Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος, Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the
Dodecanese islands of
Greece in terms of land area and also the island
group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a
separate municipality within the
Rhodes regional unit, which is part
South Aegean administrative region. The principal town of the
island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes. The city of Rhodes
had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete,
Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.
Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights
of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land.
Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes,
one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Medieval Old Town
City of Rhodes
City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today,
it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in
Europe. The name of the
U.S. state of
Rhode Island is
based on these islands.
3.1 Early and classical antiquity
3.2 Hellenistic age
3.3 Byzantine period
3.4 Crusader and Islamic rule
3.5 Modern history
6.1 Towns and villages
8.3 Road network
8.5 Cars and motorbikes
11 Notable people
14 See also
17 External links
The island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its
history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian,
Rodos in Turkish, and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino.
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville incorrectly reports that
formerly called "Collosus", through a conflation of the Colossus of
Rhodes and Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, which refers to
The island's name might be derived from erod, Phoenician for snake,
since the island was infested with snakes in antiquity.
Topographic map of Rhodes
The island of
Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead, 79.7 km
(49.5 mi) long and 38 km (24 mi) wide, with a total
area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres (541 sq mi)
and a coastline of approximately 220 km (137 mi). Limestone
is the main bedrock. The city of
Rhodes is located at the northern
tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern
commercial harbours. The main air gateway (Diagoras International
Airport, IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9 mi) to the
southwest of the city in Paradisi. The road network radiates from the
city along the east and west coasts.
Outside of the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small
villages and spa resorts, among them Faliraki, Lindos, Kremasti,
Haraki, Pefkos, Archangelos, Afantou, Ixia, Koskinou, Embona
(Attavyros), Paradisi, and
Trianta (Ialysos). There are mineral-rich
spring water (and sometimes sea water) used to give medicinal baths
and the spa resorts offer various health treatments.
Rhodes is situated 363 km (226 mi) east-south-east from the
Greek mainland, and 18 km (11 mi) from the southern shore of
Further information: Natural history of Rhodes
The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and
covered with forests of pine (Pinus brutia) and cypress (Cupressus
sempervirens). While the shores are rocky, the island has arable
strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables, olives and
other crops are grown.
Further information: Natural history of Rhodes
The Rhodian population of fallow deer was found to be genetically
distinct in 2005, and to be of urgent conservation concern. In
Petaloudes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large
numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount
Attavyros, at 1,216 metres (3,990 ft), is the island's highest
point of elevation.
Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus
of Rhodes; one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of
Rhodes; and one on 26 June 1926.
On 15 July 2008,
Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake
causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death.
Rhodes has a hot-summer
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen
Climate data for Rhodes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean daily sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source #1: Hellinic National Meteorological Service 
Source #2: NOAA (Record temperature), Weather Atlas (sunshine
Climate data for Rhodes
Average sea temperature °C (°F)
Mean daily daylight hours
Average Ultraviolet index
Source: Weather Atlas 
Ixia beach, Rhodes
Valley of Petaloudes
Early and classical antiquity
Mycenean necklace of carnelian found in Kattavia
Silver drachma of Rhodes, 88/42 BC. Obverse: radiate head of Helios.
Reverse: rose, "rhodon" (ῥόδον), the symbol of Rhodes.
Temple of Apollo at the Acropolis of Rhodes
The island was inhabited in the
Neolithic period, although little
remains of this culture. In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to
Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the
Telchines and associated the island of
Rhodes with Danaus; it was
sometimes nicknamed Telchinis.
In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze Age
collapse, the first renewed outside contacts were with Cyprus.
In the 8th century BC, the island's settlements started to form, with
the coming of the Dorians, who built the three important cities of
Ialyssos and Kameiros, which together with Kos, Cnidus and
Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis
(Greek for six cities).
In Pindar's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of Helios
the sun god and the nymph Rhodos, and the cities were named for their
three sons. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus native to the island.
Diodorus Siculus added that Actis, one of the sons of
Rhode, travelled to Egypt. He built the city of Heliopolis and taught
the Egyptians astrology.
Homer mentions that
Rhodes participated in the
Trojan War under the
leadership of Tlepolemus.
In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena
received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small
ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros
on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was
founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous
sequence of carved ivory figurines. The cemeteries of
Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing
Rhodian jewellery, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC.
Phoenician presence on the island at
Ialysos is attested in traditions
recorded much later by Rhodian historians.
The Persians invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn
defeated by forces from
Athens in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined
the Athenian League. When the
Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC,
Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the
League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time
withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own
In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory. They built the
city of Rhodes, a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its
regular plan was, according to Strabo, superintended by the Athenian
In 357 BC, the island was conquered by the king
Mausolus of Caria,
then it fell again to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also
Rhodes then became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the Great
in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians.
The Colossus of Rhodes, as depicted in an artist's impression of 1880
Following the death of Alexander, his generals vied for control of the
kingdom. Three—Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Antigonus—succeeded in
dividing the kingdom among themselves.
Rhodes formed strong commercial
and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in Alexandria, and together
formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout
the Aegean in the 3rd century BC.
The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center;
its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its
famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared
masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician Aeschines, who
formed a school at Rhodes; Apollonius of Rhodes; the observations
and works of the astronomers
Hipparchus and Geminus, the rhetorician
Dionysius Thrax. Its school of sculptors developed, under Pergamese
influence, a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as
"Hellenistic Baroque". Agesander of Rhodes, with two other Rhodian
sculptors, carved the famous Laocoön group, now in the Vatican
Museums, and the large sculptures rediscovered at Sperlonga in the
villa of Tiberius, probably in the early Imperial period.
In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son, Demetrius, to besiege
an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge
siege engines, including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a
siege tower named
Helepolis that weighed 360,000 pounds
(163,293 kg). Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one
year, he relented and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge
store of military equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used
the money to erect a statue of their sun god, Helios, the statue since
called the Colossus of Rhodes.
Throughout the 3rd century BC,
Rhodes attempted to secure her
independence and her commerce, most especially her virtual control
over the grain trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Both of these goals
were dependent upon no one of the three great Hellenistic states
achieving dominance, and consequently the Rhodians pursued a policy of
maintaining a balance of power among the Antigonids, Seleucids and
Ptolemies, even if that meant going to war with her traditional ally,
Egypt. To this end they employed as leverage their economy and their
excellent navy, which was manned by proverbially the finest sailors in
the Mediterranean world: "If we have ten Rhodians, we have ten
ships." The Rhodians also established their dominance
on the shores of
Caria across their island, which became known as the
"Rhodian Peraia". It extended roughly from the modern city of Muğla
(ancient Mobolla) in the north and
Lycia in the
south, near the present-day Dalyan, Turkey.
Rhodes successfully carried on this policy through the course of the
third century BC, an impressive achievement for what was essentially a
democratic state. By the end of that period, however, the balance of
power was crumbling, as declining Ptolemaic power made
attractive target for Seleucid ambitions. In 203/2 BC the young and
dynamic kings of Antigonid Macedon and Seleucid Asia, Philip V and
Antiochus III, agreed to accept—at least temporarily—their
respective military ambitions, Philip's campaign in the Aegean and
western Anatolia and Antiochus’ final solution of the Egyptian
question. Heading a coalition of small states, the Rhodians checked
Philip's navy, but not his superior army. Without a third power to
which to turn, the Rhodians appealed in 201 BC to the Roman
Medieval gate at the Acropolis of Lindos
Despite being exhausted by the titanic struggle against Hannibal
(218-201 BC) the Romans agreed to intervene, having already been
stabbed in the back by Philip during the war against Carthage. The
Senate saw the appeal from
Rhodes and her allies as the opportunity to
pressure Philip. The result was the
Second Macedonian War
Second Macedonian War (200-196
BC), which ended Macedon's role as a major player and preserved
Rhodian independence. Rhodian influence in the Aegean
was cemented through the organization of the
Cyclades into the Second
Nesiotic League under Rhodian leadership.
The Romans actually withdrew from
Greece after the end of the
conflict, but the resulting power vacuum quickly drew in Antiochus and
subsequently the Romans, who defeated (192-188 BC) the last
Mediterranean power that might even vaguely threaten their
predominance. Having provided Rome with valuable naval help in her
first foray into Asia, the Rhodians were rewarded with territory and
enhanced status. The Romans once again evacuated the
east – the Senate preferred clients to provinces – but it was
clear that Rome now ruled the world and Rhodian autonomy was
ultimately dependent upon good relations with them.
