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Richard Stuart Linklater (/ˈlɪŋkleɪtər/; born July 30, 1960)[2] is an American filmmaker and actor. Linklater is mostly known for his realistic and natural humanist films which revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time. Some notable films of his include the observational comedy film Slacker (1990); the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused (1993); the romantic drama film trilogy Before Sunrise (1995), Before Sunset (2004), and Before Midnight (2013); the music-themed comedy School of Rock
School of Rock
(2003); and the rotoscope animated films Waking Life
Waking Life
(2001) and A Scanner Darkly (2006). In 2002, he began filming Boyhood (2014), a passion project which took over twelve years to complete. The film was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim. Linklater won the Golden Globes, Critics' Choice Movie Awards, and BAFTAs for Best Director and Best Picture. He also received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director, along with nominations for Best Original Screenplay and Best Picture. In 2015, Linklater was included on the annual Time
Time
100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.[3] Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative; several of his projects—the Before... films and Boyhood—feature the same actors filmed over an extended period of years. He is also known for loyalty to his actors, having worked with Ethan Hawke
Ethan Hawke
and Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
in many of his films. In February of 2018, it was announced that Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
had already been working on a secret film project centered around the time of the 1969 moon landing.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Austin Film Society 2.2 Early directing 2.3 21st century

3 Significance 4 Filmography

4.1 Feature films 4.2 Other works

5 Reception

5.1 Critical reception 5.2 Box office

6 Awards and nominations 7 References 8 External links

Early life[edit] Linklater was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Diane Margaret (née Krieger), who taught at Sam Houston
Houston
State University, and Charles W. Linklater, III.[4][5] He attended Huntsville High School in Huntsville, Texas, during grades 9–11, and finished at Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas
Bellaire, Texas
for his senior year. As a teen, Linklater also won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award.[6] Linklater studied at Sam Houston
Houston
State University (where he also played baseball),[7] until dropping out to work on an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. He frequently read novels on the rig and, upon returning to land, developed a love of film through repeated visits to a repertory theater in Houston. At this point, Linklater realized he wanted to be a filmmaker. He used his savings to buy a Super-8 camera, a projector, and editing equipment, and moved to Austin, Texas. He was influenced by Martin Scorsese,[8][9] Robert Bresson, Yasujirō Ozu, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Josef Von Sternberg, and Carl Theodor Dreyer.[10][11] He enrolled in Austin Community College
Austin Community College
in the fall of 1984 to study film.[12] Since his early 20s, Linklater has been a vegetarian. In 2015, he explained the dietary lifestyle in a Boyhood-style documentary for PETA.[13] Career[edit] Austin Film Society[edit] Linklater founded the Austin Film Society in 1985 together with his frequent collaborator Lee Daniel. One of the mentors for the Film Society was former New York City critic for the Soho Weekly News George Morris who had relocated to Austin and taught film there. Morris had previously written articles on Leo McCarey, Vincente Minnelli, George Sidney, and Douglas Sirk. Early directing[edit] For several years, Linklater made many short films that were exercises and experiments in film techniques. He finally completed his first feature, the rarely seen It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books (which is now available in The Criterion Collection
The Criterion Collection
edition of his second feature, Slacker), a Super-8 feature that took a year to shoot and another year to edit. The film is significant in the sense that it establishes most of Linklater's preoccupations. The film has his trademark style of minimal camera movements and lack of narrative, while it examines the theme of traveling with no real particular direction in mind. These idiosyncrasies would be explored in greater detail in future projects. To this end Linklater created Detour Filmproduction (an homage to the 1945 low budget film noir by Edgar G. Ulmer), and subsequently made Slacker for only $23,000. It went on to gross more than $1.25 million. The film is an aimless day in the life of the city of Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
showcasing its more eccentric characters. Inspiration for Linklater's work was largely based on his experience viewing the film Raging Bull, Linklater told Robert K. Elder in an interview for The Film That Changed My Life.[14]

It made me see movies as a potential outlet for what I was thinking about and hoping to express. At that point I was an unformed artist. At that moment, something was simmering in me, but Raging Bull
Raging Bull
brought it to a boil.[15]

While gaining a cult following in the independent film world, he made his third film, Dazed and Confused, based on his years at Huntsville High School and the people he encountered there. The film garnered critical praise and grossed $8 million in the United States while becoming a hit on VHS. This film was also responsible for the breakout of fellow Texas native Matthew McConaughey. In 1995, Linklater won the Silver Bear for Best Director for the film Before Sunrise at the 45th Berlin International Film Festival.[16] His next feature, subUrbia, had mixed reviews critically, and did very poorly at the box office. In 1996, Linklater lent his voice to the critically acclaimed animated feature Beavis and Butt-Head Do America. In 1998, he took on his first Hollywood feature, The Newton Boys, which received mixed reviews while tanking at the box office. 21st century[edit] With the rotoscope films Waking Life
Waking Life
and A Scanner Darkly, and his mainstream comedies, School of Rock
School of Rock
and the remake of Bad News Bears, he gained wider recognition. In 2003, he wrote and directed a pilot for HBO
HBO
with Rodney Rothman called $5.15/hr, about several minimum wage restaurant workers. The pilot deals with themes later examined in Fast Food Nation. In 2004, the British television network Channel 4 produced a major documentary about Linklater, in which the filmmaker frankly discussed the personal and philosophical ideas behind his films. St Richard of Austin was presented by Ben Lewis and directed by Irshad Ashraf and broadcast on Channel 4 in December 2004 in the UK. In 2005, Linklater was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for his film Before Sunset, and was nominated for the same award with its sequel Before Midnight in 2014. Many of Linklater's films take place in one day, a narrative approach that has gained popularity in recent years. Slacker, Dazed and Confused, Tape, Before Sunrise, Before Sunset, and Before Midnight are examples of this method. Two of his films, (A Scanner Darkly and Waking Life), used rotoscoping animation techniques. Working with Bob Sabiston and Sabiston's program Rotoshop to create this effect, Linklater shot and edited both movies completely as live action features, then employed a team of artists to "trace over" individual frames. The result is a distinctive "semi-real" quality, praised by such critics as Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
(in the case of Waking Life) as being original and well-suited to the aims of the film. Fast Food Nation (2006) is an adaptation of the best selling book that examines the local and global influence of the United States fast food industry. The film was entered into the 2006 Cannes Film Festival[17] before being released in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. After releasing Fast Food Nation to mixed reviews, Linklater returned to form as a critical darling with A Scanner Darkly (released in the same year), 2009's Me and Orson Welles garnering an 85% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, and 2012's Bernie receiving a 91% rating.[18] In 2014 he released a film in the making for 12 years titled Boyhood, which received overwhelming critical acclaim. His daughter Lorelei Linklater co-stars in the film as the sister of the central character. For a while Linklater was attached to direct a remake of The Incredible Mr. Limpet for Warner Brothers.[19] In 2014, however, he dropped the project in favor of working on a spiritual successor to Dazed and Confused, titled Everybody Wants Some!!,[19] with backing from Annapurna Pictures and Paramount distributing the film in North America.[20] The film was released in March 2016 and was well received by critics, but it failed to recoup its budget of 10 million dollars, grossing only 4.6 million.[21][22] In August 2016, it was announced that he will write and direct Last Flag Flying, starring Bryan Cranston, Laurence Fishburne, and Steve Carell. The film is a sequel to Hal Ashby's 1973 film The Last Detail. Filming began in November 2016 and the film is expected to be released on November 3, 2017.[23] Linklater was attached to direct an adaptation of Graeme Simsion's novel The Rosie Project
The Rosie Project
that would have starred Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
in the lead role, but Linklater dropped out of directing when Lawrence dropped out of the project.[24] Linklater is attached to direct an adaptation of Maria Semple's novel Where'd You Go, Bernadette, produced by Annapurna Pictures.[25] Despite the popularity of many of his films and having directed multiple high-paying Hollywood productions, Linklater remains in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
and refuses to live or work in Hollywood for any extended period of time. Linklater is known for using the same actors in many of his films including Ethan Hawke, Jack Black, Matthew McConaughey, Julie Delpy, and Patricia Arquette. Significance[edit] In the early 1990s, Slacker was widely considered an accurate depiction of Generation X
Generation X
because the film's young adult characters are more interested in quasi-intellectual pastimes and socializing than career advancement.[26] However, Linklater has long since eschewed the role of generational spokesperson and is ironically a "Baby Boomer" himself. Moreover, the movie actually includes various generations, and many of its themes are universal rather than generation-specific.[27] Filmography[edit] Feature films[edit]

