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The Rif
Rif
or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region of northern Morocco, as well as Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla, both in Spain. The Rif
Rif
has some fertile plains and stretches from Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
and Tangier
Tangier
in the west to Berkane
Berkane
and the Melwiyya River in the east and from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in the north to the Ouergha River in the south.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History 4 Environment 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] Arrif means "the coast" or "the edge of the land" in the local native Tamazight language. Geography[edit] Geologically the Rif
Rif
mountains belong to the Gibraltar Arc
Gibraltar Arc
or Alborán Sea geological region. They are an extension of the Baetic System
Baetic System
that includes the mountains of the southern Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
across the strait.[1] Thus the Rif
Rif
mountains are not part of the Atlas Mountain System. Major cities in the greater Rif
Rif
region include Nador, Larache, Tanger, Tetouan, Al Hoceima
Al Hoceima
(also called Villa), Imzouren, Midar, Ben-taieb and a few (small) towns Segangan
Segangan
,, Selwan, Aâarwi, , Ajdir, Targuist (Targist). History[edit] The Rif
Rif
has been inhabited by Berbers since prehistoric times. As early as the 11th century BC, the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
began to establish trading posts, with approval of or partnership with the local Berbers and started interbreeding thus starting a punic language, on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Atlantic coasts, and founded cities such as Tetouan, Melilla
Melilla
(Rusadir) and, in the 5th century BC, Tangier
Tangier
(called Tingi, back then). Later the Phoenician power gave way to an independent Carthage city-state, as the major power in the region. After the Third Punic War, Carthage was supplanted by Rome, and the Rif
Rif
became part of the province of Mauretania. When the latter was divided during the rule of Emperor Claudius, Tangier
Tangier
became the capital of Mauretania Tingitana. In the 5th century AD, the region was raided by the Vandals, and Roman rule came to an end. The region remained under Vandal control until the 6th century AD when the Byzantines reconquered parts of it.

Flag of the Rif Republic
Rif Republic
(1921–1926)

In 710, Salih I ibn Mansur founded the kingdom of Nekor in the Rif
Rif
and Berbers started converting to Islam. Berber Muslim kingdoms started establishing more cities. By the 15th century, many Spanish Moors
Moors
were exiled from Spain
Spain
and most of them settled in Western Rif, bringing their culture, Andalusian music, and even establishing the city of Ashawen or Chefchaouen
Chefchaouen
(Accawen meaning "horns" in Berber). Since then, the Rif
Rif
has suffered numerous battles between Berber kingdoms, Spain
Spain
and Portugal. In 1415, Portugal invaded Ceuta
Ceuta
(Sebta), and in 1490 Spain
Spain
invaded Melilla
Melilla
(Mlilt). There was a period of peace afterwards, but war between Spain
Spain
and Morocco
Morocco
broke out again in 1859 in Tetouan, where Morocco
Morocco
was defeated. The Spanish-Moroccan conflicts continued in the 20th century, under the leadership of Abd el-Krim, the Berber guerrilla leader who proclaimed the Republic of the Rif
Republic of the Rif
in 1921. The Riffian Berbers won several victories over the Spanish in the Rif War
Rif War
of the 1920s before being eventually defeated. The region was returned to Morocco
Morocco
by Spain
Spain
in April 1956, a month after the latter gained its independence from France. Environment[edit]

Rif
Rif
mountains in the province of Ashawen

Moroccan Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Coast (West Side) - Air Photo form Bades over El Jebha
El Jebha
to Tétouan
Tétouan
with Rif
Rif
mountains, Tangier- Tetouan
Tetouan
region (2014)

According to C. Michael Hogan, there are between five and eight separate subpopulations of the endangered primate Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus.[2] The Rif
Rif
mountains are also home to the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera major. The Rif
Rif
region receives more rainfall than any other region in Morocco, with some portions receiving upwards of 2,000 mm (78.74 in) of precipitation a year.[citation needed] The western and central portions are more rainy and are covered in forests of Atlas cedar, cork oak and holm oak, as well as the only remaining forests of Moroccan fir, a subspecies of the Spanish fir.[citation needed] The eastern slopes receive less rainfall, and there forests consist mainly of pines, particularly the Aleppo pine
Aleppo pine
and the maritime pine, as well as tetraclinis.[citation needed] Massive deforestation due to overgrazing, forest fires, and forest clearing for agriculture, particularly for the creation of cannabis plantations, has taken place over the last century. This deforestation has led to soil degradation due to the washing away of topsoil, which has aggravated the process. See also[edit]

Riffian people Ghomara people Jbala people Oriental (Morocco) Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Nekor

Footnotes[edit]

^ Dan Davis, Commercial Navigation in the Greek and Roman World ^ C. Michael Hogan, 2008

References[edit]

Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy (2005) " Morocco
Morocco
said to produce nearly half of the world's hashish supply", Jane's Intelligence Review C. Michael Hogan, (2008) "Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus", Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg

External links[edit]

Media related to Rif
Rif
at Wikimedia Commons Galerie Rif
Rif
(Arrif) (FR) Rif
Rif
Map

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Berber peoples

Ancient

Psylli Banioubae Gaetuli Garamantes Leuathae Libu Macae Marmaridae Mauri

Bakouatae Makanitae

Meshwesh Musulamii Nasamones Numidae

Masaesyli Massylii

Quinquegentiani

Middle-Ages

Adjissa Awerba Awregha Azdeja Bahlula Barghawata Fazaz Fendelawa Ghumara Gazoula Ghiatta Godala Guanches Haskura Houara Kutama Lamtuna Luwata Madyuna Masmuda Matmata Nafzawa Sanhaja Zanata

Banu Ifran Jarawa Maghrawa

Modern

Brabers Chaouis Chenouas Ghomaras Jerbis Kabyles Matmatas Mozabites Nafusis Riffians Sanhajas de Srayr Shilha Siwis Teknas Toshavim Tuaregs

Related topics

Script

Latin script

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Arab-Berbers Arabized Berbers Berber diaspora

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Berberism

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Major African geological formations

Plates

African Plate Somali Plate Madagascar Plate Seychelles Plate

Cratons and shields

Arabian-Nubian Shield Congo Craton Kaapvaal Craton Kalahari Craton Saharan Metacraton Tanzania Craton Tuareg Shield West African Craton Zimbabwe Craton

Shear zones

Aswa Dislocation Broodkop Shear Zone Central African Shear Zone Chuan Shear Zones Foumban Shear Zone Kandi Fault Zone Mwembeshi Shear Zone Todi Shear Zone Western Meseta Shear Zone

Orogens

Alpide Orogen Cape Fold Belt Damara Orogen East African Orogen Eburnean Orogen Gondwanide Orogen Kibaran Orogen Kuunga Orogen Mauritanide Belt Pan-African orogens Terra Australis Orogen

Rifts

Afar Triangle Anza trough Bahr el Arab rift Benue Trough Blue Nile rift East African Rift Gulf of Suez Rift Lamu Embayment Melut Basin Muglad Basin Red Sea Rift Sangha Aulacogen Atbara rift White Nile rift

Sedimentary basins

Angola Basin Aoukar Blue Nile Basin Chad Basin Congo Basin Douala Basin El Djouf Foreland Karoo Basin Gabon Basin Iullemmeden Basin Kufra Basin Murzuq Basin Niger Delta Basin Ogaden Basin Orange River basin Ouled Abdoun Basin Owambo Basin Reggane Basin Rio del Rey Basin Sirte Basin Somali Coastal Basin Taoudeni basin Tanzania Coastal Basin Tindouf Basin Turkana Basin

Mountain ranges

Aïr Mountains Atlas Mountains Aurès Mountains Bambouk Mountains Blue Mountains Cameroon line Central Pangean Mountains Chaillu Mountains Drakensberg Ethiopian Highlands East African mountains Great Escarpment Great Karas Mountains Guinée forestière Imatong Mountains Jebel Uweinat Loma Mountains Mandara Mountains Marrah Mountains Mitumba Mountains Nuba Mountains Rif
Rif
Mountains Rwenzori Mountains Sankwala Mountains Serra da Leba Serra da Chela Teffedest Mountains Tibesti Mountains

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Al Hoceïma Province

Capital: Al Hoceima

Municipalities

Al Hoceima Bni Bouayach Imzouren Targuist

Rural communes

Abdelghaya Souahel Ait Kamra Ait Youssef Ou Ali Arbaa Taourirt Bni Abdallah Bni Ahmed Imoukzan Bni Ammart Bni Bchir Bni Bouchibet Bni Boufrah Bni Bounsar Bni Gmil Bni Gmil Maksouline Bni Hadifa Chakrane Imrabten Issaguen Izemmouren Ketama Louta Moulay Ahmed Cherif Nekkour Rouadi Senada Sidi Boutmim Sidi Bouzineb Taghzout Tamsaout Tifarouine Zaouiat Sid

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