And those good graces soon evaporated in the wake of the Third
Macedonian War (171-168 BC). In 169 BC, during the war against
Agepolis as ambassador to the consul Quintus
Marcius Philippus, and then to Rome in the following year, hoping to
turn the Senate against the war.
Rhodes remained scrupulously
neutral during the war, but in the view of hostile elements in the
Senate she had been a bit too friendly with the defeated King Perseus.
Some actually proposed declaring war on the island republic, but this
was averted. In 164,
Rhodes became a permanent ally of Rome, ending an
independence that no longer had any meaning.[clarification needed] It
was said that the Romans ultimately turned against the Rhodians
because the islanders were the only people they had encountered who
were more arrogant than themselves.
After surrendering its independence
Rhodes became a cultural and
educational center for Roman noble families and was especially noted
for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras and the unknown
author of Rhetorica ad Herennium. At first, the state was an important
ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were later
lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Cassius eventually
invaded the island and sacked the city. In the early Imperial period
Rhodes became a favorite place for political exiles.
In the 1st century AD, the Emperor
Tiberius spent a brief term of
exile on Rhodes. Saint Paul brought
Christianity to people on the
Rhodes reached her zenith in the 3rd century.
In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "hic Rhodus, hic
salta!"—"Here is Rhodes, jump here", an admonition to prove one's
idle boasts by deed rather than talk. It comes from an Aesop's fable
called "The Boastful Athlete" and was cited by
Hegel and Marx.
In 395 with the division of the Roman Empire, the long Byzantine
period began for Rhodes. In Late Antiquity, the island was the capital
Roman province of the Islands, headed by a praeses (hegemon in
Greek), and encompassing most of the Aegean islands, with twenty
cities. Correspondingly, the island was also the metropolis of the
ecclesiastical province of Cyclades, with eleven suffragan sees.
Beginning from ca. 600 AD, its influence in maritime issues was
manifested in the collection of maritime laws known as "Rhodian Sea
Law" (Nomos Rhodion Nautikos), accepted throughout the Mediterranean
and in use throughout Byzantine times (and influencing the development
of admiralty law up to the present). In 622/3, during
the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628,
captured by the Sasanian navy.
Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah I
in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes.
The island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their
first attack on Constantinople. When their fleet was destroyed by
Greek fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip,
however, the island was evacuated in 679/80 as part of the
Byzantine–Umayyad peace treaty. In 715 the Byzantine fleet
dispatched against the Arabs launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led
to the installation of
Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne.
From the early 8th to the 12th centuries,
Rhodes belonged to the
Cibyrrhaeot Theme of the Byzantine Empire, and was a centre for
shipbuilding and commerce. In c. 1090, it was occupied by the
forces of the Seljuk Turks, not long after the Battle of
Rhodes was recaptured by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos
during the First Crusade.
Part of the late medieval fortifications of Rhodes
As Byzantine central power weakened under the
(1185–1204), in the first half of the 13th century,
the centre of an independent domain under
Leo Gabalas and his brother
John, until it was occupied by the Genoese in 1248–1250. The
Genoese were evicted by the Empire of Nicaea, after which the island
became a regular province of the Nicaean state (and after 1261 of the
restored Byzantine Empire). In 1305, the island was given as a fief to
Andrea Morisco, a Genoese adventurer who had entered Byzantine
Rhodes was controlled by Menteşe, was one of Anatolian
beyliks between 1300 and 1314.
Crusader and Islamic rule
Further information: Knights Hospitaller
Janissaries and defending
Knights of Saint John
Knights of Saint John at the Siege
Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript
Rhodes in the 19th century
In 1306–1310, the Byzantine era of the island's history came to an
end when the island was occupied by the Knights Hospitaller. Under
the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt
into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous
monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master, were built during
The strong walls which the knights had built withstood the attacks of
the Sultan of
Egypt in 1444, and a siege by the
Ottomans under Mehmed
II in 1480. Eventually, however,
Rhodes fell to the large army of
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. The Sultan deployed 400
ships delivering 100,000 men to the island (200,000 in other sources).
Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers
de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications.
The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving
defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to the Kingdom of
Sicily. Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims seem to have
regarded the conduct of Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as extremely valiant,
and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of the Faith by Pope
Adrian VI (see Knights of
Cyprus and Rhodes). The knights would later
move their base of operations to Malta.
Rhodes was thereafter a possession of the
Ottoman Empire (see Sanjak
of Rhodes) for nearly four centuries.
5 soldi Austrian Levant stamp cancelled in brown RHODUS.
Palazzo Governale (today the offices of the Prefecture of the
Dodecanese), built during the Italian period
The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding
nations, including Jews. Under Ottoman rule, they generally did fairly
well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February
1840, the Jews of
Rhodes were falsely accused of ritually murdering a
Christian boy. This became known as the
Rhodes blood libel.
Austria opened a post-office at RHODUS (Venetian name) before
1864, as witnessed by stamps with Franz-Josef head.
In 1912, Italy seized
Rhodes from the Turks during the Italo-Turkish
War. The island's population was spared the "exchange of the
Rhodes and the res of the
Dodecanese Islands were assigned to Italy in the Treaty of Ouchy and
were supposed to be given back but were not.
Turkey ceded them
officially in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. It then became the core of
their possession of the Isole Italiane dell'Egeo.
Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943, the British
attempted to get the Italian garrison on
Rhodes to change sides. This
was anticipated by the German Army, which succeeded in occupying the
island with the Battle of Rhodes. In great measure, the German
occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese
The Turkish Consul
Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable
risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about
200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were members of
Turkish citizens' families.
On 8 May 1945 the Germans under
Otto Wagener surrendered
well as the
Dodecanese as a whole to the British, who soon after then
occupied the islands as a military protectorate.
In 1947, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the Dodecanese,
was united with Greece.
Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between
Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, concluding with the 1949 Armistice
The name of the US state of
Rhode Island is based on a reference to
Rhodes by Italian explorer Giovanni Verrazano. In a 1524 letter
detailing his excursion into the waters around either
Block Island or
Aquidneck Island Verrazano wrote that he "discovered an Ilande in the
form of a triangle, distant from the maine lande 3 leagues, about the
bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes".
Fountain square at the ancient site of Kameiros
Medieval castle of Monolithos
Colossus of Rhodes
Colossus of Rhodes was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders
of the Ancient World. This giant bronze statue was documented as once
standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC and destroyed in
an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today.
Historical sites on the island of
Rhodes include the Acropolis of
Acropolis of Rhodes
Acropolis of Rhodes with the Temple of Pythian Apollo and
an ancient theatre and stadium, ancient Ialysos, ancient Kamiros,
the Governor's Palace,
Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the
Palace of the Grand Masters,
Kahal Shalom Synagogue
Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish
Quarter, the Archeological Museum, the ruins of the castle of
Monolithos, the castle of Kritinia, St. Catherine Hospice and Rhodes
Filerimos Monastery in Ialysos
The predominant religion is Greek Orthodox; the island is the seat of
the Metropolis of Rhodes.
There is a significant Latin Catholic minority on the island of
2,000, many of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the
end of the Italian occupation, pastorally served by the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Rhodes.
Main article: Turks of the Dodecanese
Rhodes has a Turkish Muslim minority, a remnant from Ottoman Turkish
times who were not required in the population exchange of 1923-24 to
leave because the
Dodecanese Islands were under Italian
administration. They are organized around the Turkish Association of
Rhodes (Turkish: Rodos Türk Derneği), which gives the figure 3,500
for the population they bring together and represent for the
island. The number of the Turks in
Rhodes could be as many as
See also: Selahattin Ülkümen
The Jewish community of Rhodes goes back to the first century AD.
Kahal Shalom Synagogue, established in 1557, during the Ottoman era,
is the oldest synagogue in
Greece and still stands in the Jewish
quarter of the old town of Rhodes. At its peak in the 1920s, the
Jewish community was one-third of the town's total population. In
the 1940s, there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds.
The Nazis deported and killed most of the community during the
Holocaust. Kahal Shalom has been renovated with the help of foreign
donors but few Jews live year-round in
Rhodes today, so services are
not held on a regular basis.
