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Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
(January 20, 1732 – June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia
Virginia
best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation, and his "resolution for independency" of June 1776 led to the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence, which Lee signed. He also served a one-year term as the President of the Congress of the Confederation, and was a United States
United States
Senator from Virginia
Virginia
from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as the second President pro tempore of the upper house. He was a member of the Lee family, a historically influential family in Virginia
Virginia
politics.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 American Revolution 2.2 President of Congress 2.3 Political offices

3 Personal life and family 4 Legacy 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 External links

Early life and education[edit] He was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia
Virginia
to Col. Thomas Lee and Hannah Harrison Ludwell
Hannah Harrison Ludwell
Lee on January 20, 1732. He was raised and came from a line of military officers, diplomats, and legislators. His father, Thomas Lee, was the governor of Virginia
Virginia
before his death in 1750. Lee spent most of his early life in Stratford, Virginia
Virginia
with his family at Stratford Hall. Here he was tutored and taught in a variety of skills, and witnessed the very beginning of political career as his father sent him around to neighboring planters with the intention for Lee to become associated with neighboring men of like prominence. In 1748, at 16, Lee left Virginia
Virginia
for Yorkshire, England, to complete his formal education at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield. Both of his parents died in 1750 and, in 1753, after touring Europe, he returned to Virginia
Virginia
to help his brothers settle the estate his parents had left behind.[1] Career[edit] In 1757, Lee was appointed justice of the peace in Westmoreland County. In 1758 he was elected to the Virginia
Virginia
House of Burgesses, where he met Patrick Henry. An early advocate of independence, Lee became one of the first to create Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence
among the many independence-minded Americans in the various colonies. In 1766, almost ten years before the American Revolutionary War, Lee is credited with having authored the Westmoreland Resolution[2] which was publicly signed by prominent landowners who met at Leedstown, Westmoreland County, Virginia
Virginia
on February 27, 1766. This resolution was signed by four brothers of George Washington
George Washington
as well as Gilbert Campbell. American Revolution[edit] In August 1774, Lee was chosen as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. In Lee's Resolution
Lee's Resolution
on June 7, 1776 during the Second Continental Congress, Lee put forth the motion to the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to declare Independence from Great Britain, which read (in part):

Resolved: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain
Great Britain
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.

Lee had returned to Virginia
Virginia
by the time Congress voted on and adopted the Declaration of Independence, but he signed the document when he returned to Congress.

Lee Family Coat of Arms

President of Congress[edit] Lee was elected the sixth President of Congress under the Articles of Confederation on November 30, 1784, in the French Arms Tavern, Trenton, New Jersey. On January 11, 1785, Congress convened in the old New York City Hall
New York City Hall
and Lee presided over that Congress until November 23, 1785. Although, he was not paid a salary for his office as president, his household expenses were paid by Congress in the amount of $12,203.13.[3] Lee's Congress was most active in 1785, passing numerous legislation, including establishing a United States
United States
dollar tied to the Spanish dollar as the national currency. His most pressing issue, however, was to settle the states' territorial disputes over the Northwest Territory. Throughout his term, Lee remained steadfast that the release of states’ territorial claims on the Northwest Territory would enable the federal government to fund itself with land sales. He believed that the urgency of this measure was paramount because borrowing more foreign money was no longer prudent, and he abhorred the movement to establish federal taxes. The sale of these vast federal lands, he concluded, was the nation's only hope to pay off the war debt and adequately fund federal government. Debate began on the expansion of the Ordinance of 1784 and Thomas Jefferson’s survey method “hundreds of ten geographical miles square, each mile containing 6086 and 4-10ths of a foot” and “sub-divided into lots of one mile square each, or 850 and 4-10ths of an acre" on April 14.[4] On May 3, 1785, William Grayson of Virginia
Virginia
made a motion seconded by James Monroe
James Monroe
to change “seven miles square” to “six miles square”, and the current US Survey system was born. Lee wrote to his friend and colleague Samuel Adams:

I hope we shall shortly finish our plan for disposing of the western Lands to discharge the oppressive public debt created by the war & I think that if this source of revenue be rightly managed, that these republics may soon be discharged from that state of oppression and distress that an indebted people must invariably feel.[5]

