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Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy
Italy
and in Switzerland. The name "Rhaeto-Romance" refers to the former Roman province of Rhaetia. The linguistic basis of the subfamily is discussed in the so-called Questione Ladina. Varieties[edit]

Contraction of the area of the Rhaeto-Romance languages

The area where Rhaeto- Romance languages
Romance languages
(also called Ladin languages in a wider sense, not to be confused with Ladino or Judaeo-Spanish) were spoken during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
stretched from Switzerland
Switzerland
to the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
(in modern-day western Slovenia). The Rhaeto- Romance languages
Romance languages
can be distinguished into the following varieties:[1]

Romansh: Switzerland. Romansh has status in Switzerland
Switzerland
as a national language with three other national languages; however, its usage is rather limited to the canton of Graubünden
Graubünden
(Romansh: Grischun). It is composed of the following dialects:

Puter
Puter
(Engadin valley) Vallader
Vallader
(Engadin valley) Surmiran Sursilvan Sutsilvan Rumantsch Grischun, the standardized literary language, constructed by the Swiss linguist Heinrich Schmid in 1982.

Ladin:

Dolomitic Ladin in Italy
Italy
(in Trentino, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
and the province of Belluno)

Friulian: Friuli
Friuli
region, Italy

A phylogenetic classification[2] using basic lexicon identifies a primary split between Romansh in Switzerland
Switzerland
and Ladin in Italy. One secondary split distinguishes Engadinic from the other Romansh varieties in Switzerland. In Italy, another secondary split is evidently caused by the Dolomite mountain range that divides Ladin into a northern and a southern subbranch, with Friulian being grouped closest to the southern branch. In this study, the divergence of the Rhaeto- Romance languages
Romance languages
from their reconstructed lexical ancestor is about 7% on average. This would correspond to a time depth of about 500 years if the glottochronological replacement rate of 14% per millennium for Romance were trustworthy. However, the earliest available Romance text from the Alpine area is somewhat older and dates to AD 1200.[3] See also[edit]

Rhaetian language, an unrelated language spoken in ancient times around the area where Rhaeto-Romance is now spoken. Western Romance languages

References[edit]

^ Paul Videsott, Chiara Marcocci, Bibliografia retoromanza 1729-2010 ^ Peter Forster, Alfred Toth, Hans-Jurgen Bandelt (1998) Evolutionary Network Analysis of Word Lists: Visualising the Relationships between Alpine Romance Languages. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 5:174-187 [1] ^ T. Gartner (1910) Handbuch der ratoromanischen Sprache und Literatur. Halle, Niemeyer

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Rhaeto-Romance languages

Friulian

varieties: Central Friulian Northern Friulian South-eastern Friulian Western Friulian constructed language: Furlan standard

Ladin language

varieties: Maréo/Badiot Gherdëina Fascian (cazet, moenat, brach) Ampezan Fodom constructed language: Ladin Dolomitan

Romansh

standard language: Rumantsch Grischun written varieties: Sursilvan Surmiran Sutsilvan Putèr Vallader non-written varieties: Bargunsegner Jauer Tuatschin

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Romance languages
Romance languages
(Classification)

Western

Ibero-Romance

Galician-Portuguese

Portuguese

dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles

Galician

Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala

Judaeo-Portuguese Caló

Astur-Leonese

Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese

Spanish

Spanish

dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles

Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló

Others

Navarro-Aragonese

Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese

Mozarabic

Occitano- Romance

Catalan

dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian

Judaeo-Catalan Caló

Occitan

Auvergnat Gascon

Aranese

Languedocien Limousin Provençal

Niçard Mentonasc

Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló

Gallo-Romance

Langues d'oïl

Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French

dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles

Gallo Lorrain Norman

Anglo-Norman

Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin

Others

Arpitan/Franco-Provençal

Valdôtain Savoyard

North Italian dialects

Gallo-Italic

Ligurian

Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque

Lombard

Western Eastern

Emilian-Romagnol

Emilian

Bolognese Parmigiano

Romagnol

Piedmontese

Judaeo-Piedmontese

Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata

Others

Venetian

Fiuman Talian Triestine

Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Rhaeto-Romance

Rhaeto-Romance

Friulian Ladin Romansh

Central, Sardinian and Eastern

Italo-Dalmatian

Central

Italian dialects

Central Tuscan

Corsican

Gallurese

Sassarese Judaeo-Italian

Southern

Neapolitan

Northern Calabrese

Sicilian

Southern Calabrese

Others

Dalmatian Istriot

Sardinian

Sardinian

Sardinian

Campidanese Logudorese

Eastern

Romanian

Romanian

Moldovan Vlach

Others

Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian

North African

North African

African Romance

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

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