Jewish Museum of Rhodes was established in 1997 to preserve the
Jewish history and culture of the Jews of Rhodes. It is adjacent to
the Kahal Shalom Synagogue.
View of Archangelos
Lindos with the Acropolis
St Paul's Bay, Lindos
The present municipality
Rhodes was formed at the 2011 local
government reform by the merger of the following 10 former
municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities
Afantou (Afantou, Archipoli)
Archangelos (Archangelos, Malonas, Masari)
Attavyros (Embonas, Kritinia, Monolithos, Siana, Agios Isidoros)
Kallithea (Kalythies, Koskinou, Psinthos)
Kameiros (Soroni, Apollona, Dimylia, Kalavarda, Platania, Salakos,
Lindos (Lindos, Kalathos, Laerma, Lardos, Pylona)
Petaloudes (Kremasti, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi, Theologos,
South Rhodes (Gennadi, Apolakkia, Arnitha, Asklipieio, Vati, Istrios,
Kattavia, Lachania, Mesanagros, Profilia)
The municipality has an area of 1400.681 km2. It covers the
Rhodes and a few uninhabited offshore islets.
was the capital of the former
Rhodes is the
most populated island of the
South Aegean Region.
Towns and villages
Rhodes has 43 towns and villages:
View of the market (Nea Agora) of Mandraki (
Rhodes city), built during
the Italian period
The economy is tourist-oriented, and the most developed sector is
service. Tourism has elevated
Rhodes economically, compared to the
rest of Greece.
Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail,
though other industry includes agricultural goods production,
stockbreeding, fishery and winery.
Diagoras Airport, arrivals terminal
Rhodes has three airports but only one is public. Diagoras Airport,
one of the biggest in Greece, is the main entrance/exit point for both
locals and tourists. The island is well connected with other major
Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and
cities via charter flights.
Rhodes International Airport, "Diagoras": public airport, 14 km
(9 mi) southwest of
Rhodes City, third in international passenger
volume and fourth in total passenger volume in Greece.
Rhodes Maritsa Airport: closed to public, near Maritsa village. Built
in 1938 by the Italians, it was the first airport of the island and
was the public airport until 1977. Nowadays, it serves the Hellenic
Air Force and is sometimes used for car races.
Kalathos Airfield: inoperative, 7 km (4 mi) north of Lindos.
Built by the Italians during World War II, was called Aeroporto di
Gadurrà. Today only the runway is visible.
Kattavia Airstrip, located in the south of the island it was an
emergency airstrip built by the Italians during World War II. Today it
is abandoned.[clarification needed]
Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental and
MS Thomson Majesty
MS Thomson Majesty at the harbour of Rhodes
Kameiros Skala Dock
Rhodes has five ports, three of them in
Rhodes City, one in the west
Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos.
Central Port: located in the city of
Rhodes serves exclusively
international traffic consisting of scheduled services to/from Turkey,
cruise ships and yachts. Since Summer 2012, the port is also a
homeport for Costa Cruises during the summer period.
Kolona Port: opposite and north of the central port, serves
Dodecanese traffic and all sizes yachts.
Akandia Port: the new port of the island, south and next to the
central port, being built since the 1960s, for domestic, cargo and
general purpose traffic. No land facilities exist although the
municipality is in the process of erecting a passenger terminal.
Kamiros Skala Dock: 30 km (19 mi) south west of the city
Kamiros ruins serves mainly the island of Halki
Lardos Dock: formerly servicing local industries, now under
development as an alternative port for times when the central port is
inaccessible due to weather conditions. It is situated in a rocky
shore near the village of Lardos in south east Rhodes.
The road network of the island is mostly paved. There
are four major arteries:
Kamiros Province Avenue: Two lane, runs through the west coast
north to south and connects
Rhodes City with
Diagoras Airport and
Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95): Four and two
lane, runs mainly inland north to south and connects
Rhodes City with
Lindos. Part from
Rhodes Town until Kolympia is now 4
lanes, the rest until
Lindos is 2 lanes.