The states relinquished their right to this "test tract" of land, and the Land Ordinance of 1785
Land Ordinance of 1785
was passed on May 20, 1785. The federal government, however, lacked the resources to manage the newly surveyed lands because Native Americans refused to relinquish a large percentage of the platted land, and most of the territory remained too dangerous for settlement. This either required troops to eject the Native Americans or capital to purchase their land "fairly", insuring the peaceful sale and settlement. Additionally the small amount of federal land that was not in dispute by the Native Americans was enthusiastically being occupied by western settlers that had no faith in or respect for the Congress as a federal authority. The settlers claimed the land as squatters, and the Congress was unable to muster the capital to send magistrates let alone troops to enforce the $1.00 per acre fee required for a clear federal land title. With the states no longer in control of the lands and no federal magistrates or troops to enforce the laws, a tide of western squatters flowed into the Northwest Territory. Lee's plan to fill the federal treasury with the proceeds of land sales failed, but the survey system developed under the Land Ordinance of 1785
Land Ordinance of 1785
is still used today. Political offices[edit]

Justice of the Peace for Westmoreland County, Virginia
Virginia
(1757) Virginia
Virginia
House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
(1758–1775) Member of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
(1774–1779, 1784–1785, 1787) A Signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776) Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785) President of the Confederation Congress
President of the Confederation Congress
(November 30, 1784 – November 4, 1785) United States
United States
Senator from Virginia
Virginia
(March 4, 1789 – October 8, 1792) President pro tempore during the Second Congress
Second Congress
(April 18 – October 8, 1792)

Personal life and family[edit] Lee was the son of Col. Thomas Lee, Hon. (1690–1750) of "Stratford Hall", Westmoreland Co., Virginia. Thomas married Hannah Harrison Ludwell (1701–1750). Lee married first on December 5, 1757, Anne Aylett (1738–1768), daughter of William Aylett and Elizabeth Eskridge (1719). Anne died December 12, 1768 at Chantille, Westmoreland Co., Virginia. The couple had six children, four of whom survived infancy. Lee remarried in June or July 1769 to Anne (Gaskins) Pinckard. The couple had seven children, five of whom survived infancy. Lee honored his brother, Francis Lightfoot Lee
Francis Lightfoot Lee
(another signer of the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and the Declaration of Independence), by naming his fourth son after him. Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
died on June 19, 1794 at the age of 62. Legacy[edit] Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
Elementary School in Rossmoor, California
Rossmoor, California
and Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
School in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
are named in his honor. Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
Elementary in Glen Burnie, Maryland
Maryland
is also named after him. Late in 1941, a Liberty Ship
Liberty Ship
was named for him. The Chantilly Archaeological Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.[6] In popular culture[edit] Lee is portrayed as a character in the musical 1776. He was portrayed by Ron Holgate in both the Broadway cast and in the 1972 film. In one scene, Lee performs a song called "The Lees of Old Virginia," in which he explains how he knows he will be able to convince the Virginia House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
to allow him to propose independence and celebrates his own status as a Lee, one of the First Families of Virginia. The character is presented as vain, but not very bright, serving the play as a comic device rather than a historically based portrayal of Lee. References[edit]

^ McGaughy, J. K. Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
(1732–1794). (March 18, 2014). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/ Lee Richard Henry 1732–1794 ^ Washington, Lawrence; McKim, Randolph Harrison; Beale, George William (January 1, 1912). "Westmoreland County, Virginia: Parts I and II : a Short Chapter and Bright Day in Its History". Whittet & Shepperson, printers. Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Estimate of the Annual Expenditure of the Civil Departments of the United States, on the present Establishment President Richard Henry Lee ^ Plat of Township 2, Range 7 in the Ohio Seven Ranges ca. 1786 Richard Henry Lee, President of the United States
United States
in Congress Assembled ^ "President Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
to Samuel Adams, New York May 20. 1785". Retrieved 22 September 2016.  ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(July 9, 2010). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 

External links[edit]

United States
United States
Congress. " Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
(id: L000201)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  President Richard Henry Lee Richard Henry Lee Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856 Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
papers in the Manuscripts and Archives Division at The New York Public Library. Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
at Find a Grave Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
Bio  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lee, Richard Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Political offices

Preceded by Thomas Mifflin President of the Confederation Congress November 30, 1784 – November 6, 1785 Succeeded by John Hancock

Preceded by John Langdon President pro tempore of the United States
United States
Senate April 18, 1792 – October 8, 1792 Succeeded by John Langdon