Year Name Director Writer Producer Actor

1988 It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books Yes Yes Yes Yes

1990 Slacker Yes Yes Yes Yes

1993 Dazed and Confused Yes Yes Yes

1995 Before Sunrise Yes Yes

The Underneath

Yes

1996 Beavis and Butt-Head Do America

Yes

SubUrbia Yes

1998 The Newton Boys Yes Yes

Scotch and Milk

Yes

2001 Spy Kids

Yes

Chelsea Walls

Yes

Waking Life Yes Yes

Yes

Tape Yes

2003 School of Rock Yes

2004 Before Sunset Yes Yes Yes

2005 Bad News Bears Yes

Yes

2006 Fast Food Nation Yes Yes

The Hottest State

Yes

A Scanner Darkly Yes Yes

2008 Me and Orson Welles Yes

Yes

RSO (Registered Sex Offender)

Yes

2011 Bernie Yes Yes Yes Yes

2013 Before Midnight Yes Yes Yes

2014 Boyhood Yes Yes Yes

2015 I Dream Too Much

Yes

2016 Everybody Wants Some!! Yes Yes Yes

2017 Last Flag Flying Yes Yes

2018 Blaze

Yes

2018 Where'd You Go, Bernadette Yes Yes

TBA Untitled John Brinkley Biopic Yes Yes

TBA Untitled 1969 Moon Landing Film Yes Yes

Other works[edit]

Year Name Director Writer Producer Notes

1985 Woodshock Yes

short

1991 Heads I Win/Tails You Lose Yes Yes Yes experimental video project

2003 Live from Shiva's Dance Floor Yes

short

2004 $5.15/Hr. Yes Yes Yes television pilot

2008 Inning by Inning: A Portrait of a Coach Yes

documentary

2012 Up to Speed Yes Yes Yes television series

2016–present School of Rock[28]

Yes television series; executive producer

Reception[edit] Critical reception[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic

Slacker 85%[29] 69[30]

Dazed and Confused 94%[31] 78[32]

Before Sunrise 100%[33] 77[34]

SubUrbia 64%[35] 62[36]

The Newton Boys 62%[37] 57[38]

Waking Life 80%[39] 82[40]

Tape 78%[41] 71[42]

School of Rock 92%[43] 82[44]

Before Sunset 95%[45] 90[46]

Bad News Bears 48%[47] 65[48]

Fast Food Nation 50%[49] 64[50]

A Scanner Darkly 69%[51] 73[52]

Me and Orson Welles 85%[53] 73[54]

Bernie 90%[55] 75[56]

Before Midnight 98%[57] 94[58]

Boyhood 97%[59] 100[60]

Everybody Wants Some!! 88%[61] 83[62]

Last Flag Flying 73%[63] 65[64]

Average 81% 76

Box office[edit]

Film Release date Revenue Budget Reference

United States Outside United States Worldwide

Slacker July 27, 1990 (1990-07-27) $1,228,208 N/A $1,228,208 $23,000 [65]

Dazed and Confused September 24, 1993 (1993-09-24) $7,993,039 N/A $7,993,039 $6.9 million [66]

Before Sunrise January 27, 1995 (1995-01-27) $5,535,405 N/A $5,535,405 $2.5 million [67]

SubUrbia February 7, 1997 (1997-02-07) $656,747 N/A $656,747 N/A [68]

The Newton Boys March 27, 1998 (1998-03-27) $10,452,012 N/A $10,452,012 $27 million [69]

Waking Life October 19, 2001 (2001-10-19) $2,901,447 $275,433 $3,176,880 N/A [70]

Tape November 2, 2001 (2001-11-02) $490,475 $25,425 $515,900 $100,000 [71]

School of Rock October 3, 2003 (2003-10-03) $81,261,177 $50,021,772 $131,282,949 $35 million [72]

Before Sunset July 2, 2004 (2004-07-02) $5,820,649 $10,171,966 $15,992,615 $2.7 million [73]

Bad News Bears July 22, 2005 (2005-07-22) $32,868,349 $1,384,498 $34,252,847 $35 million [74]

A Scanner Darkly July 7, 2006 (2006-07-07) $5,501,616 $2,158,302 $7,659,918 $8.7 million[75] [76]

Fast Food Nation November 17, 2006 (2006-11-17) $1,005,539 $1,203,783 $2,209,322 N/A [77]

Me and Orson Welles November 25, 2009 (2009-11-25) $1,190,003 $1,146,169 $2,336,172 $25 million [78]

Bernie April 27, 2012 (2012-04-27) $9,206,470 $884,171 $10,090,641 $6 million [79]

Before Midnight May 24, 2013 (2013-05-24) $8,114,627 $3,061,842 $23,376,973 $3 million[80] [81]

Boyhood July 11, 2014 (2014-07-11) $25,071,500 $19,143,000 $44,214,500 $4 million [82]

Total $198,132,207 $89,476,361 $287,608,568 $155.923 million

Awards and nominations[edit] Main article: List of accolades received by Richard Linklater

Slacker (1991) was nominated for Best Director at the Independent Spirit Awards. Before Sunrise (1995) won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival. Waking Life
Waking Life
(2001) was nominated for Best Director and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards. Before Sunset (2004) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards. A Scanner Darkly (2006) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association. Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
(2008) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association. Bernie (2011) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association. Before Midnight (2013) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards. Boyhood (2014) was nominated for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, Best Film Editing, Best Supporting Actor, and Best Supporting Actress by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and won Best Supporting Actress for Patricia Arquette. It also won Golden Globes
Golden Globes
for Best Director and Best Motion Picture – Drama, as well as the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 64th Berlin International Film Festival.[83] Received Best Film and Best Director honors from Los Angeles Film Critics Association, Boston Society of Film C,ritics, New York Film Critics Circle, Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association and New York Film Critics Online.

References[edit]

^ http://www.austinchronicle.com/screens/2003-10-03/180136/ ^ According to the State of Texas. Texas Birth Index, 1903–1997. At Ancestry.com ^ "Richard Linklater". Time. Retrieved July 11, 2017.  ^ https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/VD5S-BGQ ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/entertainment/news/article.cfm?c_id=1501119&objectid=11287806 ^ Scholastic Inc., Newsroom, AMERICA’S MOST CREATIVE TEENS NAMED AS NATIONAL 2016 SCHOLASTIC ART & WRITING AWARDS RECIPIENTS ^ Sam Houston
Houston
State University Facebook. "Throwing back to the 1980 #SHSU Baseball team in which writer, director and producer Richard Linklater was a member of. #TBT". 6 April 2016. ^ "Richard Linklater: The director on the humour in Raging Bull, rearing". The Independent. 2015-01-11. Retrieved 2017-07-12.  ^ Elder, Robert K. (2011). The Film That Changed My Life: 30 Directors on Their Epiphanies in the Dark. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 9781569768280.  ^ "10 Films That Had The Biggest Influences On The Films Of Richard Linklater". Taste of Cinema – Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists. Retrieved 2017-02-11.  ^ "Richard Linklater's Top 10". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2017-02-11.  ^ Alison Macor. Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids
Spy Kids
30 Years of Filmmaking in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
University of Texas Press: Austin, 2010. ^ Robert Philpot, " Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
Does ‘Veghood’ for PETA," Star-Telegram, 17 February 2015. ^ "The Film That Changed My Life: 30 Directors on Their Epiphanies in the Dark". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-02-22.  ^ Linklater, Richard. Interview by Robert K. Elder. The Film That Changed My Life. By Robert K. Elder. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011. N. p197. Print. ^ "Berlinale: 1995 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ "Festival de Cannes: Fast Food Nation". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-12-13.  ^ "Rotten Tomatoes: Richard Linklater". Retrieved 2009-12-13.  ^ a b Fischer, Russ. " Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
Leaves 'The Incredible Mr. Limpet' to Focus on 'That's What I'm Talking About'". /Film. Retrieved August 21, 2014.  ^ Patches, Matt (September 30, 2014). "Annapurna to produce Richard Linklater's 'Dazed' spiritual sequel". Retrieved February 15, 2017.  ^ "Everybody Wants Some!! Metascore". Metacritic.com. Retrieved April 27, 2016.  ^ "Everybody Wants Some!! (2016) – Weekend Box Office Results". www.boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved February 14, 2017.  ^ Busch, Anita (28 July 2017). "'Last Flag Flying' Moves To Lionsgate And Up A Week On Release Schedule". Deadline. Retrieved August 18, 2017.  ^ Kit, Borys. " Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
Follows Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
Off Sony's 'Rosie Project' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 22, 2015.  ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (February 26, 2015). "Richard Linklater in Talks to Direct 'Where'd You Go, Bernadette' (Exclusive)". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved February 28, 2015.  ^ Richard Linklater, Slacker, St Martins Griffin, 1992. ^ Lesley Speed, "The Possibilities of Roads Not Taken", Journal of Popular Film & Television, vol. 35, no. 3, Fall 2007, p. 103. ^ "Nickelodeon Upfront 2016". Nick and More. Retrieved 2017-07-12.  ^ "Slacker Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ "Slacker Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ "Dazed and Confused Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ "Dazed and Confused Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ "Fight Club Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ " Before Sunrise Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ "Panic Room Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ "SubUrbia Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ " The Newton Boys
The Newton Boys
Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ " The Newton Boys
The Newton Boys
Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ " Waking Life
Waking Life
Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ " Waking Life
Waking Life
Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ "Tape Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Tape. Metacritic. ^ " School of Rock
School of Rock
Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ School of Rock. Metacritic. ^ " Before Sunset Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ " Before Sunset Reviews – Metacritic". Metacritic.com.  ^ " Bad News Bears
Bad News Bears
Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Bad News Bears. Metacritic. ^ "Fast Food Nation Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Fast Food Nation. Metacritic. ^ "A Scanner Darkly Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ A Scanner Darkly. Metacritic. ^ " Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Me and Orson Welles. Metacritic. ^ "Bernie Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Bernie. Metacritic. ^ "Before Midnight Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Before Midnight. Metacritic. ^ "Boyhood Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ Boyhood. Metacritic. ^ "Everybody wants some!!Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ [1]. Metacritic. ^ " Last Flag Flying Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.  ^ [2]. Metacritic. ^ "Slacker (1991)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Dazed and Confused (1993)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " Before Sunrise (1995)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "SubUrbia (1997)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " The Newton Boys
The Newton Boys
(1998)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " Waking Life
Waking Life
(2001)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Tape (2002)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " School of Rock
School of Rock
(2003)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " Before Sunset (2004)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " Bad News Bears
Bad News Bears
(2005)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ La Franco, Robert (March 2006). "Trouble in Toontown". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "A Scanner Darkly (2006)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Fast Food Nation (2006)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ " Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
(2009)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Bernie (2012)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ Borrelli, Christopher (May 24, 2013). " Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
finishes trilogy with 'Before Midnight'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 29, 2013.  ^ "Before Midnight (2013)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Boyhood (2014)". Box Office Mojo.  ^ "Richard Linklater". allmovie.com. Retrieved June 28, 2013.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutRichard Linklaterat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Data from Wikidata

Official website Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
on IMDb

v t e

Films directed by Richard Linklater

It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books (1988) Slacker (1991) Dazed and Confused (1993) Before Sunrise (1995) subUrbia (1996) The Newton Boys
The Newton Boys
(1998) Waking Life
Waking Life
(2001) Tape (2001) School of Rock
School of Rock
(2003) Before Sunset (2004) Bad News Bears
Bad News Bears
(2005) A Scanner Darkly (2006) Fast Food Nation (2006) Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
(2008) Bernie (2011) Before Midnight (2013) Boyhood (2014) Everybody Wants Some!! (2016) Last Flag Flying (2017) Where'd You Go, Bernadette (2018)

Awards for Richard Linklater

v t e

Silver Bear for Best Director

1956-1979

Robert Aldrich (1956) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1957) Tadashi Imai (1958) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1959) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1960) Bernhard Wicki (1961) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1962) Nikos Koundouros (1963) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1964) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1965) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1966) Živojin Pavlović (1967) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1968) Jean-Pierre Blanc
Jean-Pierre Blanc
(1972) Sergei Solovyov
Sergei Solovyov
(1975) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1976) Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
(1977) Georgi Djulgerov (1978) Astrid Henning-Jensen (1979)

