turn left right

Rail traffic[edit]

  Trains drive on the right   Trains drive on the left UK, Ireland, Sweden, France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Portugal
Portugal
and Slovenia
Slovenia
have LHT for trains. Iceland, Andorra, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta
Malta
do not have railways.

Several states in Europe have RHT for roads but LHT for trains. France has mainly LHT for trains, except in Alsace-Lorraine, an eastern French territory which belonged to Germany
Germany
for much of its history. Gallery[edit]

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
has been RHT (since 1929)

A sign reminding motorists to keep left in Australia

Vehicles entering and leaving Macau
Macau
cross over each other at the Lotus Bridge.

Sign reminding motorists to drive on the left in Ireland

See also[edit]

Hook turn Traffic-light signalling and operation World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Kincaid, Peter (December 1986). The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice. Greenwood Press. pp. 50, 86–88, 99–100, 121–122, 198–202. ISBN 0-313-25249-1.  ^ a b c Barta, Patrick. "Shifting the Right of Way to the Left Leaves Some Samoans Feeling Wronged". Wall Street
Street
Journal. Retrieved 4 December 2016. (subscription required) ^ a b Watson, Ian. "The rule of the road, 1919-1986: A case study of standards change" (PDF). Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ FAR Sec. 91.115(c): "When aircraft, or an aircraft and a vessel, are approaching head-on, or nearly so, each shall alter its course to the right to keep well clear." ^ Foerch, C; Steinmetz, H (2009). "Left-sided traffic directionality may be the safer "rule of the road" for ageing populations". Med Hypotheses. 73 (1): 20–3. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.01.044. PMID 19327893.  ^ "Your Dominant Eye and Why it Matters". Retrieved 11 December 2016.  ^ a b c Anderson, Charles (2003). Puzzles and Essays from the Exchange Essays. Haworth Information Press. pp. 2–3.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Walters, Bryn. "Huge Roman Quarry found in North Wiltshire" (PDF). ARA The Bulletin of The Association for Roman Archaeology. Autumn 1998 (Six): 8–9. ISSN 1363-7967. Retrieved 7 October 2016.  ^ a b Hamer, Mike. "Left is right on the road". New Scientist
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drivers brace for left turn". BBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2009.  ^ "Samoan drivers change from right-hand side of the road to the left". Heraldsun.com.au. Retrieved 31 October 2012.  ^ Jackson, Cherelle (25 July 2008). " Samoa
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Hong Kong
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Road
Traffic
Traffic
(Construction and Use of Vehicles) Regulations 2003". Irish Statute Book. 42. (1). Retrieved 6 November 2017. where a side–car is attached to a mechanically propelled bicycle, the side–car shall be ... fitted on the left side of the vehicle ; "Motorcycle Sidecar
Sidecar
& Trailer legislation". MAG Ireland. Irish Motorcyclists Association. 9 Feb 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2017.  ^ "The Road
Road
Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986 - Section 93". UK Government. 25 June 1986. Retrieved 9 December 2012.  ^ a b c "UN Regulation 112, "Motor vehicle headlamps emitting an asymmetrical passing beam or a driving beam or both and equipped with filament lamps"" (PDF).  ^ "UNECE Homepage" (PDF). www.unece.org.  ^ "Popular family SUV Hyundai Tucson slammed for 'four-star' Australian crash test result". Retrieved 5 November 2017.  ^ L. R. Reddy (2002). Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban Era?. APH. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed "Worldwide Driving Orientation by Country". Retrieved 13 December 2016.  ^ "10 de Junio: Día Mundial de la Seguridad Vial". Retrieved 13 December 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "Right-Hand Traffic
Traffic
versus Left-Hand Traffic". The Basement Geographer. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ New Scientist, Volume 112, IPC Magazines, 1986, page 18 ^ Roadway Guidance in the Bahamas ^ Safety and security - Bahamas
Bahamas
travel advice, GOV.UK ^ Bahrain
Bahrain
Government Annual Reports, Times of India
India