Kallithea Province Avenue: Two lanes, runs through the east
coast north to south and connects
Rhodes City with Faliraki
Tsairi-Airport National Avenue: Four and two lane, runs inland east to
west and connects the east coast with the west and the
Lindos-Katavia Province Avenue: Two lane, begins just before Lindos
and though villages and resorts leads to Katavia village, the
southernmost of the island, from where a further deviation leads to
Ring Road (Phase 1): Beginning from the new marina and
ending to Rhodes-
Kallithea province avenue is a four lane expressway.
Future roads:
Further widening of E-95[clarification needed] from Kolympia to
Lindos. This is to be four lane with a jersey barrier in the middle.
It is still unknown when constructions will begin and most importantly
Ring Road phases 2 and 3 pending; phase 2 will extend the expressway
Greek National Road 95 while phase 3 will further extend it from
Greek National Road 95 to
Rhodes General Hospital where it supposedly
will connect to also planned new
Rhodes City- Airport expressway.
Plans also exist for a new four lane express road connecting Rhodes
Diagoras Airport that is intended to relieve congestion on
the coastal west avenue. The so called Leoforos Mesogeion is vastly
anticipated and is a top priority for local authorities.
Bus services are handled by two operators:
Rhodes City company that also services suburban areas (Faliraki,
Ialysos, Kremasti, Airport, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi) and the west
coast of the island
KTEL: State-owned buses that serve villages and resorts in the east
coast of the island
Cars and motorbikes
Rhodes often own more than one car, along with a
motorbike. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months.
The island is served by 450 taxis.
Diagoras Stadium in the city of Rhodes
AS Rodos and
Diagoras F.C. are the island's biggest teams
and rivals. Both used to compete at the national level until a couple
of years ago reaching National B' division but currently both compete
at the first-tier local level. Local football leagues (organized at
the prefecture level) contain three divisions with more than 50
teams. Many stadia are grass covered.[citation
Basketball: Colossus BC sponsors professional basketball and currently
plays in the top-level Greek Basket League. The local league includes
two divisions with 14 teams. Two indoor courts exist
Rhodes City, and one each in
Ialysos and Kremasti.
Volleyball: local teams only.
Water polo: mostly amateur based. There is not any single indoor pool
on the island.
Rugby: introduced in 2007. Teams compete at the national
Tennis: tennis has a long history on the island.
Sailing: Island has competed at the international level[citation
Cycling: for a long period of time
Rhodes had the only cycling track
in Greece, producing Olympics-level competitors.
Rhodes competes in the bi-annual Island Games, which it hosted in
Pitaroudia, a traditional chickpea dumpling from
Rhodes and Dodecanese
Local specialties of
Rhodes include avranies, koulouria, pouggia,
tsirigia, fanouropita, katimeria, melekouni, pouggakia, takakia, or
mantinades, muchalebi and pitaroudia. The pitaroudia
is a large chick pea fritter, and is a characteristic dish in
Diagoras of Rhodes
Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons
Agesander (1st century BC), sculptor
Apollonius (3rd century BC), epic poet
Lindos (3rd century BC), sculptor
Lindos (6th century BC), philosopher and one of the Seven
Sages of Ancient Greece
Diagoras (5th century BC), boxer, multiple Olympic winner
Dinocrates (4th century BC), architect and technical adviser for
Alexander the Great
Hecato (c. 100 BC), Stoic philosopher
Hieronymus, (c.290-c.230 BC), Peripatetic philosopher
Hipparchus, (2nd century BC), astronomer, mathematician, geographer,
founder of trigonometry
Leonidas (2nd century BC), athlete
Memnon (380–333 BC), commander of mercenary army
Mentor (385-340 BC), mercenary soldier, brother of Memnon
Panaetius (c. 185 - c. 110/109 BC), Stoic philosopher
Timocreon (5th century BC), poet
Joannicius II of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch of
Reşit Galip, Turkish politician, one of the first ministers of
education of the Republic of Turkey
Niki Xanthou, long jumper
Nick Galis, basketball player,
FIBA Hall of Fame
FIBA Hall of Fame and Naismith Memorial
Basketball Hall of Fame member (his father was born in a small village
called Agios Isidoros)
Braith Anasta, rugby league player and
NRL premiership winner
(ancestral ties to the island through his father, Petros ("Peter")
Lawrence Durrell, writer and poet, author of the
Rhodes 1945-1947. In 1953 his travel book about
Reflections on a Marine Venus - was published.
