Reykjavík (/ˈreɪkjəvɪk, -viːk/ RAYK-yə-vik, -veek;
Icelandic: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] ( listen)) is the
capital and largest city of Iceland. It is located in southwestern
Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxa Bay. Its latitude is 64°08' N,
making it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. With
a population of around 123,300 (and over 216,940 in the Capital
Region), it is the heart of Iceland's cultural, economic and
governmental activity, and is a popular tourist destination.
Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent
settlement in Iceland, which, according to Ingólfur Arnarson, was
established in AD 874. Until the 19th century, there was no urban
development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an
official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it
transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce,
population, and governmental activities. It is among the cleanest,
greenest, and safest cities in the world.
1.1 Rise of nationalism
1.2 World War II
1.3 Post-war development
4 City administration
4.1 Political control
7.2 Airports and seaports
7.4 District heating
8 Cultural heritage
9.2 Live music
9.3 New Year's Eve
10 Main sights
12.1 Secondary schools
12.3 International schools
13 Sports teams
13.1.2 1. deild karla
14 Twin towns and sister cities
15 Notable people
16 See also
19 External links
Timeline of Reykjavík
Timeline of Reykjavík and History of Iceland
A painting by
Johan Peter Raadsig
Johan Peter Raadsig of Ingólfur commanding his high
seat pillars to be erected
Reykjavík in the 1860s
The first permanent settlement in
Norsemen is believed to
have been established at
Ingólfur Arnarson from Norway
around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of
Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of
his settlement using a traditional Norse method; he cast his high seat
pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline,
then settled where the pillars came to shore. The story about the
pillars of course to many people is a bite hard to swallow. He
obviously settled near the hot springs to keep warm in the winter and
wouldn't have allowed it to be determined by happenstance. Furthermore
the probability of the pillars drifting to that location from where
they were said to have been thrown from the boat seems improbable.
Nevertheless that is what the Landnamabok says and says furthermore
that Ingolf's pillars are still to be found in a house there in town.
Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired
Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is
sometimes referred to as Bay of Smoke or Smoky Bay in English language
travel guides). In the modern language, as in English, the
word for 'smoke' and the word for fog or steamy vapour are not
commonly confused but this is believed to have been the case in the
old language. The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r"
that had vanished around 1800.
Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as being
covered by farmland, but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban
concentration. The Danish rulers of
Iceland backed the idea of
domestic industry in
Iceland that would stimulate much-needed
development on the island. In 1752, the King of
Denmark, Frederik V, donated the estate of
Reykjavík to the
Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from the Danish language
word indretninger, meaning institution. The leader of this movement
was Skúli Magnússon (is). In the 1750s several houses were
built to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík's most
important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its
existence. Other crafts were also practised by the Innréttingar, such
as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.
The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six
communities around the country an exclusive trading charter.
Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter
permanently. The year 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's
founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights
were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown, and Danish
traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following
decades, their business in
Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade
was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic
merchants started to grow.
Rise of nationalism
Reykjavík in 1881
Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century
and the idea of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík,
as Iceland's only city, was central to such ideas. Advocates of an
Iceland realized that a strong
Reykjavík was fundamental
to that objective. All the important events in the history of the
independence struggle were important to
Reykjavík as well. In 1845
Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930 AD, was re-established in
Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was
located at Þingvellir. At the time it functioned only as an advisory
assembly, advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of
Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital
Iceland was given a constitution; with it,
some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution
that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive
power to Iceland: Home Rule was granted in 1904 when the office of
Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step
towards an independent
Iceland was taken on 1 December 1918 when
Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the
Kingdom of Iceland.
By the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler
fleet sailed from
Reykjavík and salt-cod production was its main
industry, but the
Great Depression hit
Reykjavík hard with
unemployment and labour union struggles occurring that sometimes
World War II
On the morning of 10 May 1940, following the German occupation of
Norway on 9 April 1940, four British warships approached
Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. In a few hours, the allied
Reykjavík was complete. There was no armed resistance,
and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force, which
initially had no motor vehicles. The Icelandic government had received
many requests from the British government to consent to the
occupation, but it always declined on the basis of the Neutrality
Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and later
American soldiers occupied camps in Reykjavík, and the number of
foreign soldiers in
Reykjavík became about the same as the local
population of the city.
The Royal Regiment of Canada
The Royal Regiment of Canada (RREGTC) formed
part of the garrison in
Iceland during the early part of the war.
The economic effects of the occupation were positive for Reykjavík:
the unemployment of the Depression years vanished and construction
work began. The British built
Reykjavík Airport, which is still in
service today, mostly serving domestic flights. The Americans,
Keflavík Airport, situated 50 km (31 mi)
west of Reykjavík, which would become Iceland's primary international
airport. In 1944, the Republic of
Iceland was founded and a president,
elected by the people, replaced the King; the office of the president
was placed in Reykjavík.
In the post-war years the growth of
Reykjavík accelerated. An exodus
from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology
in agriculture that reduced the need for manpower, and because of a
population boom resulting from better living conditions in the
country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a
modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes
rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of
Reykjavík lost its village
feel. In 1972,
Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between
Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky. The 1986
Reykjavík Summit between
Ronald Reagan and
Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's
Deregulation in the financial sector and the
computer revolution of the 1990s again transformed Reykjavík. The
financial and IT sectors are now significant employers in the city.
The city has fostered some world-famous talents in recent decades,
such as Björk,
Ólafur Arnalds and bands Múm,
Sigur Rós and Of
Monsters and Men, poet
Sjón and visual artist Ragnar Kjartansson.
Reykjavík seen from above
Esja, the mountain range to the north of Reykjavík
Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland. The
coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.
During the Ice Age (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered
parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. Other parts
of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at
the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The
former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at
Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141 ft) above the
current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt
appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active
during the warm periods of the Ice Age.
After the Ice Age the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell
away, and began to look as it does today.
The capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions, like the one 4,500 years ago in the mountain range
Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the
Elliðaá valley reached the
sea at the bay of Elliðavogur.
The largest river to run through
Reykjavík is the
which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon fishing rivers in
the country. Mount Esja, at 914 m (2,999 ft), is the highest
mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík.
The city of
Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes
peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east.
Reykjavík is a spread-out city: most of its urban area consists of
low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer
residential neighbourhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in
between them are the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space.
Reykjavík seen from
Perlan with the mountains Akrafjall
Esja (right) in the background
Reykjavík seen from
Perlan in summer during sunset. As
seen in the picture
Reykjavík is mild enough to permit the growing of
Using the −3 °C isotherm and 1961–1990 climate data
Reykjavík has a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc), that can be
classified as a subarctic climate (Dfc) using the 0 °C isotherm.
The city also very closely borders a tundra climate (ET). A warming
climate has led to
Reykjavík falling firmly into the subpolar oceanic
climate (Köppen Cfc) when considering climate data from 2000-2014.
Despite its northern latitude, temperatures very rarely drop below
−15 °C (5 °F) in the winter. This is because the
Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the North Atlantic
Current, itself an extension of the
Gulf Stream (see also
Extratropical cyclone). The city's coastal location does make it prone
to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool,
with temperatures fluctuating between 10 and 15 °C (50 and
59 °F), rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík
averages 147 days with measurable precipitation every year.
Droughts are uncommon although they occur in some summers. In the
summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Summer tends to be
the sunniest season, although May receives the most sunshine of any
individual month. Overall, the city receives around 1,200 annual hours
of sunshine, which is comparable with other places in Northern and
North-Western Europe. Nonetheless, Reykjavik is one of the cloudiest
and coldest capitals of any nation in the world. The highest ever
recorded temperature in
Reykjavík was 25.7 °C (78 °F),
recorded on July 30, 2008, while the lowest ever recorded
temperature was −19.7 °C (−3 °F), recorded on January
Climate data for Reykjavík, 1981–2010 normals, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Icelandic Met Office (precipitation days
Colourful rooftops line Reykjavík.
Reykjavík seen from Hallgrímskirkja.
Menntaskólinn (high school) of
Reykjavík or MR.
Looking southeast from Hallgrímskirkja.
