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Rickettsea aeschlimannii[1] Rickettsiae africae[2] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
akari[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
asiatica[4] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
australis[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
canadensis[3][5] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
conorii[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
cooleyi[6] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
felis[7] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
heilongjiangensis Rickettsia
Rickettsia
helvetica Rickettsia
Rickettsia
honei Rickettsia
Rickettsia
hulinii Rickettsia
Rickettsia
japonica Rickettsia
Rickettsia
massiliae Rickettsia
Rickettsia
monacensis Rickettsia
Rickettsia
montanensis Rickettsia
Rickettsia
parkeri[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
peacockii Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rhipicephali Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
sibirica[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
slovaca Rickettsia
Rickettsia
tamurae Rickettsia
Rickettsia
typhi[3] etc.

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
is a genus of nonmotile, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long). The term rickettsia, named after Howard Taylor Ricketts, is often used interchangeably for any member of the Rickettsiales. Being obligate intracellular parasites, the Rickettsia
Rickettsia
survival depends on entry, growth, and replication within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells (typically endothelial cells).[8] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
cannot live in artificial nutrient environments and is grown either in tissue or embryo cultures; typically, chicken embryos are used, following a method developed by Ernest William Goodpasture
Ernest William Goodpasture
and his colleagues at Vanderbilt University
Vanderbilt University
in the early 1930s. Rickettsia
Rickettsia
species are transmitted by numerous types of arthropod, including chigger, ticks, fleas, and lice, and are associated with both human and plant disease. Most notably, Rickettsia
Rickettsia
species are the pathogens responsible for typhus, rickettsialpox, Boutonneuse fever, African tick bite fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Flinders Island spotted fever and Queensland tick typhus (Australian tick typhus).[9] Despite the similar name, Rickettsia
Rickettsia
bacteria do not cause rickets, which is a result of vitamin D deficiency. The majority of Rickettsia bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics of the tetracycline group.

Contents

1 Classification

1.1 Spotted fever group 1.2 Typhus
Typhus
group 1.3 Scrub typhus
Scrub typhus
group

2 Flora and fauna pathogenesis 3 Pathophysiology 4 Genomics 5 Naming 6 References 7 External links

Classification[edit] The classification of Rickettsia
Rickettsia
into three groups (spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus) was initially based on serology. This grouping has since been confirmed by DNA sequencing. All three of these contain human pathogens. The scrub typhus group has been reclassified as a related new genus – Orientia
Orientia
– but many medical textbooks still list this group under the rickettsial diseases. Rickettsia
Rickettsia
are more widespread than previously believed and are known to be associated with arthropods, leeches, and protists. Divisions have also been identified in the spotted fever group and this group likely should be divided into two clades.[10] Arthropod-inhabiting rickettsiae are generally associated with reproductive manipulation (such as parthenogenesis) to persist in host lineage [11] In March 2010, Swedish researchers reported a case of bacterial meningitis in a woman caused by Rickettsia helvetica previously thought to be harmless.[12]

Schematic ribosomal RNA phylogeny of Alphaproteobacteria

  Magnetococcidae  

   Magnetococcus marinus

  Caulobacteridae
Caulobacteridae
 

   Rhodospirillales, Sphingomonadales,   Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, etc.

   Holosporales

  Rickettsidae
Rickettsidae
 

  Pelagibacterales
Pelagibacterales
 

  Pelagibacteraceae
Pelagibacteraceae
 

   Pelagibacter

   Subgroups Ib, II, IIIa, IIIb, IV and V

   Proto-mitochondria

  Anaplasmataceae  

   Ehrlichia

   Anaplasma

   Wolbachia

   Neorickettsia

  Midichloriaceae  

   Midichloria

  Rickettsiaceae  

   Rickettsia

The cladogram of Rickettsidae
Rickettsidae
has been inferred by Ferla et al. [13] from the comparison of 16S + 23S ribosomal RNA
23S ribosomal RNA
sequences.

Spotted fever group[edit]

Rickettsia rickettsii
Rickettsia rickettsii
(Western Hemisphere)

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rickettsia akari (USA, former Soviet Union)

Rickettsialpox

Rickettsia conorii
Rickettsia conorii
(Mediterranean countries, Africa, Southwest Asia, India)

Boutonneuse fever

Rickettsia sibirica
Rickettsia sibirica
(Siberia, Mongolia, northern China)

Siberian tick typhus or North Asian tick typhus

Rickettsia australis (Australia)

Australian tick typhus

Rickettsia felis (North and South America, Southern Europe, Australia)

Flea-borne spotted fever

Rickettsia japonica (Japan)

Oriental spotted fever

Rickettsia africae (South Africa)

African tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
hoogstraalii (Croatia, Spain and Georgia USA)[14]

Unknown pathogenicity

Typhus
Typhus
group[edit]

Rickettsia prowazekii (worldwide)

Epidemic typhus, recrudescent typhus, and sporadic typhus

Rickettsia typhi (worldwide)

Murine typhus
Murine typhus
(endemic typhus)

Scrub typhus
Scrub typhus
group[edit]

The causative agent of scrub typhus formerly known as R. tsutsugamushi has been reclassified into the genus Orientia.

