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Ribena
Ribena
(/raɪˈbiːnə/ rye-BEE-nə) is an English-origin brand of blackcurrant-based uncarbonated and carbonated soft drink and fruit drink concentrate that until 2013 was produced by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). The brand originally had a strong reputation as a healthy product for children, stemming from its distribution to children as a vitamin C supplement during World War II
World War II
by the British government. Beecham (a company that has been part of GSK since 2000) bought the brand in 1955 and developed many soft drink versions. A series of scandals in the 2000s, concerning vitamin C levels, sugar levels, and the amounts of actual fruit in some of the brands, damaged its reputation as a healthy product. By 2013 the brand was widely seen as being similar to other soft drinks.[1] In 2013 annual worldwide sales were around £500 million. That year, GSK sold Ribena
Ribena
and another consumer line, Lucozade, to the Japanese multinational Suntory
Suntory
for £1.35 billion. There is now an outcry as Ribena
Ribena
have changed their longstanding recipe to include artificial sweeteners and thickeners due to the ‘sugar-tax’ (2018)

Contents

1 History

1.1 Second World War 1.2 Post-war

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History[edit] Ribena
Ribena
was originally manufactured by the Bristol-based food and drink company HW Carter as a blackcurrant squash.[2]:132–133 Development research into pure fruit syrups for the manufacture of milkshakes had been done at the Long Ashton Agriculture and Horticulture Research Station in North Somerset
North Somerset
using a pectinase enzyme process; Ribena
Ribena
was essentially invented there by Vernon Charley, a scientist at the University of Bristol[3] in 1933.[4] The blackcurrant variety was found to contain high levels of vitamin C. The drink was launched in 1938 under the name Ribena
Ribena
(from the botanical name for the blackcurrant, Ribes nigrum). Second World War[edit] During the Second World War, other fruits rich in vitamin C, like oranges, became almost impossible to obtain in the United Kingdom, due to the U boat
U boat
campaign. Blackcurrant
Blackcurrant
cultivation was encouraged by the Government, and the yield of the nation's crop increased significantly. From 1942, almost the entire British blackcurrant crop was made into blackcurrant syrup (or cordial), almost all of it manufactured by Carters, and distributed to the nation's children for free without the Ribena
Ribena
brand name, giving rise to the lasting popularity of blackcurrant flavourings in Britain. Post-war[edit] Production moved to the new Royal Forest Factory[5] at Coleford in the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
in the autumn of 1947, where production takes place today. Carters was bought out by the Beecham Group
Beecham Group
in 1955.[1] In 1989, The Beecham Group
Beecham Group
and SmithKline Beckman merged to form SmithKline Beecham,[6] and in 2000, SmithKline Beecham and GlaxoWellcome merged to form GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
(GSK).[7] Through the years GSK and its predecessors developed many soft drink versions of Ribena
Ribena
but it retained an image as an "iconic 'healthy food'" in the UK and other Commonwealth countries.[1][8] In 2001, a formulation of the diluted Ribena
Ribena
cordial, sold as Ribena Toothkind (and endorsed by the British Dental Association
British Dental Association
as being less damaging to teeth than other soft drinks), was judged by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Advertising Standards Authority to have been advertised in a misleading manner, and claims that the drink did not encourage tooth decay should be removed from the packaging. The opinion was upheld by a hearing in the High Court.[9] In 2003, The Food Commission in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
criticised the sugar levels in regular Ribena
Ribena
as contributing to childhood obesity.[10] In 2004, two high school students in New Zealand, conducted a science experiment to determine the vitamin C levels of their favourite fruit drinks. They discovered that the "Ready to Drink Ribena" product they tested had undetectable levels of vitamin C, counter to the brand's reputation and to advertisements which said that "the blackcurrants in Ribena
Ribena
contain four times the vitamin C of oranges".[8] They contacted GSK, which did not speak with them, and their story was picked up by the television consumer affairs show Fair Go, which broadcast the story nationwide in October 2004.[8] Following further testing, in March 2007, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Commerce Commission
Commerce Commission
brought 15 charges in the Auckland District Court against GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
under the Fair Trading Act.[11] In March 2007, GSK pleaded guilty to all 15 charges and was fined NZ$217,500 by Auckland District Court for misleading consumers, and were ordered to run a series of corrective advertisements and place a statement on its website.[12] GSK maintained the issue only affects Australia and New Zealand, and Ribena
Ribena
sold in other markets, such as the United Kingdom, contain the levels of vitamin C stated on the product label.[13]

Carton design introduced in January 2007

In 2007, a study conducted by the Australian Consumers' Association for Choice magazine in January 2007 revealed blackcurrant juice (from concentrate) only constituted 5% of the Ribena
Ribena
Fruit Drink product.[14] By 2013, the brand had annual worldwide sales of about £500 million, and was considered to be similar to other soft drinks.[1] and GSK put Ribena, along with Lucozade, up for sale.[15] The eventual sale, announced in September, was for £1.35 billion.[16] See also[edit]

Tango – similarly bought by Beecham in 1950s but sold in 1986.

References[edit]

^ a b c d "We have Frank and Vernon to thank for Ribena". The Bristol Post. 17 September 2013. . ^ Philip R. Ashurst (2013). Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781475762969. . ^ " Bristol
Bristol
Scientist creates Ribena". Bristol: University of Bristol. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2011.  ^ "Brand Profile: Ribena". Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2011.  ^ "Old Photos of Coleford and district — H W Carter". Sungreen.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-08-31.  ^ "Profile: SmithKline Beecham". BBC. 18 December 2000.  ^ "The Glaxo SmithKline merger". BBC News. 17 January 2000.  ^ a b c Tony Jaques (2008). "Pre-publication draft: When an Icon Stumbles – The Ribena
Ribena
Issue Mismanaged" (PDF). Corporate Communications: An International Journal. 13 (4): pp 394–406. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) . ^ "Court rules against Ribena". BBC News. 2001-01-17. Retrieved 2009-08-31.  ^ " Soft drinks
Soft drinks
or liquid candy?". The Food Commission. 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007.  ^ "Schoolgirls study nabs food giant". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. March 2007.  ^ " Ribena
Ribena
maker fined $192,000". The Age. March 2007.  ^ Vasagar, Jeevan (27 March 2007). "Schoolgirls rumble Ribena
Ribena
vitamin claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ "Foods that make kids fatter faster". Choice magazine. January 2007. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Rupert Neate (24 April 2013). " Lucozade
Lucozade
and Ribena
Ribena
up for sale". The Guardian. . ^ Angela Monaghan (9 September 2013). " Ribena
Ribena
and Lucozade
Lucozade
sold to Japanese drinks giant". The Guardian. .

External links[edit]

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