Another view of
Reykjavík from Hallgrímskirkja.
View from Skólavörðustígur.
Tjörnin (The Pond) in Central Reykjavík.
Austurvöllur on a sunny day.
View from Perlan.
Reykjavik from Hallgrimskirkja
Panorama of the northern seashore of Reykjavík, as seen from
Reykjavík City Council
Reykjavík City Council governs the city of
to law number 45/1998 and is directly elected by those aged over
18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected
using the open list method for four year terms.
The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a
different field under the city council's authority. The most important
board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with
the City Mayor. The City
Mayor is the senior public official and also
the director of city operations. Other public officials control city
institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus, the administration
consists of two different parts:
The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards
Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer
and manage implementation of policy.
The Independence Party was traditionally the ruling party for the
city, having an overall majority from its establishment in 1929 until
1978, when it was narrowly lost. From 1978 to 1982, a three party
coalition composed of the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic
Party, and the Progressive Party formed the majority of the council.
In 1982, the Independence Party regained an overall majority of the
seats which it held for three consecutive terms. In 1994, Icelandic
socialist parties formed an alliance called the Reykjavíkurlistinn
(R-list) which was led by
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir to
victory. The alliance stood for election for three consecutive city
council elections and won a majority in all of them, until it was
dissolved for the city council election of 2006 when five different
parties were on the ballot. The Independence Party obtained seven
members of the council, and thus failed to gain overall control, but
together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they
were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in
In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting
of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic
Alliance (4), the
Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and
independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR,
the city's energy company. However three months later the leader of
the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party.
Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on
24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to
appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when
the fourth majority of the term was formed, when the Independence
Party and the
Social Democratic Alliance
Social Democratic Alliance formed a majority, with Hanna
Birna Kristjánsdóttir becoming mayor.
The City Council election in May 2010 saw a new political party, The
Best Party, win six of 15 seats and they formed a coalition with the
Social Democratic Alliance
Social Democratic Alliance with comedian
Jón Gnarr becoming
mayor. At the 2014 election, the
Social Democratic Alliance
Social Democratic Alliance had
its best showing yet gaining five seats in the council, while Bright
future (successor to the Best Party) received two seats and the two
parties formed a coalition with the
Left-Green movement and the Pirate
party both of which received one councilor each. The Independence
Party received its worst election with only four seats in the council.
Reykjavik: northeast aerial panorama
Mayor of Reykjavik City
The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council
members is chosen but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a
member of the council.
The post was created in 1907 and advertised in 1908. Two applications
were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of
Hafnarfjörður and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík.
Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time
the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for
office expenses. The current mayor is Dagur B. Eggertsson.
Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland.
Reykjavík is a city with people from at least 100
countries. The most common ethnic minorities are Poles, Lithuanians,
and Danes. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total
population. Children of foreign origin, many of whom are adopted,
form a more considerable minority in the city's schools: as many as a
third in places. The city is also visited by thousands of
tourists, students, and other temporary residents, at times
outnumbering natives in the city centre.
Historical population of Reykjavík.
Districts of Reykjavík
Reykjavík is divided into 10 districts:
Vesturbær (District 1)
Miðborg (District 2, city centre)
Hlíðar (District 3)
Laugardalur (District 4)
Háaleiti og Bústaðir
Háaleiti og Bústaðir (District 5)
Breiðholt (District 6)
Árbær (District 7)
Grafarvogur (District 8)
Kjalarnes (District 9) (in the north-east)
Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur
Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur (District 10)
Borgartún is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large
number of companies and three investment banks.
Old whaling ships Hvalur 6, 7, 8 and 9
Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and
subsequent economic contraction over the last decade,[which?] a period
referred to in foreign media as the "Nordic Tiger" years, or
"Iceland's Boom Years". The economic boom led to a sharp increase
in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa
concert hall and conference centre and others. Many of these projects
came to a screeching halt in the following economic crash of 2008.
Reykjavík was listed as the richest city in the world in
2007 by The Economist Group.