Flora and fauna pathogenesis[edit] Plant diseases have been associated with these Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs):[15]

Beet latent rosette RLO Citrus greening bacterium possibly this citrus greening disease Clover leaf RLO Grapevine infectious necrosis RLO Grapevine Pierce's RLO Grapevine yellows RLO Witch's broom
Witch's broom
disease on Larix
Larix
spp. Peach phony RLO Papaya Bunchy Top Disease [16]

Infection occurs in nonhuman mammals; for example, species of Rickettsia
Rickettsia
have been found to afflict the South American
South American
guanaco, Lama guanacoe.[17] Pathophysiology[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2013)

Main article: Typhus Rickettsial organisms are obligate intracellular parasites and invade vascular endothelial cells in target organs, damaging them and producing increased vascular permeability with consequent oedema, hypotension, and hypoalbuminaemia.[18] Genomics[edit] Certain segments of rickettsial genomes resemble those of mitochondria.[19] The deciphered genome of R. prowazekii is 1,111,523 bp long and contains 834 genes.[20] Unlike free-living bacteria, it contains no genes for anaerobic glycolysis or genes involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of amino acids and nucleosides. In this regard, it is similar to mitochondrial genomes; in both cases, nuclear (host) resources are used. ATP production in Rickettsia
Rickettsia
is the same as that in mitochondria. In fact, of all the microbes known, the Rickettsia
Rickettsia
is probably the closest relative (in a phylogenetic sense) to the mitochondria. Unlike the latter, the genome of R. prowazekii, however, contains a complete set of genes encoding for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain complex. Still, the genomes of the Rickettsia, as well as the mitochondria, are frequently said to be "small, highly derived products of several types of reductive evolution". The recent discovery of another parallel between Rickettsia
Rickettsia
and viruses may become a basis for fighting HIV
HIV
infection.[21] Human immune response to the scrub typhus pathogen, Orientia
Orientia
tsutsugamushi, appears to provide a beneficial effect against HIV
HIV
infection progress, negatively influencing the virus replication process. A probable reason for this actively studied phenomenon is a certain degree of homology between the rickettsiae and the virus – namely, common epitope(s) due to common genome fragment(s) in both pathogens. Surprisingly, the other infection reported to be likely to provide the same effect (decrease in viral load) is the virus-caused illness dengue fever. Comparative analysis of genomic sequences have also identified five conserved signature indels in important proteins which are uniquely found in members of the genus Rickettsia. These indels consist of a four-amino-acid insertion in transcription repair coupling factor Mfd, a 10-amino-acid insertion in ribosomal protein L19, a one-amino-acid insertion in FtsZ, a one-amino-acid insertion in major sigma factor 70, and a one-amino-acid deletion in exonuclease VII. These indels are all characteristic of the genus and serve as molecular markers for Rickettsia.[22] Bacterial small RNAs play critical roles in virulence and stress/adaptation responses. Although their specific functions have not been discovered in Rickettsia, few studies showed the expression of novel sRNA in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) infected with Rickettsia.[23][24] Naming[edit] The genus Rickettsia
Rickettsia
is named after Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871–1910), who studied Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
in the Bitterroot Valley
Bitterroot Valley
of Montana, and eventually died of typhus after studying that disease in Mexico City. References[edit]

