RHODES (Greek : Ρόδος, Ródos ) is the largest of the
Dodecanese islands in terms of land area and also the island group's
historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate
municipality within the
Rhodes regional unit , which is part of the
South Aegean administrative region . The principal town of the island
and seat of the municipality is
Rhodes . The city of
50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of
Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of
Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights
of Saint John of Jerusalem , who once conquered the land.
Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes
, one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . The Medieval Old
Town of the
City of Rhodes has been declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe.
* 1 Name
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Flora
* 2.2 Fauna
* 2.3 Earthquakes
* 2.4 Climate
* 3 History
* 3.1 Early and classical antiquity
* 3.2 Hellenistic age
* 3.3 Byzantine period
* 3.4 Crusader and Islamic rule
* 3.5 Modern history
* 4 Archaeology
* 5 Religion
* 5.2 Islam
* 5.3 Judaism
* 6 Government
* 6.1 Towns and villages
* 7 Economy
* 8 Transportation
* 8.1 Air
* 8.2 Sea
* 8.3 Road network
* 8.4 Bus
* 8.5 Cars and motorbikes
* 9 Sports
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Cuisine
* 10.2 In popular culture
* 10.3 Cinema
* 11 Notable people
* 12 Tourism
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Sources
* 16 External links
The island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its
history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian ,
Rodos in Turkish , and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino .
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville incorrectly reports that Rhodes
was formerly called "Collosus", through a conflation of the Colossus
Rhodes and Paul 's
Epistle to the Colossians , which refers to
Topographic map of Rhodes. Akramitis mountain Ixia
Rhodes Valley of
The island of
Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead , 79.7 km (49.5 mi)
long and 38 km (24 mi) wide, with a total area of approximately 1,400
square kilometres (541 sq mi) and a coastline of approximately 220 km
Limestone is the main bedrock. The city of
located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the
ancient and modern commercial harbours . The main air gateway
(Diagoras International Airport , IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9
mi) to the southwest of the city in Paradisi . The road network
radiates from the city along the east and west coasts.
Outside of the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small
villages and spa resorts, among them
Pefkos , Archangelos ,
Koskinou , Embona
(Attavyros), Paradisi , and
Trianta (Ialysos). There are mineral-rich
spring water (and sometimes sea water) used to give medicinal baths
and the spa resorts offer various health treatments.
Rhodes is situated 363 km (226 mi) east-south-east from the Greek
mainland, and 18 km (11 mi) from the southern shore of
Natural history of Rhodes
The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and
covered with forests of pine (
Pinus brutia ) and cypress (Cupressus
sempervirens). While the shores are rocky, the island has arable
strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables, olives and
other crops are grown.
Natural history of Rhodes
The Rhodian population of fallow deer was found to be genetically
distinct in 2005, and to be of urgent conservation concern. In
Petaloudes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large
numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount
Attavyros , at 1,216 metres (3,990 ft), is the island's highest point
Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus
Rhodes ; one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of
Rhodes; and one on 26 June 1926.
On 15 July 2008,
Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake
causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death.
Rhodes has a hot-summer
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen
climate classification ).
CLIMATE DATA FOR RHODES
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
Source #1: Hellinic National Meteorological Service
Source #2: NOAA (Record temperature), Weather Atlas (sunshine
CLIMATE DATA FOR RHODES
AVERAGE SEA TEMPERATURE °C (°F)
MEAN DAILY DAYLIGHT HOURS
AVERAGE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX
SOURCE: WEATHER ATLAS
EARLY AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY
Mycenean necklace of carnelian found in
drachma of Rhodes, 88/42 BC. Obverse: Radiate head of
Rose , "rhodon" (ῥόδον) the symbol of Rhodes.
Temple of Apollo at the
Acropolis of Rhodes .
The island was inhabited in the
Neolithic period, although little
remains of this culture. In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to
Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the
Telchines and associated the island of
Danaus ; it was
sometimes nicknamed Telchinis.
In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze
Age collapse , the first renewed outside contacts were with
In the 8th century BC, the island's settlements started to form, with
the coming of the
Dorians , who built the three important cities of
Kameiros , which together with
Kos , Cnidus and
Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis
(Greek for six cities).
Pindar 's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of
Helios the sun god and the nymph
Rhodos , and the cities were named
for their three sons. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus native to the
Diodorus Siculus added that
Actis , one of the sons of Helios
and Rhode, travelled to
Egypt . He built the city of Heliopolis and
taught the Egyptians astrology .
Homer mentions that
Rhodes participated in the
Trojan War under the
In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena
received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small
ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros
on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was
founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous
sequence of carved ivory figurines. The cemeteries of
Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing
Rhodian jewellery, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC.
Phoenician presence on the island at
Ialysos is attested in traditions
recorded much later by Rhodian historians.
The Persians invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn
defeated by forces from
Athens in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined
the Athenian League . When the
Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC,
Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the
League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time
withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way.
In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory . They built the
Rhodes , a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its
regular plan was, according to
Strabo , superintended by the Athenian
In 357 BC, the island was conquered by the king
then it fell again to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also
Rhodes then became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the
Great in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians. The Colossus of
Rhodes , as depicted in an artist's impression of 1880.
Following the death of Alexander, his generals vied for control of
the kingdom. Three—
Ptolemy , Seleucus , and Antigonus —succeeded
in dividing the kingdom among themselves.
Rhodes formed strong
commercial and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in
Alexandria , and
together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade
throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC.
The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center;
its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its
famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared
masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician
Aeschines , who
formed a school at Rhodes;
Apollonius of Rhodes ; the observations
and works of the astronomers
Geminus , the rhetorician
Dionysius Thrax . Its school of sculptors developed, under Pergamese
influence, a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as
Agesander of Rhodes , with two other Rhodian
sculptors, carved the famous Laocoön group , now in the Vatican
Museums , and the large sculptures rediscovered at Sperlonga in the
Tiberius , probably in the early Imperial period .
In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son, Demetrius , to besiege Rhodes
in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge
siege engines , including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a siege
Helepolis that weighed 360,000 pounds (163,293 kg).
Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one year, he relented
and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge store of military
equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect
a statue of their sun god,
Helios , the statue since called the
Colossus of Rhodes .
Throughout the 3rd century BC,
Rhodes attempted to secure her
independence and her commerce, most especially her virtual control
over the grain trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Both of these goals
were dependent upon no one of the three great Hellenistic states
achieving dominance, and consequently the Rhodians pursued a policy of
maintaining a balance of power among the Antigonids, Seleucids and
Ptolemies, even if that meant going to war with her traditional ally,
Egypt. To this end they employed as leverage their economy and their
excellent navy, which was manned by proverbially the finest sailors in
the Mediterranean world: "If we have ten Rhodians, we have ten ships."
The Rhodians also established their dominance on the shores of Caria
across their island, which became known as the "
Rhodian Peraia ". It
extended roughly from the modern city of
Muğla (ancient Mobolla) in
the north and
Lycia in the south, near the
Dalyan , Turkey.
Rhodes successfully carried on this policy through the course of the
third century BC, an impressive achievement for what was essentially a
democratic state. By the end of that period, however, the balance of
power was crumbling, as declining Ptolemaic power made
attractive target for Seleucid ambitions. In 203/2 BC the young and
dynamic kings of Antigonid Macedon and Seleucid Asia, Philip V and
Antiochus III , agreed to accept—at least temporarily—their
respective military ambitions, Philip's campaign in the Aegean and
western Anatolia and Antiochus’ final solution of the Egyptian
question. Heading a coalition of small states, the Rhodians checked
Philip\'s navy , but not his superior army. Without a third power to
which to turn, the Rhodians appealed in 201 BC to the
Roman Republic .
Medieval gate at the Acropolis of
Despite being exhausted by the titanic struggle against Hannibal
(218-201 BC) the Romans agreed to intervene, having already been
stabbed in the back by Philip during the war against Carthage. The
Senate saw the appeal from
Rhodes and her allies as the opportunity to
pressure Philip. The result was the
Second Macedonian War (200-196
BC), which ended Macedon's role as a major player and preserved
Rhodian independence. Rhodian influence in the Aegean was cemented
through the organization of the
Cyclades into the Second Nesiotic
League under Rhodian leadership.
The Romans actually withdrew from
Greece after the end of the
conflict, but the resulting power vacuum quickly drew in Antiochus and
subsequently the Romans, who defeated (192-188 BC) the last
Mediterranean power that might even vaguely threaten their
predominance. Having provided Rome with valuable naval help in her
first foray into Asia, the Rhodians were rewarded with territory and
enhanced status. The Romans once again evacuated the east – the
Senate preferred clients to provinces – but it was clear that Rome
now ruled the world and Rhodian autonomy was ultimately dependent upon
good relations with them.
And those good graces soon evaporated in the wake of the Third
Macedonian War (171-168 BC). In 169 BC, during the war against Perseus
Agepolis as ambassador to the consul Quintus Marcius
Philippus , and then to Rome in the following year, hoping to turn the
Senate against the war.
Rhodes remained scrupulously neutral during
the war, but in the view of hostile elements in the Senate she had
been a bit too friendly with the defeated King Perseus. Some actually
proposed declaring war on the island republic, but this was averted.
Rhodes became a permanent ally of Rome, ending an independence
that no longer had any meaning. It was said that the Romans ultimately
turned against the Rhodians because the islanders were the only people
they had encountered who were more arrogant than themselves.
After surrendering its independence
Rhodes became a cultural and
educational center for Roman noble families and was especially noted
for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras and the unknown
Rhetorica ad Herennium . At first, the state was an
important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were
later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Cassius
eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. In the early
Rhodes became a favorite place for political exiles.
In the 1st century AD, the Emperor
Tiberius spent a brief term of
exile on Rhodes. Saint Paul brought
Christianity to people on the
Rhodes reached her zenith in the 3rd century.
In 395 with the division of the
Roman Empire , the long Byzantine
period began for Rhodes. In
Late Antiquity , the island was the
capital of the
Roman province of the Islands , headed by a praeses
(hegemon in Greek), and encompassing most of the
Aegean islands , with
twenty cities. Correspondingly, the island was also the metropolis of
the ecclesiastical province of Cyclades, with eleven suffragan sees.
Beginning from ca. 600 AD, its influence in maritime issues was
manifested in the collection of maritime laws known as "Rhodian Sea
Law " (Nomos Rhodion Nautikos), accepted throughout the Mediterranean
and in use throughout Byzantine times (and influencing the development
of admiralty law up to the present). In 622/3, during the climactic
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 ,
Rhodes was captured by the
Sasanian navy .
Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah
I in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes. The
island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their first
attack on Constantinople . When their fleet was destroyed by Greek
fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip, however,
the island was evacuated in 679/80 as part of the Byzantine–Umayyad
peace treaty. In 715 the Byzantine fleet dispatched against the Arabs
launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led to the installation of
Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne.
From the early 8th to the 12th centuries,
Rhodes belonged to the
Cibyrrhaeot Theme of the Byzantine Empire, and was a centre for
shipbuilding and commerce. In c. 1090, it was occupied by the forces
of the Seljuk Turks , not long after the
Battle of Manzikert . Rhodes
was recaptured by the Emperor
Alexios I Komnenos during the First
Crusade . Part of the late medieval
Fortifications of Rhodes .
As Byzantine central power weakened under the
(1185–1204), in the first half of the 13th century,
the centre of an independent domain under
Leo Gabalas and his brother
John , until it was occupied by the Genoese in 1248–1250. The
Genoese were evicted by the
Empire of Nicaea , after which the island
became a regular province of the Nicaean state (and after 1261 of the
restored Byzantine Empire). In 1305, the island was given as a fief to
Andrea Morisco , a Genoese adventurer who had entered Byzantine
Rhodes was controlled by Menteşe , was one of Anatolian
beyliks between 1300 and 1314.
CRUSADER AND ISLAMIC RULE
Knights Hospitaller Ottoman Janissaries
Knights of Saint John at the Siege of
Rhodes in 1522,
from an Ottoman manuscript.
Rhodes in the 19th century
In 1306–1310, the Byzantine era of the island's history came to an
end when the island was occupied by the
Knights Hospitaller . Under
the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt
into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous
monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master , were built
during this period.
The strong walls which the knights had built withstood the attacks of
the Sultan of
Egypt in 1444, and a siege by the
Ottomans under Mehmed
II in 1480. Eventually, however,
Rhodes fell to the large army of
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. The Sultan deployed 400
ships delivering 100,000 men to the island (200,000 in other sources).
Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers
de L\'Isle-Adam , had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their
fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the
surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to the
Kingdom of Sicily . Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims
seem to have regarded the conduct of Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as
extremely valiant, and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of
the Faith by Pope Adrian VI (see Knights of
Rhodes ). The
knights would later move their base of operations to Malta .
Rhodes was thereafter a possession of the
Ottoman Empire (see Sanjak
Rhodes ) for nearly four centuries.
5 soldi Austrian Levant stamp cancelled in brown RHODUS.
Palazzo Governale (today the offices of the Prefecture of the
Dodecanese), built during the Italian period.
The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding
nations, including Jews. Under Ottoman rule, they generally did fairly
well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February
1840, the Jews of
Rhodes were falsely accused of ritually murdering a
Christian boy. This became known as the
Rhodes blood libel .
Austria opened a post-office at RHODUS (Venetian name) before 1864,
as witnessed by stamps with Franz-Josef head.
In 1912, Italy seized
Rhodes from the Turks during the Italo-Turkish
War . The island's population thus bypassed many of the events
associated with the "exchange of the minorities" between
Turkey . After
World War I
World War I , the island, together with the rest of the
Dodecanese , was officially assigned to Italy in the Treaty of
Lausanne . It then became the core of their possession of the Isole
Italiane dell\'Egeo .
Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943 , the British
attempted to get the Italian garrison on
Rhodes to change sides. This
was anticipated by the German Army , which succeeded in occupying the
island with the Battle of
Rhodes . In great measure, the German
occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese
The Turkish Consul
Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable
risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about
200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were members of
Turkish citizens' families.
On 8 May 1945 the Germans under
Otto Wagener surrendered
well as the
Dodecanese as a whole to the British, who soon after then
occupied the islands as a military protectorate.
In 1947, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the
was united with Greece.
Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between
Lebanon , and
Syria , concluding with the 1949
Armistice Agreements .
Fountain square at the ancient site of
Medieval castle of Monolithos .
Colossus of Rhodes was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders
of the Ancient World . This giant bronze statue was documented as once
standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC and destroyed in
an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today.
Historical sites on the island of
Rhodes include the Acropolis of
Lindos , the
Acropolis of Rhodes with the Temple of Pythian Apollo and
an ancient theatre and stadium, ancient
Ialysos , ancient
the Governor\'s Palace ,
Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the
Palace of the Grand Masters ,
Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish
Quarter , the Archeological Museum , the ruins of the castle of
Monolithos , the castle of
Kritinia , St. Catherine Hospice and Rhodes
Filerimos Monastery in
The predominant religion is
Greek Orthodox ; the island is the seat
Metropolis of Rhodes .
There is a significant Latin Catholic minority on the island, many
of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the end of the
Italian occupation, pastorally served by the Roman Catholic
Main article: Turks of the
Rhodes has a Turkish Muslim minority, a remnant from Ottoman Turkish
times. They are organized around the Turkish Association of Rhodes
(Turkish : Rodos Türk Derneği), which gives the figure 3,500 for the
population they bring together and represent for the island. The
number of the Turks in
Rhodes could be as many as 4,000.
The Jewish community of
Rhodes goes back to the first century AD.
Kahal Shalom Synagogue , established in 1557, during the Ottoman era,
is the oldest synagogue in
Greece and still stands in the Jewish
quarter of the old town of Rhodes. At its peak in the 1920s, the
Jewish community was one-third of the town's total population. In the
1940s, there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds. The
Nazis deported and killed most of the community during the Holocaust .
Kahal Shalom has been renovated with the help of foreign donors but
few Jews live year-round in
Rhodes today, so services are not held on
a regular basis.
Jewish Museum of Rhodes was established in 1997 to preserve the
Jewish history and culture of the Jews of Rhodes. It is adjacent to
Kahal Shalom Synagogue .
View of Archangelos . View of
Lindos with the Acropolis.
St Paul's Bay, Lindos.
The present municipality
Rhodes was formed at the 2011 local
government reform by the merger of the following 10 former
municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities
Afantou (Afantou, Archipoli)
* Archangelos (Archangelos, Malonas, Masari)
Attavyros (Embonas, Kritinia, Monolithos, Siana, Agios Isidoros)
Kallithea (Kalythies, Koskinou, Psinthos)
Kameiros (Soroni, Apollona, Dimylia, Kalavarda, Platania, Salakos,
Lindos (Lindos, Kalathos, Laerma, Lardos, Pylona)
Petaloudes (Kremasti, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi, Theologos,
South Rhodes (Gennadi, Apolakkia, Arnitha, Asklipieio, Vati,
Istrios, Kattavia, Lachania,
Mesanagros , Profilia)
The municipality has an area of 1400.681 km2. It covers the island
Rhodes and a few uninhabited offshore islets.
Rhodes city was the
capital of the former
Rhodes is the most
populated island of the
South Aegean Region.
TOWNS AND VILLAGES
Rhodes has 43 towns and villages:
View of the Market (Nea Agora) of Mandraki (
Rhodes city), built
during the Italian period.
The economy is tourist-oriented, and the most developed sector is
service. Tourism has elevated
Rhodes economically, compared to the
rest of Greece.
Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail,
though other industry includes agricultural goods production,
stockbreeding, fishery and winery.
Diagoras Airport, arrivals terminal.
Rhodes has three airports but only one is public. Diagoras Airport,
one of the biggest in Greece, is the main entrance/exit point for both
locals and tourists. The island is well connected with other major
Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and
cities via charter flights.
Rhodes International Airport, "Diagoras" : public airport, 14 km
(9 mi) southwest of
Rhodes City , third in international passenger
volume and fourth in total passenger volume in Greece.
Rhodes Maritsa Airport : closed to public, near Maritsa village.
Built in 1938 by the Italians, it was the first airport of the island
and was the public airport until 1977. Nowadays, it serves the
Hellenic Air Force and is sometimes used for car races.
Kalathos Airfield: inoperative, 7 km (4 mi) north of
Built by the Italians during World War II, was called Aeroporto di
Gadurrà. Today only the runway is visible.
Kattavia Airstrip, located in the south of the island it was an
emergency airstrip built by the Italians during
World War II
World War II . Today
it is abandoned.
Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental and
MS Thomson Majesty " at the harbour of Rhodes. The
Kameiros Skala Dock.
Rhodes has five ports, three of them in
Rhodes City , one in the west
Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos .
* Central Port: located in the city of
Rhodes serves exclusively
international traffic consisting of scheduled services to/from Turkey,
cruise ships and yachts. Since Summer 2012, the port is also a
homeport for Costa Cruises during the summer period.
* Kolona Port: opposite and north of the central port, serves
Dodecanese traffic and all sizes yachts.
* Akandia Port: the new port of the island, south and next to the
central port, being built since the 1960s, for domestic, cargo and
general purpose traffic. No land facilities exist although the
municipality is in the process of erecting a passenger terminal.
Kamiros Skala Dock: 30 km (19 mi) south west of the city near
Kamiros ruins serves mainly the island of Halki
* Lardos Dock: formerly servicing local industries, now under
development as an alternative port for times when the central port is
inaccessible due to weather conditions. It is situated in a rocky
shore near the village of Lardos in south east Rhodes.
The road network of the island is mostly paved. There are four major
Kamiros Province Avenue: Two lane, runs through the west
coast north to south and connects
Rhodes City with Diagoras Airport
Lindos National Avenue (
Greek National Road 95 ): Four and
two lane, runs mainly inland north to south and connects
with Lindos. Part from
Rhodes Town until Kolympia is now 4 lanes, the
Lindos is 2 lanes.
Kallithea Province Avenue: Two lanes, runs through the east
coast north to south and connects
Rhodes City with
* Tsairi-Airport National Avenue: Four and two lane, runs inland
east to west and connects the east coast with the west and the
* Lindos-Katavia Province Avenue: Two lane, begins just before
Lindos and though villages and resorts leads to Katavia village, the
southernmost of the island, from where a further deviation leads to
Ring Road : First part beginning from the new marina
and ending to Rhodes-
Kallithea province avenue is now almost complete
as a four lane expressway. Traffic lights will be installed till the
end of 2013 which will mark the completion of the road making left
* Further widening of E-95 from Kolympia to Lindos. This is to be
four lane with a jersey barrier in the middle. It is still unknown
when constructions will begin and most importantly end.
* Plans also exist for a new four lane express road connecting
Rhodes Town with
Diagoras Airport that is intended to relieve
congestion on the coastal west avenue.
Bus services are handled by two operators:
Rhodes City company that also services suburban areas
(Faliraki, Ialysos, Kremasti, Airport, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi)
and the west coast of the island
* KTEL: State-owned buses that serve villages and resorts in the
east coast of the island
CARS AND MOTORBIKES
Rhodes often own more than one car, along with a
motorbike. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months.
The island is served by 450 taxis.
Diagoras Stadium in the city of Rhodes.
AS Rodos and
Diagoras F.C. are the island's biggest
teams and rivals. Both used to compete at the national level until a
couple of years ago reaching National B' division but currently both
compete at the first-tier local level. Local football leagues
(organized at the prefecture level) contain three divisions with more
than 50 teams. Many stadia are grass covered.
* Basketball: Colossus BC sponsors professional basketball and
currently plays in the top-level
Greek Basket League . The local
league includes two divisions with 14 teams. Two indoor courts exist
Rhodes City, and one each in
Ialysos and Kremasti.
* Volleyball: local teams only.
* Water polo: mostly amateur based. There is not any single indoor
pool on the island.
* Rugby: introduced in 2007. Teams compete at the national level.
* Tennis: tennis has a long history on the island.
* Sailing: Island has competed at the international level
* Cycling: for a long period of time
Rhodes had the only cycling
track in Greece, producing Olympics-level competitors.
Rhodes competes in the bi-annual Island Games , which it hosted in
Pitaroudia, a traditional chickpea dumpling from
Local specialities of
Rhodes include: avranies , koulouria , pouggia
, tsirigia , fanouropita , katimeria , melekouni , pouggakia , takakia
, or mantinades , muchalebi and pitaroudia. The pitaroudia is a large
chick pea fritter , and is a characteristic dish in Rhodes.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "hic Rhodus, hic
salta!"—"Here is Rhodes, jump here", an admonition to prove one's
idle boasts by deed rather than talk. It comes from an Aesop\'s fable
called "The Boastful Athlete" and was cited by
* The name of the US state of
Rhode Island is based on a reference
Rhodes by Italian explorer
Giovanni Verrazano . In a 1524 letter
detailing his excursion into the waters around either
Block Island or
Aquidneck Island Verrazano wrote that he "discovered an Ilande in the
form of a triangle, distant from the maine lande 3 leagues, about the
bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes".
Lawrence Durrell 's Reflections on a Marine Venus (1953) is the
author's semi-autobiographical account of his stay on the island after
World War II.
* In the
PlayStation 2 game
God of War II , both
Rhodes and the
Colossus of Rhodes are featured at the start of the game, offering a
mythological theory as to how the Colossus was destroyed. The Colossus
Rhodes is a common feature in many games, for example, it can be
built as a "Wonder" in
Rise of Nations and the Civilization series of
* In one book of the
Roman Mysteries series of children's novels by
Caroline Lawrence , the main characters visit
Rhodes to stop the
trading of slave labour.
Movies filmed on the island include:
They Who Dare
Surprise Package (film)
Surprise Package (film)
* The Guns of Navarone
Kiss the Girls (1965 film)
Signs of Life (1968 film)
Escape to Athena
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2
Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons.
* Agesander (1st century BC), sculptor
* Apollonius (3rd century BC), epic poet
* Chares of
Lindos (3rd century BC), sculptor
* Cleobulus of
Lindos (6th century BC), philosopher and one of the
Seven Sages of Ancient Greece
* Diagoras (5th century BC), boxer, multiple Olympic winner
Dinocrates (4th century BC), architect and technical adviser for
Alexander the Great
* Hecato (c. 100 BC), Stoic philosopher
* Hieronymus , (c.290-c.230 BC), Peripatetic philosopher
Hipparchus , (2nd century BC), astronomer, mathematician,
geographer, founder of trigonometry
* Leonidas (2nd century BC), athlete
* Memnon (380–333 BC), commander of mercenary army
* Mentor (385-340 BC), mercenary soldier, brother of Memnon
Panaetius (c. 185 - c. 110/109 BC), Stoic philosopher
Timocreon (5th century BC), poet
Joannicius II of Constantinople , Ecumenical Patriarch of
Reşit Galip , Turkish politician, one of the first ministers of
education of the Republic of
Niki Xanthou , long jumper
Nick Galis , basketball player,
FIBA Hall of Fame and Naismith
Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame member (his father was born in a
small village called Agios Isidoros )
Rhodes is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Greece.
Crete the island is the most visited destination in Greece, with
arrivals standing at 1.785.305 in 2013. In 2014 they stood at
1.931.005, while in 2015 the arrival number reduced slightly and stood
at 1.901.000. The average length of stay is estimated at 8 days.
Guests from Great Britain, Israel, France, Italy, Sweden and Norway
are the ones that constitute the biggest portion in terms of the
arrivals by country. In
Rhodes the supply of available rooms is high,
since more than 550 hotels are operating in the island, the majority
of which are 2 star hotels. Additionally, in terms of
competitiveness, the World Tourism Organization ranks
Greece in the
31st position globally.
* ^ A B C "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών
2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic
* ^ A B Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
* ^ "Rhodes". Visit Greece.
* ^ Paul Hellander, Greece, 2008
* ^ Duncan Garwood, Mediterranean Europe, 2009
* ^ Ryan Ver Berkmoes, Oliver Berry, Geert Cole, David Else,
Western Europe, 2009
* ^ Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, The challenge of tourism
carrying capacity assessment: theory and practice, 2004
* ^ Anthony Bale, trans., The Book of Marvels and Travels, Oxford
2012, ISBN 0199600600 , p. 16 and footnote
* ^ "Geography and Geomorphology - South Aegean".
* ^ Marco, M; Cavallaro, A; Pecchioli, E & Vernesi, C (2006-11-11),
"Artificial Occurrence of the Fallow Deer, Dama dama dama (L., 1758),
on the Island of
Rhodes (Greece): Insight from mtDNA Analysis", Human
Evolution, 21, No. 2: 167–175, doi :10.1007/s11598-006-9014-9
* ^ "Rhodes, Greece, 1481". Jan Kozak Collection: KZ13, The
Earthquake Engineering Online Archive.
* ^ Ambraseys, N. N.; Adams, R. D. (1998). "The
of 26 June 1926". Journal of Seismology . 2 (3): 267–292. doi
* ^ "Earthquake\'s aftermath". Discover Rhodes. Retrieved 16 July
* ^ "Climatology - Rodos". Hellinic National Meteorological
Service. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
* ^ "
Rhodes Climate Normals 1961–1990" . National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved March 1, 2015.
* ^ A B "Rhodes,
Greece - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved
24 March 2017.
* ^ B. d'Agostino, "Funerary customs and society on
Rhodes in the
Geometric Period : some observations", in E. Herring and I. Lemos,
eds. Across Frontiers: Etruscans, Greeks, Phoenicians and Cypriots.
Studies in Honour of D. Ridgway and F.R. Serra Ridgway 2006:57-69.
* ^ The
Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book V, ch.III.
* ^ Sideris A., "Orientalizing Rhodian Jewellery in the Aegean",
Portal of the Aegean Archipelago,
* ^ A. Agelarakis"Demographic Dynamics and Funerary Rituals as
Reflected from Rhodian Handra Urns", Archival Report, Archaeological
Historical Institute of Rhodes, 2005
* ^ He wrote about
Medea in the
* ^ Boardman, 199-201
Polybius (1889). Friedrich Otto Hultsch, ed. The Histories of
Polybius. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. xxviii. 14, 15, xxix. 4, 7.
* ^ On
Rhodes in antiquity see esp. R.M. Berthold,
Rhodes in the
Hellenistic Age Ithaca 1984.
* ^ See Acts 21.
* ^ A B C D E F Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Rhodes". In Kazhdan,
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium . Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. 1791–1792. ISBN 0-19-504652-8 .
* ^ Kia 2016 , p. 223.
* ^ Greatrex & Lieu 2005 , p. 197.
* ^ Howard-Johnston 2006 , p. 33.
* ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 313. ISBN
* ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 325,
327. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 .
* ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 344. ISBN
* ^ Brownworth, Lars (2009). Lost to the West: The Forgotten
Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization. Crown. p. 233.
ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5 . ... the Muslims captured
Ephesus in 1090 and
spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and
Lesbos fell in
* ^ Mueller, Edwin (1930). Die Poststempel auf der
Freimarken-Ausgabe 1867 von Österreich und Ungarn.
* ^ Mueller, Edwin (1961). Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia
Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864. p. 217.
* ^ "Acropolis if Rhodes:Information". Retrieved 15 May 2013.
* ^ "Καθολικη Εκκλησια Τησ Ροδου".
Catholicchurchrhodes.com. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
* ^ Turkish wedding in
Rhodes attended by Abdullah Gül (in
* ^ Ürkek bir siyasetin tarih önündeki ağır vebali: Oniki ada
: hatalı kararlar, acı kayıplar at
* ^ "MUM GİBİ ERİYORLAR".
* ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı\'ndan".
* ^ See Angel, Marc. The Jews of Rhodes: The History of a Sephardic
Community. Sepher-Hermon Press Inc. and The Union of Sephardic
Congregations. New York: 1978 (1st ed.), 1980 (2nd ed.), 1998 (3rd
* ^ "History of Jewish Greece". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved
* ^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour — Greece".
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
* ^ F.Fornol: Lachania
* ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of
Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
* ^ "3comma14.gr".
* ^ "Bus schedule" (PDF). Ministry of Economy, Development and
International Island Games Association website. Retrieved
* ^ Summer, A. (2015). 100 Places in
Greece Every Woman Should Go.
100 Places. Travelers' Tales. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60952-108-0 .
Retrieved June 22, 2017.
* ^ A B sete.gr
* ^ world tourism organization competitiveness ranking
* Boardman, John ed., The Oxford History of Classical Art, 1993,
OUP, ISBN 0198143869
* Greatrex, Geoffrey; Lieu, Samuel N. C. (2005). The Roman Eastern
Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 363-628. Routledge. ISBN
* Howard-Johnston, J.D. (2006). East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the
End of Antiquity: Historiographical and
Historical Studies. Ashgate
Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0860789925 .
* Kia, Mehrdad (2016). he Persian Empire: A
Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1610693912 .
* Nicolle, David (1996), Sassanian Armies: the Iranian Empire Early
3rd to Mid-7th Centuries AD, Stockport: Montvert, ISBN
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