U.S. Senate

Preceded by None U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Virginia March 4, 1789 – October 8, 1792 Served alongside: William Grayson, John Walker, James Monroe Succeeded by John Taylor

v t e

Signers of the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence

Physical history of the Declaration of Independence, Memorial

J. Adams S. Adams Bartlett Braxton Carroll Chase Clark Clymer Ellery Floyd Franklin Gerry Gwinnett Hall Hancock Harrison Hart Hewes Heyward Hooper Hopkins Hopkinson Huntington Jefferson F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Livingston Lynch McKean Middleton L. Morris R. Morris Morton Nelson Paca Paine Penn Read Rodney Ross Rush Rutledge Sherman Smith Stockton Stone Taylor Thornton Walton Whipple Williams Wilson Witherspoon Wolcott Wythe

v t e

Signers of the Articles of Confederation

A. Adams S. Adams T. Adams Banister Bartlett Carroll Clingan Collins Dana Dickinson Drayton Duane Duer Ellery Gerry Hancock Hanson Harnett Harvie Heyward Holten Hosmer Huntington Hutson Langworthy Laurens F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Lovell Marchant Mathews McKean G. Morris R. Morris Penn Reed Roberdeau Scudder Sherman Smith Telfair Van Dyke Walton Wentworth Williams Witherspoon Wolcott

v t e

Presidents of the Continental Congress

First Continental Congress

Peyton Randolph Henry Middleton

Second Continental Congress

Peyton Randolph John Hancock Henry Laurens John Jay Samuel Huntington

Confederation Congress

Samuel Huntington Thomas McKean John Hanson Elias Boudinot Thomas Mifflin Richard Henry Lee John Hancock* (David Ramsay Nathaniel Gorham) Nathaniel Gorham Arthur St. Clair Cyrus Griffin

*Hancock did not attend during his 2nd term; Ramsay and Gorham served as chairmen in his absence

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Virginia

Class 1

Grayson Walker Monroe S. Mason Taylor Venable Giles Moore Brent J. Barbour Randolph Tyler Rives Pennybacker J. Mason Willey Bowden Lewis Withers Mahone Daniel Swanson Byrd Sr. Byrd Jr. Trible Robb Allen Webb Kaine

Class 2

Lee Taylor H. Tazewell Nicholas Moore Giles A. Mason Eppes Pleasants Taylor L. Tazewell Rives Leigh Parker Roane Archer Hunter Carlile Johnston Riddleberger J. S. Barbour Hunton Martin Glass Burch Robertson Spong Scott J. Warner M. Warner

v t e

Presidents pro tempore of the United States
United States
Senate

Langdon Lee Langdon Izard H Tazewell Livermore Bingham Bradford Read Sedgwick Laurance Ross Livermore Tracy Howard Hillhouse Baldwin Bradley Brown Franklin Anderson Smith Bradley Milledge Gregg Gaillard Pope Crawford Varnum Gaillard Barbour Gaillard Macon Smith L Tazewell White Poindexter Tyler W R King Southard Mangum Sevier Atchison W R King Atchison Cass Bright Stuart Bright Mason Rusk Fitzpatrick Bright Fitzpatrick Foot Clark Foster Wade Anthony Carpenter Anthony Ferry Thurman Bayard Davis Edmunds Sherman Ingalls Manderson Harris Ransom Harris Frye Bacon/Curtis/Gallinger/Brandegee/Lodge Clarke Saulsbury Cummins Moses Pittman W H King Harrison Glass McKellar Vandenberg McKellar Bridges George Hayden Russell Ellender Eastland Magnuson Young Magnuson Thurmond Stennis Byrd Thurmond Byrd Thurmond Byrd Stevens Byrd Inouye Leahy Hatch

v t e

Speakers of the Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates

Pendleton Wythe B. Harrison Lee Tyler B. Harrison Prentis Mathews Wise Smith E. Harrison Holmes Johnston Nelson Barbour Stevenson Stanard Banks Gilmer Southall Holleman Southall Goode Jones Strother H. Hopkins G. Hopkins Crutchfield Kemper Sheffey Baldwin Turner Hanger Allen Lacy Fowler Stuart R. Cardwell Ryan Saunders Ryan W. Cardwell Byrd Cox Houston Brewer Ozlin Brown Dovell Stanley Massenburg Moore Cooke Philpott Moss Wilkins Howell Cox

v t e

Historical documents of the United States

Constitution

Preamble & Articles

Preamble I II III IV V VI VII

Amendments

Ratified

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Pending

Congressional Apportionment Titles of Nobility Corwin (State Domestic Institutions) Child Labor

Unsuccessful

Equal Rights District of Columbia Voting Rights

See also

List of Constitutional Amendments Bill of Rights (Amendments 1–10) Reconstruction Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments
(Amendments 13–15) Amendment proposals in Congress Conventions to propose amendments State ratifying conventions

Formation

History Articles of Confederation Mount Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Convention

Virginia
Virginia
Plan New Jersey
New Jersey
Plan Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Committee of Detail Signing Independence Hall Syng inkstand

The Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Hillsborough Convention Drafting and ratification timeline

Clauses

Appointments Appropriations Assistance of Counsel Bill of credit Case or Controversy Citizenship Commerce Compact Compulsory Process Confrontation Contract Copyright and Patent Double Jeopardy Due Process Equal Protection Establishment Exceptions Excessive Bail Ex post facto Extradition Free Exercise Free Speech Fugitive Slave Full Faith and Credit General Welfare Guarantee Impeachment Import-Export Ineligibility (Emolument) Militia Natural-born citizen Necessary and Proper New States No Religious Test Oath or Affirmation Origination Petition Postal Presentment Privileges and Immunities Privileges or Immunities Recommendation Self-Incrimination Speech or Debate Speedy Trial State of the Union Supremacy Suspension Take Care Takings Taxing and Spending Territorial Title of Nobility Treaty Trial by Jury Vesting Vicinage War Powers List of clauses

Interpretation

Concurrent powers Congressional enforcement Constitutional law Criminal procedure Criminal sentencing Dormant Commerce Clause Enumerated powers Equal footing Executive privilege Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Judicial review Nondelegation doctrine Preemption Saxbe fix Separation of church and state Separation of powers Taxation power Unitary executive theory

Signatories

Convention President

George Washington

New Hampshire

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman

New York

Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey

William Livingston David Brearley William Paterson Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris

Delaware

George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jacob Broom

Maryland

James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll

Virginia

John Blair James Madison

North Carolina

William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson

South Carolina

John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler

Georgia

William Few Abraham Baldwin

Convention Secretary

William Jackson

Display and legacy

National Archives

Charters of Freedom
Charters of Freedom
Rotunda

Independence Mall Constitution Day Constitution Gardens National Constitution Center Scene at the Signing of the Constitution (painting) A More Perfect Union (film) Worldwide influence

Declaration of Independence

Primary author

Thomas Jefferson

Signatories

President of Congress

John Hancock
John Hancock
(Massachusetts)

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins William Ellery

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott

New York

William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris

New Jersey

Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross

Delaware

George Read Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean

Maryland

Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia

George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson Jr. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward Jr. Thomas Lynch Jr. Arthur Middleton

Georgia

Button Gwinett Lyman Hall George Walton

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights Lee Resolution Committee of Five Document's history

signing portrait

Second Continental Congress "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed" Independence Hall

Syng inkstand

American Revolution

Articles of Confederation

Signatories

Primary drafter

John Dickinson

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett John Wentworth Jr.

Massachusetts

John Hancock Samuel Adams Elbridge Gerry Francis Dana James Lovell Samuel Holten

Rhode Island

William Ellery Henry Marchant John Collins

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington Oliver Wolcott Titus Hosmer Andrew Adams

New York

James Duane Francis Lewis William Duer Gouverneur Morris

New Jersey

John Witherspoon Nathaniel Scudder

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Daniel Roberdeau Jonathan Bayard Smith William Clingan Joseph Reed

Delaware

Thomas McKean John Dickinson Nicholas Van Dyke

Maryland

John Hanson Daniel Carroll

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee John Banister Thomas Adams John Harvie Francis Lightfoot Lee

North Carolina

John Penn Cornelius Harnett John Williams

South Carolina

Henry Laurens William Henry Drayton John Mathews Richard Hutson Thomas Heyward Jr.

Georgia

John Walton Edward Telfair Edward Langworthy

See also

Continental Congress Congress of the Confederation American Revolution Perpetual Union

Continental Association

Signatories

President of Congress

Peyton Randolph

New Hampshire

John Sullivan Nathaniel Folsom

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Thomas Cushing Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins Samuel Ward

Connecticut

Eliphalet Dyer Roger Sherman Silas Deane

New York

Isaac Low John Alsop John Jay James Duane Philip Livingston William Floyd Henry Wisner Simon Boerum

New Jersey

James Kinsey William Livingston Stephen Crane Richard Smith John De Hart

Pennsylvania

Joseph Galloway John Dickinson Charles Humphreys Thomas Mifflin Edward Biddle John Morton George Ross

The Lower Counties

Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean George Read

Maryland

Matthew Tilghman Thomas Johnson, Junr William Paca Samuel Chase

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee George Washington Patrick Henry, Junr Richard Bland Benjamin Harrison Edmund Pendleton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes Richard Caswell

South Carolina

Henry Middleton Thomas Lynch Christopher Gadsden John Rutledge Edward Rutledge

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Association First Continental Congress Carpenters' Hall Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 47668633 LCCN: n50039714 ISNI: 0000 0001 1061 1639 GND: 123418526 SUDOC: 154403385 BNF: cb14589933v (data) US Congr

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