Richard Hertwig
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Richard Wilhelm Karl Theodor Ritter von Hertwig (23 September 1850 in Friedberg,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...

Hesse
– 3 October 1937 in Schlederloh,
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
), also Richard Hertwig or Richard von Hertwig, was a
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical st ...
and professor of 50 years, notable as the first to describe
zygote A zygote (, ) is a eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are ...

zygote
formation as the fusing of
spermatozoa A spermatozoon (pronounced , alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from grc, σπέρμα ("seed") and grc, ζῷον ("living being")) is a motile Motility is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism () ...

spermatozoa
inside the membrane of an egg cell during fertilization. "Richard von Hertwig – Wikipedia" (
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
), German Wikipedia, 2006-10-29, de.wikipedia.org webpage: GermanWP-Richard_von_Hertwig.
Richard Hertwig was the younger brother of
Oscar Hertwig Oscar Hertwig (21 April 1849 in Friedberg – 25 October 1922 in Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants ...
, who also analyzed zygote formation. The two Hertwig brothers worked together until 1883 (more at:
Oscar Hertwig Oscar Hertwig (21 April 1849 in Friedberg – 25 October 1922 in Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants ...
).
The Hertwig brothers were the most eminent scholars of
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
(and
Carl Gegenbaur Karl Gegenbaur (21 August 1826 – 14 June 1903)"Karl Gegenbaur – Encyclopædia Britannica" (biography), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2006, Britannica.coBritannica-KarlG was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Ge ...
), each brother becoming a long-term professor in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. They were independent of Haeckel's philosophical speculations but took his ideas in a positive way to widen their concepts in
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
. Initially, between 1879–1883, they worked together and performed
embryological Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, ''embryon'', "the unborn, embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism. In general, in organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργ ...
studies, especially on the theory of the
coelom The coelom (or celom) is the main body cavity A body cavity is any space or compartment, or potential space Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics to the social ...
(1881). These problems were based on the
phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

phylogenetic
theorems of Haeckel, specifically, the ''
biogenic theory The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—often expressed using Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a historical hypothesis that the embryogenesis, development of the em ...
'' (german: biogenetisches Grundgesetz) and the " gastraea theory" of Haeckel. Within 10 years, the two brothers moved apart to the north and south of
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. Richard's brother Oscar later became a professor of
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
in 1888 in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
; however, Richard Hertwig had moved 3 years prior, becoming a professor of zoology in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
from 1885–1925, at Ludwig Maximilians University, where he served the last 40 years of his 50-year career as a professor at 4 universities. The later research of Richard Hertwig focused on
protist A protist () is any eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are c ...
s (with the relationship between the nucleus and the plasma = "Kern-Plasma-Relation"), as well as on developmental physiological studies on
sea urchin Sea urchins () are spine (zoology), spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species of sea urchin live on the seabed of every ocean and inhabit every depth zone — from the intertidal seashore down to . The spherical, ha ...

sea urchin
s and
frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization all ...

frog
s. Richard Hertwig also wrote a leading textbook of zoology, published in 1891, which he kept up to date through 15 editions until 1931.


Life

Hertwig was born in Friedberg in the
Grand Duchy of Hesse The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (german: link=no, Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a grand duchy A grand duchy is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable poli ...

Grand Duchy of Hesse
. He began studying medicine at the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena''), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the prac ...
, and under the influence of professor
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
(16 years older), he shifted his interest more to
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
and
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
. In 1872, he received a doctorate at the
University of Bonn The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is ...

University of Bonn
and worked there as an assistant to anatomist
Max Schultze Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (25 March 1825 – 16 January 1874) was a German microscopic anatomist noted for his work on cell theory. Biography Schultze was born in Freiburg im Breisgau (Baden). He studied medicine at University of Greifswald, ...
. In 1875, he moved to the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena''), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the prac ...
in the Department of Zoology, and in 1878, Hertwig became extraordinary professor there. As a successor of
Franz Hermann Troschel Franz Hermann Troschel (10 October 1810 – 6 November 1882) was a German zoologist born in Spandau. He studied mathematics and natural history at the University of Berlin, where he was awarded his doctorate in 1834.Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; G ...
, Richard Hertwig was appointed in 1881 to the
University of Königsberg The University of Königsberg (german: Albertus-Universität Königsberg) was the university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which aw ...
as a professor of zoology. In 1883, he moved to the same role as professor at the
University of Bonn The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is ...