Rhodes is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Greece.
Crete the island is the most visited destination in Greece, with
arrivals standing at 1.785.305 in 2013. In 2014 they stood at
1.931.005, while in 2015 the arrival number reduced slightly and stood
at 1.901.000. The average length of stay is estimated at 8 days.
Guests from Great Britain, Israel, France, Italy, Sweden and Norway
are the ones that constitute the biggest portion in terms of the
arrivals by country. In
Rhodes the supply of available rooms is
high, since more than 550 hotels are operating in the island, the
majority of which are 2 star hotels. Additionally, in terms of
competitiveness, the World Tourism Organization ranks
Greece in the
31st position globally.
Rhodes harbor 2017:
Rhodes panorama 2017:
Ancient regions of Anatolia
^ a b Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
^ "Rhodes". Visit Greece.
^ Paul Hellander, Greece, 2008
^ Duncan Garwood, Mediterranean Europe, 2009
^ Ryan Ver Berkmoes, Oliver Berry, Geert Cole, David Else, Western
^ Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, The challenge of tourism carrying
capacity assessment: theory and practice, 2004
^ Anthony Bale, trans., The Book of Marvels and Travels, Oxford 2012,
ISBN 0199600600, p. 16 and footnote
^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Rhodes
^ "Geography and Geomorphology - South Aegean".
^ Marco, M; Cavallaro, A; Pecchioli, E & Vernesi, C (2006-11-11),
"Artificial Occurrence of the Fallow Deer, Dama dama dama (L., 1758),
on the Island of
Rhodes (Greece): Insight from mtDNA Analysis", Human
Evolution, 21, No. 2: 167–175, doi:10.1007/s11598-006-9014-9
^ "Rhodes, Greece, 1481". Jan Kozak Collection: KZ13, The Earthquake
Engineering Online Archive.
^ Ambraseys, N. N.; Adams, R. D. (1998). "The
Rhodes earthquake of 26
June 1926". Journal of Seismology. 2 (3): 267–292.
^ "Earthquake's aftermath". Discover Rhodes. Retrieved 16 July
^ "Climatology - Rodos". Hellinic National Meteorological Service.
Retrieved 24 March 2017.
Rhodes Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
^ a b "Rhodes,
Greece - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 24
^ B. d'Agostino, "Funerary customs and society on
Rhodes in the
Geometric Period: some observations", in E. Herring and I. Lemos, eds.
Across Frontiers: Etruscans, Greeks, Phoenicians and Cypriots. Studies
in Honour of D. Ridgway and F.R. Serra Ridgway 2006:57-69.
Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book V, ch.III.
^ Sideris A., "Orientalizing Rhodian Jewellery in the Aegean",
Portal of the Aegean Archipelago,
^ A. Agelarakis"Demographic Dynamics and Funerary Rituals as Reflected
from Rhodian Handra Urns", Archival Report, Archaeological and
Historical Institute of Rhodes, 2005
^ He wrote about
Medea in the Argonautica.
^ Boardman, 199-201
Polybius (1889). Friedrich Otto Hultsch, ed. The Histories of
Polybius. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. xxviii. 14, 15, xxix.
Rhodes in antiquity see esp. R.M. Berthold,
Rhodes in the
Hellenistic Age Ithaca 1984.
^ See Acts 21.
^ a b c d e f Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Rhodes". In Kazhdan,
Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. 1791–1792.
^ Kia 2016, p. 223.
^ Greatrex & Lieu 2005, p. 197.
^ Howard-Johnston 2006, p. 33.
^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 313.
^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
pp. 325, 327. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 344.
^ Brownworth, Lars (2009). Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine
Empire That Rescued Western Civilization. Crown. p. 233.
ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5. ... the Muslims captured
Ephesus in 1090
and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and
Lesbos fell in
^ Mueller, Edwin (1930). Die Poststempel auf der Freimarken-Ausgabe
1867 von Österreich und Ungarn.
^ Mueller, Edwin (1961). Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia
Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864.
^ "Acropolis if Rhodes:Information". Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ "Καθολικη Εκκλησια Τησ Ροδου".
