The Info List - Ridley Scott

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SIR RIDLEY SCOTT (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer. Following his commercial breakthrough with the science-fiction horror film _ Alien _ (1979), his best known works include the neo-noir dystopian science fiction film _ Blade Runner _ (1982), historical drama and Best Picture Oscar winner _Gladiator _ (2000), and science fiction film _The Martian _ (2015).

Scott is known for his atmospheric, highly concentrated visual style. Though his films range widely in setting and period, they frequently showcase memorable imagery of urban environments, whether 2nd century Rome (_Gladiator_), 12th century Jerusalem (_Kingdom of Heaven _), Medieval England (_ Robin Hood _), contemporary Mogadishu (_Black Hawk Down _), or the future cityscapes of _Blade Runner_. His films are also known for their strong female characters. Scott has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing (for _Thelma clear: right; margin: 0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em; width:30%; padding: 10px; border: 1px solid #aaa; font-size: 88%; background-color: #F9F9F9;"> "My mum brought three boys up: my dad was in the army and so he was frequently away. During the war (World War II) and post-war, we tended to travel following him around so my mum was the boss. She laid down the law and the law was God. We just said 'Yup, okay' – we didn't argue. I think that's where the respect has come from, because she was tough." — A supporter of heroines in his work, Scott credits his mother Elizabeth as his first feminist role model.

Scott was born in South Shields , County Durham, North East England, to Elizabeth Williams and Colonel Francis Percy Scott. Born shortly before the Second World War, he was brought up in an army family so his father – an officer in the Royal Engineers – was absent for most of his early life. His elder brother, Frank, joined the British Merchant Navy when he was still young and the pair had little contact. During this time the family moved around, living in (among other areas) Cumberland in North West England, Wales and Germany. He had a younger brother, Tony , who also became a film director. After World War II , the Scott family moved back to their native North East, eventually settling on Greens Beck Road in Hartburn, County Durham , whose industrial landscape would later inspire similar scenes in _Blade Runner_. He studied at Grangefield Grammar School and West Hartlepool College of Art from 1954 to 1958, obtaining a diploma in design. "I use everything I learned every day at art school. It's all about white sheets of paper, pens and drawing." — Scott speaking on the influence the Royal College of Art has had in designing the visuals for his films.

Scott went on to study at the Royal College of Art in London, contributing to college magazine _ARK_ and helping to establish the college film department. For his final show, he made a black and white short film, _ Boy and Bicycle _, starring both his younger brother and his father (the film was later released on the "Extras" section of _The Duellists_ DVD). In February 1963 Scott was named in title credits as "Designer" for the BBC television programme _Tonight_ , about the severe winter of 1963. After graduation in 1963, he secured a job as a trainee set designer with the BBC, leading to work on the popular television police series _ Z-Cars _ and science fiction series _ Out of the Unknown _. He was originally assigned to design the second _ Doctor Who _ serial, _ The Daleks _, which would have entailed realising the serial's eponymous alien creatures. However, shortly before Scott was due to start work, a schedule conflict meant he was replaced by Raymond Cusick . In 1965, he began directing episodes of television series for the BBC, only one of which, an episode of _Adam Adamant Lives! _, is available commercially. Gold Hill, Shaftesbury in the English county of Dorset where Scott filmed the 1973 Hovis television commercial

In 1968, Ridley and Tony Scott founded Ridley Scott Associates (RSA), a film and commercial production company. Working alongside Alan Parker , Hugh Hudson and cinematographer Hugh Johnson , Ridley Scott made many commercials at RSA during the 1970s, including a notable 1973 Hovis advertisement, "Bike Round" (underscored by the slow movement of Dvořák\'s "New World" symphony rearranged for brass), set in the north of England but filmed in Gold Hill, Shaftesbury , Dorset. A nostalgia themed television advertisement that captured the public imagination, it was voted the UK's all-time favourite commercial in a 2006 poll. In the 1970s the Chanel No. 5 brand needed revitalisation having run the risk of being labelled as mass market and passé. Directed by Scott in the 1970s and 1980s, Chanel television commercials were inventive mini-films with production values of surreal fantasy and seduction, which "played on the same visual imagery, with the same silhouette of the bottle."