1980-1989

István Szabó
István Szabó
(1980) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1982) Éric Rohmer
Éric Rohmer
(1983) Costas Ferris / Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1984) Robert Benton (1985) Georgiy Shengelaya (1986) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1987) Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(1988) Dušan Hanák (1989)

1990-1999

Michael Verhoeven
Michael Verhoeven
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
/ Ricky Tognazzi
Ricky Tognazzi
(1991) Jan Troell
Jan Troell
(1992) Andrew Birkin (1993) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(1995) Yim Ho / Richard Loncraine (1996) Eric Heumann (1997) Neil Jordan
Neil Jordan
(1998) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(1999)

2000-2009

Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(2000) Lin Cheng-sheng (2001) Otar Iosseliani
Otar Iosseliani
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Kim Ki-duk
Kim Ki-duk
(2004) Marc Rothemund
Marc Rothemund
(2005) Michael Winterbottom
Michael Winterbottom
/ Mat Whitecross (2006) Joseph Cedar (2007) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2008) Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(2009)

2010-2019

Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2010) Ulrich Köhler (2011) Christian Petzold (2012) David Gordon Green
David Gordon Green
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Radu Jude / Malgorzata Szumowska (2015) Mia Hansen-Løve
Mia Hansen-Løve
(2016) Aki Kaurismäki
Aki Kaurismäki
(2017) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(2018)

v t e

BAFTA Award for Best Direction

Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) George Roy Hill (1970) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1971) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1972) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1973) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1974) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(1975) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(1978) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1979) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1980) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) Bill Forsyth
Bill Forsyth
(1983) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1984) no award (1985) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1986) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1987) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1988) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(1989) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1990) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(1991) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Mike Newell (1994) Michael Radford
Michael Radford
(1995) Joel Coen (1996) Baz Luhrmann
Baz Luhrmann
(1997) Peter Weir
Peter Weir
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Peter Weir
Peter Weir
(2003) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Director

Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) Ron Howard
Ron Howard
/ Baz Luhrmann
Baz Luhrmann
(2001) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) George Miller (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award for Best Director

Henry King (1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Robert Rossen
Robert Rossen
(1949) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1950) László Benedek (1951) Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Joshua Logan (1955) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
(1960) Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) David Lean
David Lean
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1968) Charles Jarrott (1969) Arthur Hiller
Arthur Hiller
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1972) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1973) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(1976) Herbert Ross (1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) John Huston
John Huston
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2001) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Julian Schnabel
Julian Schnabel
(2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) James Cameron
James Cameron
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Independent Spirit Award for Best Director

Joel Coen / Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) John Huston
John Huston
(1987) Ramon Menendez (1988) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(1989) Charles Burnett (1990) Martha Coolidge (1991) Carl Franklin
Carl Franklin
(1992) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(1994) Mike Figgis
Mike Figgis
(1995) Joel Coen (1996) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1997) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(1998) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000) Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
(2001) Todd Haynes
Todd Haynes
(2002) Sofia Coppola
Sofia Coppola
(2003) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris
Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris
(2006) Julian Schnabel
Julian Schnabel
(2007) Tom McCarthy (2008) Lee Daniels
Lee Daniels
(2009) Darren Aronofsky
Darren Aronofsky
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) David O. Russell
David O. Russell
(2012) Steve McQueen (2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Tom McCarthy (2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
(2016) Jordan Peele
Jordan Peele
(2017)

v t e

London Film Critics' Circle Award for Director of the Year

Nicolas Roeg
Nicolas Roeg
(1980) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1981) Costa-Gavras
Costa-Gavras
(1982) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1983) Neil Jordan
Neil Jordan
(1984) Roland Joffé
Roland Joffé
(1985) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1986) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(1987) John Huston
John Huston
(1988) Terence Davies (1989) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1990) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(1991) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1992) James Ivory
James Ivory
(1993) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1994) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(1995) Joel Coen (1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
(1997) Peter Weir
Peter Weir
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Spike Jonze
Spike Jonze
(2000) Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
(2001) Phillip Noyce
Phillip Noyce
(2002) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2003) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2007) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) George Miller (2015) László Nemes
László Nemes
(2016) Sean Baker (2017)

v t e

Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Director

Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(1975) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(1976) Herbert Ross (1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(1985) David Lynch
David Lynch
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1988) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
(1989) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1990) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(1994) Mike Figgis
Mike Figgis
(1995) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) David Lynch
David Lynch
(2001) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Olivier Assayas
Olivier Assayas
/ David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(2011) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) George Miller (2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
/ Luca Guadagnino
Luca Guadagnino
(2017)

v t e

National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Director

Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1966) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1967) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1968) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1969) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1970) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1971) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1972) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1975) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1976) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1977) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1978) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
/ Robert Benton (1979) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1980) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1981) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1982) Paolo Taviani and Vittorio Taviani (1983) Robert Bresson (1984) John Huston
John Huston
(1985) David Lynch
David Lynch
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) Philip Kaufman
Philip Kaufman
(1988) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
(1989) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1990) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(1994) Mike Figgis
Mike Figgis
(1995) Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
(1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
(1997) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(1998) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2003) Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
(2004) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2007) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(2011) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2012) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Todd Haynes
Todd Haynes
(2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
(2016) Greta Gerwig
Greta Gerwig
(2017)

v t e

National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay

1967–2000

David Newman and Robert Benton (1967) John Cassavetes
John Cassavetes
(1968) Paul Mazursky
Paul Mazursky
and Larry Tucker (1969) Éric Rohmer
Éric Rohmer
(1970) Penelope Gilliatt (1971) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1972) George Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck (1973) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1974) Robert Towne
Robert Towne
and Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1975) Alain Tanner
Alain Tanner
and John Berger
John Berger
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
and Marshall Brickman (1977) Paul Mazursky
Paul Mazursky
(1978) Steve Tesich
Steve Tesich
(1979) Bo Goldman
Bo Goldman
(1980) John Guare
John Guare
(1981) Murray Schisgal and Larry Gelbart
Larry Gelbart
(1982) Bill Forsyth
Bill Forsyth
(1983) Lowell Ganz, Babaloo Mandel and Bruce Jay Friedman (1984) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
and Monica Johnson (1985) Hanif Kureishi
Hanif Kureishi
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) Ron Shelton (1988) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
and Daniel Yost (1989) Charles Burnett (1990) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1991) David Webb Peoples (1992) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
and Roger Avary
Roger Avary
(1994) Amy Heckerling (1995) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
and Monica Johnson (1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
and Brian Helgeland (1997) Scott Frank (1998) Charlie Kaufman
Charlie Kaufman
(1999) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2000)

2001–present

Julian Fellowes
Julian Fellowes
(2001) Ronald Harwood (2002) Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini
Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini
(2003) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
and Jim Taylor (2004) Noah Baumbach
Noah Baumbach
(2005) Peter Morgan (2006) Tamara Jenkins
Tamara Jenkins
(2007) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2008) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2009) Aaron Sorkin
Aaron Sorkin
(2010) Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(2011) Tony Kushner
Tony Kushner
(2012) Richard Linklater, Ethan Hawke, and Julie Delpy
Julie Delpy
(2013) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(2014) Tom McCarthy and Josh Singer (2015) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2016) Greta Gerwig
Greta Gerwig
(2017)

v t e

Satellite Award for Best Director

Joel Coen (1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1998) Michael Mann
Michael Mann
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) Baz Luhrmann
Baz Luhrmann
(2001) Todd Haynes
Todd Haynes
(2002) Jim Sheridan (2003) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Nicolas Winding Refn
Nicolas Winding Refn
(2011) David O. Russell
David O. Russell
(2012) Steve McQueen (2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Tom McCarthy (2015) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2016) Jordan Peele
Jordan Peele
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 119455239 LCCN: n92013007 ISNI: 0000 0001 1456 0322 GND: 122101707 SUDOC: 118038338 BNF: cb141161375 (data) ULAN: 500257624 MusicBrainz: 59a0bc92-f0fc-41ff-ab8a-7a9d500d525e BNE: XX1163562 SN

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