^ Beati, L.; Meskini, M., et al. (1997), " Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii sp. nov., a new spotted fever group rickettsia associated with Hyalomma marginatum ticks", Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2): 548-55s4 ^ Kelly P.J.; Beati L.; et al. (1996). " Rickettsia africae sp. nov., the etiological agent of African tick bite fever". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 46 (2): 611–614. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-2-611.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Skerman, VBD; McGowan, V; Sneath, PHA, eds. (1989). Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (amended ed.). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology  ^ Fujita, H.; Fournier, P.-E., et al. (2006), " Rickettsia asiatica sp. nov., isolated in Japan", Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56 (Pt 10): 2365–2368 ^ Truper H.G.; De' Clari L. (1997). "Taxonomic note: Necessary correction of specific epithets formed as substantives (nouns) 'in apposition'". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (3): 908–909. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-3-908.  ^ Billings A.N.; Teltow G.J.; et al. (1998). "Molecular characterization of a novel Rickettsia
Rickettsia
species from Ixodes scapularis in Texas" (PDF). Emerg Infect Dis. 4 (2): 305–309. doi:10.3201/eid0402.980221.  ^ La Scola, B.; Meconi, S., et al. (2002), "Emended description of Rickettsia felis (Bouyer et al. 2001), a temperature-dependent cultured bacterium", Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (Pt 6): 2035–2041 ^ Walker DH (1996). Baron S; et al., eds. Rickettsiae. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (via NCBI Bookshelf).  ^ Unsworth NB, Stenos J, Graves SR, et al. (April 2007). "Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses caused by "marmionii" strain of Rickettsia
Rickettsia
honei, Eastern Australia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (4): 566–73. doi:10.3201/eid1304.050087. PMC 2725950 . PMID 17553271.  ^ Gillespie J.J.; Beeir M.S.; Rahman M.S.; Ammerman N.C.; Shallom J.M.; Purkayastha A.; Sobral B.S.; Azad A.F. (2007). "Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from ' Rickettsia
Rickettsia
felis'". PLoS ONE. 2 (3): e266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000266. PMC 1800911 . PMID 17342200.  . ^ Perlman, S.J.; Hunter, M.S.; Zchori-Fein, E. (2006). "The emerging diversity of 'Rickettsia'". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1598): 2097–2106. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3541. PMC 1635513 . PMID 16901827.  ^ " Rickettsia helvetica in Patient with Meningitis, Sweden, 2006" Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 16, Number 3 - March 2010 ^ Ferla, M. P.; Thrash, J. C.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Patrick, W. M. (2013). "New rRNA gene-based phylogenies of the Alphaproteobacteria provide perspective on major groups, mitochondrial ancestry and phylogenetic instability". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e83383. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083383. PMC 3859672 . PMID 24349502.  ^ Duh, D., V. Punda-Polic, T. Avsic-Zupanc, D. Bouyer, D.H. Walker, V.L. Popov, M. Jelovsek, M. Gracner, T. Trilar, N. Bradaric, T.J. Kurtti and J. Strus. (2010) Rickettsia
Rickettsia
hoogstraalii sp. nov., isolated from hard- and soft-bodied ticks. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 60, 977-984; http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/60/4/977, accessed 16 July 2010. ^ Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliot RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA (1988). European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISBN 0-632-01222-6.  ^ Davis, M. J. 1996 ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Guanaco: Lama guanicoe, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Strömberg Archived 4 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rathore, Mobeen H (14 June 2016). "Rickettsial infection: Overview". Medscape. Retrieved 16 November 2017.  ^ Emelyanov VV (2003). "Mitochondrial connection to the origin of the eukaryotic cell". Eur J Biochem. 270 (8): 1599–618. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03499.x. PMID 12694174.  ^ Andersson SG, et al. (1998). "The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria". Nature. 396 (6707): 133–40. doi:10.1038/24094. PMID 9823893.  ^ Kannangara S, DeSimone JA, Pomerantz RJ (2005). "Attenuation of HIV-1 infection by other microbial agents". J Infect Dis. 192 (6): 1003–9. doi:10.1086/432767. PMID 16107952.  ^ Gupta, Radhey S. (January 2005). "Protein Signatures Distinctive of Alpha Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
and Its Subgroups and a Model for α –Proteobacterial Evolution". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 31 (2): 101–135. doi:10.1080/10408410590922393. PMID 15986834.  ^ Schroeder, Casey L. C.; Narra, Hema P.; Rojas, Mark; Sahni, Abha; Patel, Jignesh; Khanipov, Kamil; Wood, Thomas G.; Fofanov, Yuriy; Sahni, Sanjeev K. (2015-12-18). "Bacterial small RNAs in the Genus Rickettsia". BMC Genomics. 16: 1075. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-2293-7. ISSN 1471-2164. PMC 4683814 . PMID 26679185.  ^ Schroeder, Casey L. C.; Narra, Hema P.; Sahni, Abha; Rojas, Mark; Khanipov, Kamil; Patel, Jignesh; Shah, Riya; Fofanov, Yuriy; Sahni, Sanjeev K. (2016). "Identification and Characterization of Novel Small RNAs in Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 859. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00859. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 4896933 . PMID 27375581. 

External links[edit]

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID African Tick
Tick
Bite Fever from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Raw Living Radio Interview 3 Show Series in HD 2014 from the EarthShiftProject.com an Educational and Informational Research Organization welcoming More participation

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q627992 EoL: 97609 EPPO: 1RICKG GBIF: 3221436 ITIS: 957982 NCBI: 780

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