Five members of the Scott family are directors, and all have worked for RSA. His brother Tony was a successful film director whose career spanned more than two decades; his sons Jake and Luke are both acclaimed directors of commercials, as is his daughter, Jordan Scott . Jake and Jordan both work from Los Angeles; Luke is based in London. In 1995, Shepperton Studios was purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which extensively renovated the studios while also expanding and improving its grounds.



Main article: The Duellists

_ The Duellists _ (1977) marked Ridley Scott's first feature as director. Shot in Europe, it was nominated for the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival , and won an award for Best Debut Film. _The Duellists_ had limited commercial impact internationally. Set during the Napoleonic Wars , it follows two French Hussar officers, D'Hubert and Feraud ( Keith Carradine and Harvey Keitel ) whose quarrel over an initially minor incident turns into a bitter extended feud spanning fifteen years, interwoven with the larger conflict that provides its backdrop. The film has been acclaimed for providing a historically authentic portrayal of Napoleonic uniforms and military conduct. The 2013 release of the film on Blu-ray coincided with the publication of an essay on the film in a collection of scholarly essays on Scott.


Main article: Alien (film)

Scott had originally planned next to adapt a version of _Tristan and Iseult _, but after seeing _Star Wars _, he became convinced of the potential of large scale, effects-driven films. He accepted the job of directing _ Alien _, the 1979 horror/science-fiction film that would win him international success. Scott made the decision to switch Ellen Ripley from the standard male action hero to a heroine . Ripley (played by Sigourney Weaver ), who appeared in the first four _Alien_ films, would become a cinematic icon. The final scene of John Hurt 's character has been named by a number of publications as one of the most memorable in cinematic history. Filmed at Shepperton Studios in England, _Alien_ was the sixth highest-grossing film of 1979 , earning over $104 million worldwide. Scott was involved in the 2003 restoration and re-release of the original film. In promotional interviews at the time, Scott indicated he had been in discussions to make a fifth film in the _Alien_ franchise. However, in a 2006 interview, Scott remarked that he had been unhappy about _Alien: The Director's Cut_, feeling that the original was "pretty flawless" and that the additions were merely a marketing tool. Scott later returned to _Alien_-related projects when he directed _Prometheus _ and _Alien: Covenant _ three decades after the original film's release (see 2006 – present section , for more on those films).


Main article: Blade Runner

After a year working on the film adaptation of _Dune _, and following the sudden death of his brother Frank, Scott signed to direct the film version of Philip K. Dick 's novel _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _. Starring Harrison Ford , _Blade Runner_ was a commercial disappointment in cinemas in 1982, but is now regarded as a classic. In 1991, Scott's notes were used by Warner Brothers to create a rushed director\'s cut which removed the main character's voiceover and made a number of other small changes, including to the ending. Later Scott personally supervised a digital restoration of _Blade Runner_ and approved what was called _The Final Cut_. This version was released in Los Angeles, New York City and Toronto cinemas on 5 October 2007, and as an elaborate DVD release in December 2007. Today, _Blade Runner_ is ranked by many critics as one of the most important and influential science fiction films ever made, partly thanks to its much imitated portraits of a future cityscape. It is often discussed along with William Gibson 's novel _ Neuromancer _ as initiating the cyberpunk genre. Scott has described _Blade Runner_ as his "most complete and personal film".


Main article: 1984 (advertisement)

In 1984, Scott directed a big-budget ($900,000) television commercial, "1984 ", to launch Apple 's Macintosh computer. Scott filmed the advertisement in England for about $370,000; which was given a showcase airing in the US on 22 January 1984, during Super Bowl XVIII , alongside screenings in cinemas. Some consider this advertisement a "watershed event" in advertising and a "masterpiece". _ Advertising Age _ placed it top of its list of the 50 greatest commercials.

Set in a dystopian future modelled after George Orwell 's _Nineteen Eighty-Four _, Scott's advertisement used its heroine (portrayed by English athlete Anya Major ) to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by her white tank top adorned with a picture of the Apple Macintosh computer) as a means of saving humanity from "conformity" (Big Brother ), an allusion to IBM , at that time the dominant force in computing.


Main article: Legend (1985 film)

In 1985, Scott directed _Legend _, a fantasy film produced by Arnon Milchan . Scott decided to create a "once upon a time" tale set in a world of princesses, unicorns and goblins, filming almost entirely inside the studio. Scott cast Tom Cruise as the film's hero, Jack, Mia Sara as Princess Lili and Tim Curry as the Satan -horned Lord of Darkness. Scott had a forest set built on the 007 Stage at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire, with trees 60 feet high and trunks 30 feet in diameter. In the final stages of filming, the forest set was destroyed by fire; Jerry Goldsmith 's original score was used for European release, but replaced in North America with a score by Tangerine Dream . Rob Bottin provided the film's Academy Award-nominated make-up effects, most notably Curry's red-coloured Satan figure. Though a major commercial failure on release, the film has gone on to become a cult classic . The 2002 Director's Cut restored Goldsmith's original score.



Scott made _Someone to Watch Over Me _, a romantic thriller starring Tom Berenger and Mimi Rogers in 1987, and _Black Rain _ (1989), a police drama starring Michael Douglas and Andy García , shot partially in Japan. Both achieved mild success at the box office. _Black Rain_ was the first of Scott's six collaborations with the composer Hans Zimmer .

Road film _Thelma ">_ Scott speaking with Prometheus _ stars Charlize Theron and Michael Fassbender at Wondercon 2012 in Anaheim, California on 17 March 2012

On 31 July 2009, news surfaced of a two-part prequel to _Alien_ with Scott attached to direct. The project, ultimately reduced to a single film called _Prometheus _, which Scott described as sharing "strands of _Alien'_s DNA" while not being a direct prequel, was released in June 2012. The film starred Charlize Theron and Michael Fassbender , with Noomi Rapace playing the leading role of the scientist named Elizabeth Shaw. The film received mostly positive reviews and grossed $403 million at the box office.

In August 2009, Scott planned to direct an adaptation of Aldous Huxley 's _ Brave New World _ set in a dystopian London with Leonardo DiCaprio . In 2009, the TV Series _ The Good Wife _ premiered with Ridley and his brother Tony credited as executive producers. On 6 July 2010, YouTube announced the launch of _Life in a Day _, an experimental documentary executive produced by Scott. Released at the Sundance Film Festival on 27 January 2011, it incorporates footage shot on 24 July 2010 submitted by YouTube users from around the world. As part of the buildup to the 2012 London Olympics , Scott produced _ Britain in a Day _, a documentary film consisting of footage shot by the British public on 12 November 2011.


In 2012, Scott produced the commercial for Lady Gaga 's fragrance, "Fame ." It was touted as the first ever black Eau de Parfum, in the informal credits attached to the trailer for this advertisement. On 24 June 2013, Scott's series _Crimes of the Century_ debuted on CNN . In November 2012 it was announced that Scott would produce the documentary, _Springsteen and _ The Good Wife _ (2009–2016), a legal drama about an attorney balancing her job with her husband, a former state attorney trying to rebuild his political career after a major scandal. The two Scotts also produced a 2010 film adaptation of 1980s television show _ The A-Team _, directed by Joe Carnahan .

Scott was an executive producer of the first season of Amazon's _The Man in the High Castle _ (2015–16). Scott, through his Scott Free Productions , is an executive producer on the dark comic science-fiction series _BrainDead _ which debuted on CBS in 2016.


_ Scott with his partner Giannina Facio at the world premiere of The Martian _ held at the Toronto International Film Festival on 11 September 2015

Ridley Scott was married to Felicity Heywood from 1964 to 1975. The couple had two sons, Jake and Luke , both of whom work as directors on Scott's production company, Ridley Scott Associates. Scott later married advertising executive Sandy Watson in 1979, with whom he had a daughter, Jordan Scott , and divorced in 1989. His current partner is the actress Giannina Facio , whom he has cast in all his films since _White Squall _ except _American Gangster _ and _The Martian _. He divides his time between homes in London, France and Los Angeles.