Catholicchurchrhodes.com. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
^ Turkish wedding in
Rhodes attended by Abdullah Gül (in Turkish)
^ Ürkek bir siyasetin tarih önündeki ağır vebali: Oniki
ada : hatalı kararlar, acı kayıplar at Google Books
^ "MUM GİBİ ERİYORLAR".
^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı'ndan".
^ See Angel, Marc. The Jews of Rhodes: The History of a Sephardic
Community. Sepher-Hermon Press Inc. and The Union of Sephardic
Congregations. New York: 1978 (1st ed.), 1980 (2nd ed.), 1998 (3rd
^ "History of Jewish Greece". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved
^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour — Greece".
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
^ F.Fornol: Lachania
^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average
elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
^ Cite error: The named reference census11 was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ "Bus schedule" (PDF). Ministry of Economy, Development and
International Island Games Association
International Island Games Association website. Retrieved 27Jun08.
^ Summer, A. (2015). 100 Places in
Greece Every Woman Should Go. 100
Places. Travelers' Tales. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60952-108-0.
Retrieved June 22, 2017.
^ a b sete.gr
^ world tourism organization competitiveness ranking
Boardman, John ed., The Oxford History of Classical Art, 1993, OUP,
Greatrex, Geoffrey; Lieu, Samuel N. C. (2005). The Roman Eastern
Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 363-628. Routledge.
Howard-Johnston, J.D. (2006). East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the End
of Antiquity: Historiographical and
Historical Studies. Ashgate
Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0860789925.
Kia, Mehrdad (2016). he Persian Empire: A
Historical Encyclopedia [2
Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
Nicolle, David (1996), Sassanian Armies: the Iranian Empire Early 3rd
to Mid-7th Centuries AD, Stockport: Montvert,
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Beaches in Rhodes
The 12 major islands
Adelfoi Syrnas Islets
Agioi Theodoroi Halkis
Makry Aspronisi Leipson
Megalo Aspronisi Leipson
Administrative division of the
Southern Aegean Region
5,286 km2 (2,041 sq mi)
309,015 (as of 2011)
34 (since 2011)
Regional unit of Andros
Regional unit of Kalymnos
Regional unit of Karpathos
Regional unit of Kea-Kythnos
Regional unit of Kos
Regional unit of Milos
Regional unit of Mykonos
Regional unit of Naxos
Naxos and Lesser Cyclades
Regional unit of Paros
Regional unit of Rhodes
Regional unit of Syros
Regional unit of Thira
Regional unit of Tinos
Giorgos Hadjimarkos (since 2014)
Subdivisions of the municipality of Rhodes
Municipal unit of Afantou
Municipal unit of Archangelos
Municipal unit of Attavyros
Municipal unit of Ialysos
Municipal unit of Kallithea
Municipal unit of Kameiros
Municipal unit of Lindos
Municipal unit of Petaloudes
Municipal unit of
Municipal unit of South Rhodes
Küçük Tavşan Adası
Agios Georgios Skopelou
Landmarks of Rhodes
Acropolis of Rhodes
Aquarium of Rhodes
Archaeological Museum of Rhodes
Fortifications of Rhodes
Grand Master's Palace
Hafiz Ahmed Agha Library
Kahal Shalom Synagogue
New Market (Mandraki)
Port of Rhodes
Temple of Aphrodite
Rest of the island
Lindos (Acropolis of Lindos)
Colossus of Rhodes
Greek Dark Ages
Ancient Greek colonies
Antigonid Macedonian army
Army of Macedon
Sacred Band of Thebes
List of ancient Greeks
Kings of Argos
Archons of Athens
Kings of Athens
Kings of Commagene
Kings of Lydia
Kings of Macedonia
Kings of Paionia
Attalid kings of Pergamon
Kings of Pontus
Kings of Sparta
Tyrants of Syracuse
Diogenes of Sinope
Alexander the Great
Milo of Croton
Philip of Macedon
Ancient Greek tribes
Funeral and burial practices
Arts and science
Greek Revival architecture
Funeral and burial practices
Theatre of Dionysus
Tunnel of Eupalinos
Third Journey of Paul the Apostle
7. Macedonia (again)