Press, 1968, page 158 ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RqL4Ky7ebRQ ^ "História". Touring Club do Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 8 January 2017. ""Já na década de 1920 (...) Em um país onde os documentos veiculares só tinham validade municipal e alguns estados adotavam a mão-inglesa" (Translation: In the 1920s (...) In a country where vehicular documents were valid only citywide and some states adopted left-hand traffic.)  ^ "Decreto 18.323/1928" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 17 January 2017. "Art. 31. São obrigações communs a todos os conductores de vehiculos: a) conservar sua direita, trafegando o mais proximo possivel da beira da estrada, e sempre deixando a seu lado esquerdo espaço livre para passagem dos vehiculos que tiverem de passar á frente ou que transitarem em senttido contrario." (Translation: article 31: The common obligations to vehicle drivers are; a) Keep to the right, driving the closest as possible to the roadside, letting their left side free for vehicles overtaking or for oncoming traffic.) , the first nationwide traffic legislation, cited unambiguously RHT as the standard for the country. ^ a b c Nkwame, Marc (27 July 2013). "Burundi, Rwanda
Rwanda
to start driving on the left". DailyNews Online. Retrieved 28 May 2016.  ^ " Cambodia
Cambodia
bans right-hand drive cars". BBC News. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 12 January 2007.  ^ "Change of Rule of Road
Road
in British Columbia
British Columbia
1920" (PDF). The British Columbia Road
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Highway
Driving Rule Changes Sides". History of Automobiles - The Early Days in Nova Scotia, 1899-1949. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ Dyer, Gwynne (30 August 2009). "A triumph for left over right". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ Baedeker, Karl (1900). "Austria, including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Bosnia". p. xiii-xiv. Retrieved 28 July 2017. In Styria, Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Carniola, Croatia, and Hungary
Hungary
we keep to the left, and pass to the right in overtaking; in Carinthia, Tyrol, and the Austrian Littoral (Adriatic coast: Trieste, Gorizia and Gradisca, Istria and Dalmatia) we keep to the right and overtake to the left. Troops on the march always keep to the right side of the road, so in whatever part of the Empire you meet them, keep to the left.  ^ ";Hvorfor kører nogle lande i højre side? (Why do some countries drive on the right side?)". videnskab.dk. Retrieved 31 Aug 2014.  ^ "Högertrafik i Sverige och Finland". aland.net.  ^ 'Left is right on the road', Mick Hamer New Scientist, 25 December 1986 – 1 January 1987 No 1540/1541, p.16. ^ https://sputnik-georgia.ru/reviews/20170602/236203054/Vyzhivut-li-pravorulnye-mashiny-v-Gruzii.html ^ Hillger, Don; Toth, Garry. "Right-Hand/Left-Hand Driving Customs". Colorado State University. Retrieved 13 December 2016.  ^ Daily Graphic, Issue 7526, December 21 1974, page 9 ^ Phil Bartle. "Studies Among the Akan People of West Africa Community, Society, History, Culture; With Special
Special
Focus on the Kwawu by Phil Bartle, PhD". Cec.vcn.bc.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ hadi anto (26 July 2016). "indonesia train compilation" – via YouTube.  ^ "Sight for sure eyes, Honest John's Agony Column". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 March 2008.  ^ Nick Georgano, ed. (2000). "Lancia". The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile (Vol. 2: G-O ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 867. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.  ^ "Why Does Japan
Japan
Drive On The Left". 2pass.co.uk. Retrieved 11 August 2006.  ^ Andrew H. Malcolm (5 July 1978). "U-Turn for Okinawa: From Right-Hand Driving to Left; Extra Policemen Assigned". The New York Times. p. A2.  ^ "Customs Services Department – Frequently Asked Questions". KRA. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Over 20,000 Right Hand Drive Cars Imported in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in 2012". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 8 May 2013.  ^ "Photo of All Change. Swop Over Point for the Traffic !". Panoramio. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ a b Mozambique: memoirs of a revolution, John Paul, Penguin, 1975, page 41 ^ Myanmar’s car market set to take new direction, Motokazu Matsui and Takemi Nakagawa, Financial Times, 2 January 2017 ^ Peter van Ammelrooy. "De Claim links rijden" (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ "De geschiedenis van het linksrijden". Engelfriet.net. Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ The Laws of South West Africa, Volume 2, J. Meibert, 1961 ^ "2.1 "Keeping Left" – Land Transport ( Road
Road
User) Rule 2004 – New Zealand Legislation". New Zealand
New Zealand
Government. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Africa, Issues 6-10, Africa Journal, Limited, 1972, page 32 ^ "Travel advice by country, Oman". Foreign & Commonwealth Office (fco.gov.uk). Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2006.  ^ Panama
Panama
Shifts To Right Handed Driving Of Cars, Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1943 ^ De izquierda a derecha, ABC Color, 2 March 2014 ^ a b "Krakowska Komunikacja Miejska – autobusy, tramwaje i krakowskie inwestycje drogowe – History of the Cracow tram network". Komunikacja.krakow.eurocity.pl. 28 November 1982. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ " Russian Far East
Russian Far East
is still attached to Japanese cars". Russia
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behind the headlines. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.  ^ Peter. " Rwanda
Rwanda
to adopt EAC driving standards". Rwanda
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Sierra Leone
Bans Right-Hand Vehicles as Hazards, Voice of America, Nina de Vries, 17 September 2013 ^ " Somalia
Somalia
– Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ " Road
Road
Rules". SACarRental.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ "Driving in South Africa
South Africa
Information". drivesouthafrica.co.za. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ Moya, Aurora. "Metro de Madrid, 1919–1989. Setenta años de historia", Chapter 1 ^ Taplin, Michael (1995). Light Rail in Europe. Capital Transport. pp. 126, 128. ISBN 1-85414-180-5.  ^ Passed by the Legislative Yuan (1946). "違警罰法 (Act Governing the Punishment of Police Offences)". Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Adventure Guide, Kathleen O'Donnell, Stassi Pefkaros, Hunter Publishing, Inc, 2000, page 53 ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Mqng0q_pWI ^ Colonial Reports, Annual, Volumes 1480-1499, 1930, page 76 ^ The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
War: 1940-1945, Peter King, Hale, 1991, page 31 ^ Tobar, Hector (1 April 2002). "'82 Falklands Conflict Left a Legacy of Tragedy, Hope". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 March 2010.  ^ "Which side of the road do they drive on?". brianlucas.ca.  ^ a b El día en que el Río de la Plata dejó de manejar por la izquierda, Autoblog, 25 August 2015 ^ "RHD/LHD Country Guide". toyota-gib.com. Retrieved 22 September 2017.  ^ "South Yemen
Yemen
Postage stamps
Postage stamps
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Left- and right-hand traffic.

Google Maps placemarks of border crossings where traffic changes sides (browser-based), also available as a Google Earth
Google Earth
placemarks file (requires Google Earth) The Extraordinary Street
Street
Railways of Asunción, Paraguay

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Road
Road
hazards

Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road
Road
debris Road
Road
slipperiness Road
Road
train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout

Space and time allocation

Barrier transfer machine Bicycle
Bicycle
lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane
Contraflow lane
reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian
Pedestrian
crossing Pedestrian
Pedestrian
zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road
Road
diet Road
Road
verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street
Street
running railway Traffic
Traffic
calming Traffic
Traffic
directionality Traffic
Traffic
island Traffic
Traffic
lanes Traffic
Traffic
signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf

Demarcation

Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete
Concrete
step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey
Jersey
barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road
Road
surface marking Rumble strip Traffic
Traffic
barrier Traffic
Traffic
cone

Structures

Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel

Glossary of road transport terms Road

.