University of Bonn
, where he remained only a short while, however, since in 1885, he was called to the Ludwig Maximilians University in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
, where Hertwig remained until 1925, also working as head of the zoological collection of the state of Bavaria (now Zoologische Staatssammlung München) and as director of the zoological institute which he developed into a leading centre of biological science. Hertwig belonged to the
Bavarian Academy of Sciences The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (''Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften'') is an independent public institution, located in Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, Munich. It appoints scholars whose research has contributed considerably to the inc ...
, beginning in 1885 as an extraordinary member, and from 1889 as a full member. In 1909, he received the title . Hertwig died on 3 October 1937 in Schlederloh,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. His pupil
Otto Koehler Otto Koehler (20 December 1889 - 7 January 1974) was a German zoologist and pioneer Ethology, ethologist. He was a founding editor, along with Konrad Lorenz of the ''Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie'' (Journal of animal psychology) which was later ...
became one of the founders of
Ethology Ethology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...
in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. Another of his students, , was a leading
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
n natural scientist. His student Rhoda Erdmann was well-known for her studies of invertebrates and cancer and was a pioneer in the field of tissue culture. She founded and led the Institute of Experimental Cytology at the University of Berlin. She also was the founder and editor of the journal ''Archiv fur Experimentelle Zellforschung''.


Research

At the beginning of his career, Richard Hertwig worked along with his brother,
Oscar Hertwig Oscar Hertwig (21 April 1849 in Friedberg – 25 October 1922 in Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants ...
. Together they developed, in 1881, the Coelom Theory (German: "''Coelomtheorie''"), of the fluid-filled body cavity (the "coelom"), as an explanation of the middle Keimblatt, which brought important realizations in the field of embryology. The theory assumes that all organs and tissues develop differently from three Germ layer, primary tissue layers, during animal embryogenesis. Hertwig worked systematically on several groups of protozoa and metazoa (German: ''Wirbellose'') and provided fundamental work on the development of animals. His contributions are most well known to protozoa research. Hertwig, on the basis of examining
sea urchin Sea urchins () are spine (zoology), spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species of sea urchin live on the seabed of every ocean and inhabit every depth zone — from the intertidal seashore down to . The spherical, ha ...

sea urchin
s, discovered and explained the
zygote A zygote (, ) is a eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are ...

zygote
fertilization process for the first time correctly as a fusion of egg and spermatozoon (sperm cell) penetrating the egg membrane.


Publications

* ''Das Nervensystem und die Sinnesorgane der Medusen'', 1878 ("The nervous system and the sensory organs of the Medusa"). * ''Die Actinien'', 1879. * ''Chätognathien'', 1880. * ''Die Coelomtheorie: Versuch einer Erklärung des mittleren Keimblattes'', Jena, 1881 ("The Coelom Theory. Attempt of an explanation of the middle Keimblatt"). * ''Lehrbuch der Zoologie'', Jena, 1891 ("Textbook of Zoology").
Digital edition from 1907
by the University and State Library Düsseldorf) * ''Abstammungslehre und neuere Biologie'', 1927 ("Descending teachings and newer biology").


Notes


External links

* *
Photograph of Richard von Hertwig, 1894
in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science {{DEFAULTSORT:Hertwig, Richard 1850 births 1937 deaths People from Friedberg, Hesse 20th-century German zoologists 19th-century German zoologists Bavarian nobility German Fatherland Party politicians People from the Grand Duchy of Hesse University of Bonn alumni University of Bonn faculty University of Königsberg faculty Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Corresponding members of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences