Rhineland-Palatinate
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Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and sixth most populous of the sixteen states.
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and ...

Mainz
is the capital and largest city. Other cities are
Ludwigshafen am Rhein Ludwigshafen am Rhein (, meaning ''Ludwig's Port on the Rhine'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Sci ...
,
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
,
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley be ...

Trier
,
Kaiserslautern Kaiserslautern (; Palatine German language, Palatinate German: ''Lautre'') is a city in southwest Germany, located in the States of Germany, state of Rhineland-Palatinate at the edge of the Palatinate Forest. The Historic Kaiserslautern, historic ...
and
Worms The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists ...
. It is bordered by
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, ...
,
Saarland The Saarland ( , , ; french: Sarre ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...
,
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ), commonly shortened to BW or BaWü, is a states of Germany, German state (''Bundesland'') in Southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with France. With more than 11. ...
and
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. With an area of 21,000 squa ...
and by the countries
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
,
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
and
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. G ...

Belgium
. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, from parts of the former states of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europe ...

Prussia
(part of its Rhineland province),
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. With an area of 21,000 squa ...
and
Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a federal state A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterize ...

Bavaria
(its former outlying Palatinate kreis or district), by the French military administration in
Allied-occupied Germany Allied-occupied Germany (, literally "Germany in the occupation period") was the administration of Germany () upon German Instrument of Surrender, defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, when the victorious Allies of World War II, Allies asserte ...
. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the
Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...
in 1949 and shared the country's only border with the
Saar Protectorate The Saar Protectorate (german: Saarprotektorat ; french: Protectorat de la Sarre) officially Saarland (french: Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is ...
until the latter was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate's natural and cultural heritage includes the extensive Palatinate
winegrowing Viticulture (from the Latin word for ''vine'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, ranges ...
region, picturesque landscapes, and many castles and palaces.


History

The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
, on 30 August 1946. It was formed mainly from the southern part of the Prussian
Rhine Province The Rhine Province (german: Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (''Rheinpreußen'') or synonymous with the Rhineland The Rhineland (german: Rheinland, french: Rhénanie, nl, Rijnland, Latinised name: ''Rhenania'') is the name used ...
(the of
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...
and
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley be ...
), from
Rhenish Hesse Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-HesseDickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, p. 542. . (german: Rheinhessen) is a region and a former government district () in the German state of Rhineland-Pal ...
, from the western part of Nassau and the
Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a federal state A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterize ...

Bavaria
n Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of
Saarpfalz Saarpfalz (''Saar-Palatinate'') is a Kreis (district) in the south-east of the Saarland, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from west clockwise) Saarbrücken (district), Saarbrücken, Neunkirchen (German district), Neunkirchen, Kusel (district), K ...
. The Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region () is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, ...
is formed by the rivers
Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river that rises in the Vosges mountains and flows from western Germany through Luxembourg and north-eastern France. It is a bank (geography), left bank tributary of the Rhine, which it j ...
,
Sauer The Sauer (German language, German, Luxembourgish language, Luxembourgish) or Sûre (French language, French) is a river in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. A left tributary of the Moselle, its total length is . Rising near Vaux-sur-Sûre in the ...

Sauer
, and
Our Our or OUR may refer to: * The possessive form of "we" * Our (river) The Our (; , ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows i ...
, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland.


Emergence

The present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation (1945–1949) after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the ("government districts") of Koblenz and Trier (which formed the southern part of the Prussian
Rhine Province The Rhine Province (german: Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (''Rheinpreußen'') or synonymous with the Rhineland The Rhineland (german: Rheinland, french: Rhénanie, nl, Rijnland, Latinised name: ''Rhenania'') is the name used ...
), the parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse () west of the
River Rhine The Rhine (german: Rhein , french: Rhin, nl, Rijn, Walloon language, Walloon: ''Rén'', Limburgish and Sursilvan: ''Rein'', Sutsilvan and Surmiran: ''Ragn'', Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader, and Puter: ''Rain'', it, Reno, gsw, Rhi(n) including Als ...
and belonged to the
People's State of Hesse The People's State of Hesse (german: Volksstaat Hessen) was the name of the German state of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1918 until 1945. History After the end of World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, wa ...
(), parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (
Montabaur Montabaur () is a town and the district seat of the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It ...
), and the former Oldenburg region around
Birkenfeld Birkenfeld () is a town and the district seat of the Birkenfeld district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in ...
( Principality of Birkenfeld). On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French. To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums" (), Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau (for the hitherto Prussian government districts and regions of
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...
,
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley be ...
, and
Montabaur Montabaur () is a town and the district seat of the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It ...
) and Hesse-Palatinate (for the hitherto Bavarian Palatinate and old Hessian-Darmstadt province of
Rhenish Hesse Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-HesseDickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, p. 542. . (german: Rheinhessen) is a region and a former government district () in the German state of Rhineland-Pal ...
). The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French
military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its br ...
under General
Marie-Pierre Kœnig Marie Joseph Pierre François Kœnig (10 October 1898 – 2 September 1970) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: li ...

Marie-Pierre Kœnig
. It was initially called Rhenish-Palatinate ( or ); the name Rhineland-Palatinate () was first confirmed in the constitution of 18 May 1947. The provisional French government at that time wanted originally to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign ...
. When the Americans and British, however, had led the way with the establishment of German states, the French came under increasing pressure and eventually followed their example by setting up the states of
Baden__notoc__ Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany and North Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democrac ...
,
Württemberg-Hohenzollern Württemberg-Hohenzollern (french: Wurtemberg-Hohenzollern ) was a West German ) , capital = Bonn The Federal city of Bonn ( lat, Bonna) is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, w ...
, and Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the
Saarland The Saarland ( , , ; french: Sarre ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...
joining Rhineland-Palatinate.
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and ...

Mainz
was named as the state capital in the regulation; the "Mixed Commission" (), named as the highest organ of state charged with the administration of the new state and with the preparation of an advisory state assembly, started its work in Mainz. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
. On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly () took place there, and a draft constitution was drawn up. Previously, local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was (after a short term of office as the of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau) nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government.


Early years

Adolf Süsterhenn submitted to the Advisory State Assembly a draft
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
, which was passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote, with the absolute majority of the
CDU CDU may refer to: Education * Catholic Distance University, a worldwide Catholic university based in Hamilton, Virginia, U.S offering theological instruction and degrees via Internet * Cebu Doctors' University, a medical university in the Phili ...
voting for and the
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
and voting against. A point of contention involved the draft constitution providing for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947 53% of the electorate adopted the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate in a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct DIRECT was a late-2000s proposed alternative super heavy lift launch vehicle A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than ...

referendum
. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate voted against. On the same date the first elections took place for the state parliament, the
Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate The Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag is the state diet (assembly), diet of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Article 79, Section 1 of the Rhineland-Palatinate constitution provides: "The Landtag is the supreme organ of political deci ...
. The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month later, succeeded him. The constitutional bodies -the Government (), the Parliament () and the Constitutional Court () – established their provisional seat in Koblenz. In the following period, Koblenz and Mainz each emphasized their suitability as the state capital in a public debate. From the beginning, Minister-President Altmeier pressed for Mainz as the capital because he knew that the south of the country, especially the Palatinate, would not accept Koblenz, which was far to the north and formerly Prussian. On 16 May 1950, the decided to relocate itself and the from Koblenz to Mainz. After the government and parliament moved to Mainz, many state authorities and courts remained in Koblenz, including the Constitutional Court and the State Archives. In addition, the
German Federal Archives , type = Archive , seal = , seal_size = , seal_caption = , seal_alt = , logo = Bundesarchiv-Logo.svg , logo_size = , logo_caption = , log ...
and Federal Office of Hydrology were established in Koblenz in 1952.


Consolidation

A sense of community developed only very gradually in the "land of the retort", which had been established largely without regard to the historical affiliations of its inhabitants. It was given little chance of survival, especially as it had very few large industrial centres. However, the establishment of numerous military bases, both Allied and
Bundeswehr The ''Bundeswehr'' (, meaning literally: ''Federal Defence'') is the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital ...
, helped to some extent to boost the economy. In 1956, under Article 29 of the
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a g ...
, petitions were made in the regions of Koblenz, Trier, Montabaur, Rhenish Hesse, and Palatinate for their separation from the state and incorporation into the respective states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Bavaria, and Baden-Württemberg. All petitions for a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct DIRECT was a late-2000s proposed alternative super heavy lift launch vehicle A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than ...

referendum
except those in the administrative district of Palatinate won the necessary majority; however, almost 20 years passed before the referenda finally took place. On 19 January 1975, none of the regions concerned returned a majority for being transferred to another state. This put an end to decades of discussion. Only the AKK conflict, a dispute over the districts of Mainz-Amöneburg,
Mainz-Kastel Mainz-Kastel is a district of the city Wiesbaden, which is the capital of the German state Hesse in western Germany. Kastel is the historical bridgehead of Mainz, the capital of the German state Rhineland-Palatinate and is located on the right sid ...
, and
Mainz-Kostheim Location of Mainz-Kostheim Mainz-Kostheim is a district administered by the city of Wiesbaden Wiesbaden () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, ...
, has continued to exercise politicians up to the present day.


Geography

Rhineland-Palatinate shares international borders with France (
Grand Est Grand Est (; gsw-FR, Grossa Oschta; Moselle Franconian __NOTOC__ Moselle Franconian (German ''Moselfränkisch'') is a West Central German language, part of the Central Franconian language area, that includes Luxembourgish. It is spoken ...

Grand Est
), Luxembourg (
Clervaux Clervaux ( lb, Clierf or (locally) ; german: Clerf) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and ...
,
Diekirch Diekirch ( lb, Dikrech or (locally) ; from ''Diet-Kirch'', i.e. "people's church") is a Communes of Luxembourg, commune with List of towns in Luxembourg, town status in north-eastern Luxembourg, capital city of the Diekirch (canton), canton Diekir ...
,
Echternach Echternach ( lb, Iechternach or (locally) ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concret ...
,
Grevenmacher Grevenmacher ( ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...
,
Remich Remich ( lb, Réimech ) is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand ...
, and
Vianden Vianden ( lb, Veianen or (locally) ) is a Communes of Luxembourg, commune with List of towns in Luxembourg, town status in the Oesling, north-eastern Luxembourg, with over 1,800 inhabitants. It is the Capital (political), capital of the Vianden ( ...
), and Belgium (
Wallonia Wallonia (; french: link=no, Wallonie ; wa, link=no, Waloneye; german: link=no, Wallonien or ; nl, link=no, Wallonië ) is one of the three communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, regions of Belgium—alongside the Flemish Region a ...

Wallonia
). Within Germany, it neighbours are
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ), commonly shortened to BW or BaWü, is a states of Germany, German state (''Bundesland'') in Southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with France. With more than 11. ...
,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. With an area of 21,000 squa ...
,
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, ...
, and the
Saarland The Saarland ( , , ; french: Sarre ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...
. It is the ninth-largest state by area. Rhineland-Palatinate is part of the
SaarLorLux SaarLorLux or Saar-Lor-Lux (also ''SarLorLux'' in French language, French), a portmanteau of Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg, is a euroregion of five regional authorities located in four European states. The term has also been applied to cooper ...
euregion. With 42% of its area covered by forests, it is the most forested state along with Hesse. The state's major rivers are the Rhine, including the
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
Middle Rhine Between Bingen am Rhein, Bingen and Bonn, Germany, the river Rhine flows as the Middle Rhine (german: Mittelrhein) through the Rhine Gorge, a formation created by erosion, which happened at about the same rate as an tectonic uplift, uplift in ...
, and the
Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river that rises in the Vosges mountains and flows from western Germany through Luxembourg and north-eastern France. It is a bank (geography), left bank tributary of the Rhine, which it j ...
. Several crater lakes of volcanic origin are in the
Eifel The Eifel (; lb, Äifel, ) is a low mountain range in western Germany and eastern Belgium. It occupies parts of southwestern North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Rhineland-Palatinate and the southern area of the German-speaking Community of ...
, the biggest of which is the
Laacher See Laacher See (), also known as Lake Laach or Laach Lake, is a volcanic Volcanic crater lake, caldera lake with a diameter of in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, about northwest of Koblenz and south of Bonn, and is closest to the town of Andernach si ...
. The
Rhenish Massif The Rhenish Massif, Rhine Massif or Rhenish Uplands (german: Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, : 'Rhenish Slate Uplands') is a geologic massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geolog ...
forms roughly the northern half of the state, including the regions Eifel, Moselle Valley,
Hunsrück The Hunsrück () is a long, triangular, pronounced mountain range, upland in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the valleys of the Moselle (river), Moselle-Saar (north-to-west), the Nahe (south), and the Rhine (east). It is continued b ...

Hunsrück
,
Westerwald The Westerwald (; literally 'Western forest') is a low mountain range on the right bank of the river Rhine in the German federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia. It is a part of the Rhenish Massif ( or Rhenish ...

Westerwald
, and parts of the Taunus. The Palatinate (region), Palatinate forms the biggest part of the southern half along with
Rhenish Hesse Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-HesseDickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, p. 542. . (german: Rheinhessen) is a region and a former government district () in the German state of Rhineland-Pal ...
. The Nahe (Rhine), Nahe Valley separates both parts.


Politics


Administration

Rhineland-Palatinate is divided into 24 districts (''Districts of Germany, Landkreise''), 12 independent cities (''Kreisfreie Städte'').


Districts

Listing with Vehicle registration plates of Germany # Landkreis Ahrweiler, Ahrweiler (AW) # Landkreis Altenkirchen (Westerwald), Altenkirchen (Westerwald) (AK) # Landkreis Alzey-Worms, Alzey-Worms (AZ) # Landkreis Bad Dürkheim, Bad Dürkheim (DÜW) # Landkreis Bad Kreuznach, Bad Kreuznach (KH) # Landkreis Bernkastel-Wittlich, Bernkastel-Wittlich (WIL, BKS) # Landkreis Birkenfeld, Birkenfeld (BIR) # Landkreis Cochem-Zell, Cochem-Zell (COC, ZEL) # Donnersbergkreis (KIB, ROK) # Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm (BIT, PRÜ) # Landkreis Germersheim, Germersheim (GER) # Landkreis Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (KL) # Landkreis Kusel, Kusel (KUS) # Landkreis Mainz-Bingen, Mainz-Bingen (MZ, BIN) # Landkreis Mayen-Koblenz, Mayen-Koblenz (MYK, MY) # Landkreis Neuwied, Neuwied (NR) # Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (SIM, GOA) # Rhein-Lahn-Kreis (EMS, DIZ, GOH) # Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis (RP) # Landkreis Südliche Weinstraße, Südliche Weinstraße (SÜW) # Landkreis Südwestpfalz, Südwestpfalz (PS, ZW) # Landkreis Trier-Saarburg, Trier-Saarburg (TR, SAB) # Landkreis Vulkaneifel, Vulkaneifel (DAU) # Westerwaldkreis (WW)


Independent cities

Listing with Vehicle registration plates of Germany # Frankenthal (Pfalz) (FT) #
Kaiserslautern Kaiserslautern (; Palatine German language, Palatinate German: ''Lautre'') is a city in southwest Germany, located in the States of Germany, state of Rhineland-Palatinate at the edge of the Palatinate Forest. The Historic Kaiserslautern, historic ...
(KL) #
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
(KO) # Landau in der Pfalz (LD) #
Ludwigshafen am Rhein Ludwigshafen am Rhein (, meaning ''Ludwig's Port on the Rhine'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Sci ...
(LU) #
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and ...

Mainz
(MZ) # Neustadt an der Weinstraße (NW) # Pirmasens (PS) # Speyer (SP) #
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley be ...

Trier
(TR) #
Worms The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists ...
(WO) # Zweibrücken (ZW)


Demographics


Largest cities

The following table shows the ten largest cities of Rhineland-Palatinate:


Vital statistics

*Births from January–August 2016 = 24,871 *Births from January–August 2017 = 24,784 *Deaths from January–August 2016 = 30,572 *Deaths from January–August 2017 = 32,167 *Natural growth from January–August 2016 = -5,701 *Natural growth from January–August 2017 = -7,383


Religion

, 40.3% of the population of the state adhered to the Roman Catholic Church and 26.8% to the Evangelical Church in Germany; 32.9% of the population is irreligious or adheres to other religions. Muslims made up 5.0% of the total.


Jewish culture

The league of ShUM-cities in the later Rhineland-Palatinate comprised the Jewish communities of Mainz, Jewish community of Speyer, Speyer, and
Worms The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists ...
, which became the center of History of the Jews in Germany, Jewish life during medieval times. The ''Takkanot Shum'' ( he, תקנות שו"ם), or Enactments of ShU"M were a set of decrees formulated and agreed upon over a period of decades by their Jewish community leaders. Today, there are approximately 20,000 Jews (0.5% of the population) living in the state.