His eldest brother Frank died, aged 45, of skin cancer in 1980. His younger brother Tony , who was also his business partner in their company Scott Free , died on 19 August 2012 at the age of 68 after jumping from the Vincent Thomas Bridge which spans Los Angeles Harbor, after a long struggle with cancer. Before Tony's death, he and Ridley collaborated on a miniseries based on Robin Cook 's novel, _Coma _ for A&E . The two-part miniseries premiered on A the _LA Times_ critic Sheila Benson, for example, would call the latter "Blade Crawler" "because it's so damn slow". Another technique he employs is use of sound or music to build tension, as heard in _Alien_, with hissing steam, beeping computers and the noise of the machinery in the space ship. Scott claims to have an eidetic memory , which he says aids him in visualising and storyboarding the scenes in his films.

Scott has developed a method for filming intricate shots as swiftly as possible: "I like working, always, with a minimum of three cameras. So those 50 set-ups might only be 25 set-ups except I'm covering in the set-up. So you're finished. I mean, if you take a little bit more time to prep on three cameras, or if it's a big stunt, eleven cameras, and – whilst it may take 45 minutes to set up – then when you're ready you say 'Action!', and you do three takes, two takes and is everybody happy? You say, 'Yeah, that's it.' So you move on."

Artificial intelligence is a unifying theme throughout Scott's career as a director, particularly in _ Blade Runner _, _ Alien _, and _Prometheus_. The recent book _The Culture and Philosophy of Ridley Scott_ identifies Alan Turing and John Searle , a professor at the University of California, as presenting relevant models of testing artificial intelligence known as the Turing test and the Chinese Room Thought Experiment, respectively, in the chapter titled "What's Wrong with Building Replicants," which has been a recurring theme for many of Scott's films. The chapter titled "Artificial Intelligence in _Blade Runner_, _Alien_, and _Prometheus_," concludes by citing the writings of John Stuart Mill in the context of Scott's Nexus-6 Replicants in _Blade Runner_ (Rutger Hauer), the android Ash (Ian Holm) in _Alien_, and the android David (Michael Fassbender) in _Prometheus_, where Mill is applied to assert that measures and tests of intelligence must also assess actions and moral behaviour in androids to effectively address the themes which Scott explores in these films.


Scott is known for his enthusiasm for the DVD format, providing audio commentaries and interviews for all his films where possible. In the July 2006 issue of _ Total Film _ magazine, he stated: "After all the work we go through, to have it run in the cinema and then disappear forever is a great pity. To give the film added life is really cool for both those who missed it and those who really loved it."

Running alongside his enthusiasm for DVD, Scott is known for his use of the director\'s cut . The positive reaction to the _Blade Runner_ Director's Cut encouraged Scott to re-cut several movies that were a disappointment at the time of their release (including _Legend_ and _Kingdom of Heaven_), which have been met with acclaim. Today the practice of alternative cuts is more commonplace, though often as a way to make a film stand out in the DVD marketplace by adding new material.


Main article: Ridley Scott filmography


Sir Ridley Scott, Honorary Doctor, at the Royal College of Art , July 2015

Scott was made a Knight Bachelor in the 2003 New Year Honours for his substantial contribution to the British film industry. He received his accolade from Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace on 8 July 2003. Scott admitted feeling "stunned and truly humbled" after the ceremony, saying, "As a boy growing up in South Shields , I could never have imagined that I would receive such a special recognition. I am truly humbled to receive this treasured award and believe it also further recognises the excellence of the British film industry."

The Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted him in 2007. In 2011, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame . He has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing —_Thelma & Louise_, _Gladiator_ and _Black Hawk Down_—as well as a Golden Globe, BAFTA and 2 Primetime Emmy Awards . In 1995, Ridley and his brother Tony received the BAFTA for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema .

In 2012, Scott was among the British cultural icons selected by artist Sir Peter Blake to appear in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles' _Sgt. Pepper\'s Lonely Hearts Club Band _ album cover – to celebrate the British cultural figures of his life that he most admires to mark his 80th birthday.

On 3 July 2015, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Royal College of Art in a ceremony at the Royal Albert Hall in London at which he described how he still keeps on his office wall his school report placing him 31st out of 31 in his class, and how his teacher encouraged him to pursue what became his passion at art school.


Academy Awards 1991 Best Director _ Thelma & Louise _ Nominated

2000 _Gladiator _ Nominated

2001 _Black Hawk Down _ Nominated

2015 Best Picture _The Martian _ Nominated

American Film Institute 2002 Director of the Year _Black Hawk Down_ Nominated

Movie of the Year Nominated

BAFTA 1991 Best Director _Thelma & Louise_ Nominated

2000 _Gladiator_ Nominated

2015 _The Martian_ Nominated

1995 Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema


Cannes 1977 Best Debut Film Award _ The Duellists _ Won

Palme d'Or Nominated

Directors Guild of America 1991 Best Director – Motion Picture _Thelma & Louise_ Nominated

2001 _Gladiator_ Nominated

2002 _Black Hawk Down_ Nominated

2015 _The Martian_ Nominated

2016 Lifetime Achievement Award


Emmy Awards 2000 Outstanding Made for Television Movie _ RKO 281 _ Nominated

2002 _The Gathering Storm _ Won

2008 Outstanding Miniseries _The Andromeda Strain _ Nominated

2009 Outstanding Made for Television Movie _Into the Storm _ Nominated

2010 Outstanding Drama Series _ The Good Wife _ Nominated

2011 Nominated

Outstanding Miniseries or Movie _The Pillars of the Earth _ Nominated

Outstanding Nonfiction Special _Gettysburg _ Won

2014 Outstanding Television Movie _Killing Kennedy _ Nominated

2015 _Killing Jesus _ Nominated

Golden Globe Awards 2000 Best Director – Motion Picture _Gladiator_ Nominated

2007 _American Gangster _ Nominated

2015 _The Martian_ Nominated

2015 Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy _The Martian_ Won

National Board of Review 2015 Best Director _The Martian_ Won

Saturn Awards 1979 Best Director _ Alien _ Won

Best Science Fiction film Won

1983 Best Director _ Blade Runner _ Nominated

2001 _Gladiator_ Nominated

2004 The George Pal Memorial Award


2015 Best Director _The Martian_ Won

Satellite Awards 2001 Best Director _Gladiator_ Nominated

2015 _The Martian_ Nominated

Visual Effects Society 2015 Lifetime Achievement Award




1977 _ The Duellists _ Par.


1979 _ Alien _ Fox $80,931,801 $104,931,801 757 $3,527,881 91 $11,000,000

1982 _ Blade Runner _ WB $32,768,670 $33,139,618 1,325 $6,150,002 1,295 $28,000,000

1985 _Legend _ Uni. $15,502,112 $15,502,112 1,187 $4,261,154 1,187 $30,000,000

1987 _Someone to Watch Over Me _ Col. $10,278,549 $10,278,549 894 $2,908,796 892 $17,000,000

1989 _Black Rain _ Par. $46,212,055 $134,212,055 1,760 $9,677,102 1,610 $30,000,000

1991 _Thelma border:solid #aaa 1px">

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* Scott Free Productions


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* ^ Sources that refer to the final scene of Hurt's character in _Alien_ as one of the most memorable in cinematic history include these:

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Retrieved 26 November 2014. * ^ Busch, Anita (October 6, 2016). "‘Blade Runner’ Sequel Finally Has A Title, Will Offer VR Experiences For Film Through Oculus – Update". _ Deadline.com _. Retrieved October 6, 2016. * ^ Fleming, Mike (8 January 2016). " Ridley Scott Captivated By \'The Prisoner\', Film Version of Patrick McGoohan TV Series". Retrieved 9 January 2016. * ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (13 March 2017). " Ridley Scott To Next Helm Getty Kidnap Drama; Natalie Portman Courted". _Deadline_. Retrieved 13 March 2017. * ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (31 March 2017). "Michelle Williams, Kevin Spacey, Mark Wahlberg Circling Ridley Scott’s Getty Kidnap Film". _Deadline_. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ " Ridley Scott Reteaming with Drew Goddard for Western ‘Wraiths of the Broken Land’ ". Collider. Retrieved 10 May 2016 * ^ " Ridley Scott to direct Battle of Britain \'passion project\' movie". The Guardian. 5 April 2017. * ^ Hicks, Corporal. "Alien: Covenant 2 to Start Shooting in 14 Months?". * ^ " Ridley Scott to remake The A-Team". _ BBC News Online _. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ Fleming, Michael (27 January 2009). "Fox assembles \'A-Team\'". Variety. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ "Watch The Man in the High Castle Season 1 Episode – Amazon Video". _www.amazon.com_. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ "BrainDead". _Backstage_. Retrieved 18 August 2016. * ^ "Ridley Scott". _Hollywood.com_. Retrieved 18 August 2016. * ^ Lloyd, Robert (13 June 2016). "\'The Good Wife\'s\' creators are back with the imperfect but fun \'Braindead\' mixing D.C politics ... and bugs from space.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 August 2016. * ^ Jordan Scott on IMDb * ^ Biography for Ridley Scott on IMDb * ^ "Sir Ridley Scott: Hollywood visionary". BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ Harper, Tom; Jury, Louise (20 August 2012). "Hollywood pays tribute to Top Gun director Tony Scott following suicide leap". _ London Evening Standard _. Retrieved 5 September 2012. * ^ "Coma – Reviews, Ratings, Credits and More". Metacritic . 31 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012. * ^ Sternbergh, Adam (25 October 2013). "Ridley Scott: ‘Most Novelists Are Desperate to Do What I Do’". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 26 October 2013. * ^ "Tony Scott\'s Spirit Possesses Ridley Scott\'s The Counselor". Roger Ebert. 4 January 2015. * ^ "Golden Globes 2016 ceremony – in pictures". The Guardian. 30 January 2016. * ^ Carnevale, Rob (September 24, 2014). "Calling the Shots No.41: Ridley Scott". _ BBC _. Retrieved July 22, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _American Gangster_ DVD, _Fallen Empire: The Making of American Gangster_ documentary * ^ Caldwell, David. "Paul M. Sammon interview". BRmovie.com. Retrieved 6 March 2010. * ^ ""Prometheus" Crew: On A Mission Collision". _Philippine Daily Inquirer_. 29 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012. * ^ "Yahoo! Movies: Ridley Scott". Yahoo!. 30 November 1937. Retrieved 6 March 2010. * ^ "Ridley Scott: ‘Magic comes over the horizon every day’ Hero Complex – movies, comics, pop culture". _Los Angeles Times_. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2014. * ^ _The Culture and Philosophy of Ridley Scott_, p. 121-142, Lexington Books, 2013. * ^ _The Culture and Philosophy of Ridley Scott_, p. 136-142, Lexington Books, 2013. * ^ _The Culture and Philosophy of Ridley Scott_, p. 140-142, Lexington Books, 2013. * ^ "New Year\'s Honours List". _London Gazette_ (56797 Supplement 1): 1. 30 December 2002. Retrieved 4 October 2015. * ^ "Film director Ridley tops showbiz honours list". @MailOnline. Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ "Science Fiction Hall of Fame to Induct Ed Emshwiller, Gene Roddenberry, Ridley Scott and Gene Wolfe". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) . Press release March/April/May 2007. Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame (_empsfm.org_). Archived 14 October 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2013. * ^ Hollywood stars for Simon Fuller and Sir Ridley Scott _ BBC News _. Retrieved 20 June 2010. * ^ "New faces on Sgt Pepper album cover for artist Peter Blake\'s 80th birthday". The Guardian. 5 October 2016. * ^ "RCA Convocation 2015". RCA . Retrieved 13 July 2015. * ^ "Honorary Doctors". RCA. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015. * ^ "1492: Conquest of Paradise: Box Office / Busieness for". Retrieved 13 October 2015.


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