Per capita car ownership in
Iceland is among the highest in the world
at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents, though
not severely affected by congestion. Several multi-lane highways
(mainly dual carriageways) run between the most heavily populated
areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also
plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus
system called Strætó bs. Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs through the
city outskirts and connects the city to the rest of Iceland.
Airports and seaports
Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after
Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just
south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights, as
well as flights to
Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It was built there
by the British occupation force during World War II, when it was on
the outskirts of the then much smaller Reykjavík. Since 1962, there
has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since
it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.
Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre
which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ships and Sundahöfn in
the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country.
Two steam locomotives were used to build the harbour
railway; both are now on display in Reykjavík.
There are no public railways in Iceland, due to its sparse population,
but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display.
See also: Geothermal power in Iceland
Volcanic activity provides
Reykjavík with geothermal heating systems
for both residential and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot
water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland. Of
total annual use of geothermal energy of 39 PJ, space heating
accounted for 48%.
Most of the district heating in
Iceland comes from three main
geothermal power plants:
Svartsengi combined heat and power plant (CHP)
Nesjavellir CHP plant
Hellisheiði CHP plant
Safnahúsið (the Culture House) was opened in 1909 and has a number
of important exhibits. Originally built to house the National Library
and National Archives and also previously the location of the National
Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modeled to
promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national
treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas in
their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions of
Laugavegur main street in downtown Reykjavík
Reykjavík is famous for its weekend nightlife. Icelanders tend to go
out late, so bars that look rather quiet can fill up
suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend.
Alcohol is expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before
going out. Beer was banned in
Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has
since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of
There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík;[citation
needed] most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets.
It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner
to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around
4:30 am at weekends and 1 am during the week at the most
well known hospitality venues.
Iceland Airwaves music festival is annually staged in November.
This festival takes place all over the city and the concert venue
Harpa is one of the main locations. Other venues that frequently
organise live music events are Kex, Húrra, Gaukurinn (grunge, metal,
punk), Mengi (centre for contemporary music, avant-garde music and
experimental music), the Icelandic Opera and the National Theatre of
Iceland for classical music.
New Year's Eve
The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to
the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may
purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's
Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with
Blue Lagoon, a geothermal spa located near Reykjavík
Alþingishúsið — the Icelandic parliament building
Austurvöllur — a park in central
Reykjavík surrounded by
restaurants and bars
Reykjavík Open Air Museum) — Reykjavík's Municipal
Blue Lagoon — geothermal spa located near Reykjavík
CIA.IS - Center for Icelandic Art — general information on Icelandic
Hallgrímskirkja — the largest church in Iceland
Reykjavík Concert & Conference Center
Heiðmörk — the largest forest and nature reserve in the area
Höfði — the house in which Gorbachev and Reagan met in 1986 for
Kringlan — the second largest mall in Iceland
Laugardalslaug — swimming pool
Laugavegur — main shopping street
National and University Library of
National Museum of
Nauthólsvík — a geothermally heated beach
Perlan — a glass dome resting on five water tanks
Ráðhús Reykjavíkur — city hall
Rauðhólar — a cluster of red volcanic craters
Reykjavík 871±2 — exhibition of an archaeological excavation of a
Viking age longhouse, from about AD 930
Reykjavík Art Museum
Reykjavík Art Museum — the largest visual art institution in
Safnahúsið, culture House, National Centre for Cultural Heritage
Tjörnin — the pond
University of Iceland
Vikin Maritime Museum - a maritime museum located by the old harbour
Reykjavik Golf Club was established in 1934. It is the oldest and
largest golf club in Iceland. It consists of two 18-hole courses - one
Grafarholt and the other at Korpa. The
Grafarholt golf course
opened in 1963, which makes it the oldest 18-hole golf course in
Iceland. The Korpa golf course opened in 1997.
Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti
Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti (FB)
Fjölbrautaskólinn við Ármúla (FÁ)
Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík
Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík (MR)
Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð
Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð (MH)
Menntaskólinn við Sund (MS)
Verzlunarskóli Íslands (Verzló)
Iceland Academy of the Arts
The University of Iceland
Reykjavik International School
1. deild karla
Glímufélagið Ármann (Sports club)
Skautafélag Reykjavíkur (Hockey)
Skylmingafélag Reykjavíkur (Fencing)
Skotfélag Reykjavíkur (Shooting)
Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í
Reykjavík (Disabled sports club in
Twin towns and sister cities
Further information: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iceland
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Reykjavík is twinned with:
Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom
La Paz, Bolivia
Mexico City, Mexico
Saint Petersburg, Russia
United States (since 1986)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
In July 2013, mayor
Jón Gnarr filed a motion before the city council
to terminate the city's relationship with Moscow, in response to a
trend of anti-gay legislation in Russia. According to The Daily
Telegraph, "Mr Gnarr has long been an advocate for gay rights,
appearing in Gay Pride parades in drag"; in 2009,
Iceland was the
first modern country to have an openly LGBT head of government
(Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, who is a lesbian), and the Alþingi
unanimously legalized same-sex marriage in 2010.
Main article: List of people from Reykjavík
Beer Day (Iceland)
Rail transport in Iceland
Reykjavík Green Days
^ "Vísindavefurinn: Af hverju varð
^ "Vísindavefurinn: Hvað er
Reykjavík margir metrar?".
^ a b "Mannfjöldi eftir sveitarfélögum, kyni, ríkisfangi og
ársfjórðungum 2010-2016". Hagstofa Íslands. Hagstofa Íslands.
Retrieved 30 March 2017.
^ "Reykjavik - definition of Reykjavik in English from the Oxford
dictionary". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
^ "How to say or pronounce Reykjavik - PronounceNames.com".
www.pronouncenames.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
^ "Things to do in Reykjavík". Guide to Iceland. Retrieved 7 November
^ Yunlong, Sun (2007-12-23). "
Reykjavík rated cleanest city in Nordic
and Baltic countries". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
^ "15 Green Cities". Grist. 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
Iceland among Top 10 safest countries and
Reykjavík is the winner
of Tripadvisor Awards". TRAVELIO.net. 2010-05-20. Retrieved
^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
^ Er eitthvert örnefni á höfuðborgarsvæðinu eða vík eða
vogur, sem heitir Reykjavík?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic)
^ Hvaðan kemur nafnið "Innréttingarnar" á fyrirtækinu sem
starfaði hér á á 18. öld?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic)
^ "Weather statistics for Reykjavik". yr.no.
^ The weather of 2010 in
Iceland Icelandic Met Office
^ "Reykjavik sees record summer temperature". Agence France-Presse.
July 31, 2008.
^ "Nokkur íslensk veðurmet". Archived from the original on
2008-11-18. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
^ "Montly Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Meteorological Office.
Retrieved 9 September 2017.
^ "Annual Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Met Office. Retrieved 14
Reykjavík 1961-1990 Averages". Icelandic Meteorological Office.
Retrieved 14 February 2016.
^ "1998 nr. 45 3. júní/ Sveitarstjórnarlög". Althingi.is.
^ "Best Party wins polls in Iceland's Reykjavík". BBC News Online.
2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
^ Jón Glarr is no longer mayor of Reykjavík.
^ Foreign citizens in
Reykjavík by districts 2002-2010 Reference
Icelandic Statistical Bureau
Reykjavík – fjölmenningarborg barna" (PDF). 18 January 2008.
^ "Vísir - Breskir ferðamenn fjölmennastir sem fyrr". Visir.is.
^ Surowiecki, James (2008-04-21). "Iceland's Deep Freeze". The New
^ Kvam, Berit (2009-06-19). "Iceland: light at the end of the
tunnel?". Nordic Labour Journal.
^ "Iceland: the boom years". The Telegraph. 2009-08-18.
^ "Motor vehicles (most recent) by country". United Nations World
Statistics Pocketbook. nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
^ "NEA.is". NEA.is. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
^ "Mannvit". Mannvit. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
^ Guide leaflet to the Culture House 2008, published by the National
Centre for Cultural Heritage.
^ "The Dynamics of Shifts in Alcoholic Beverage Preference: Effects of
the Legalization of Beer in Iceland". Questia.com. Archived from the
original on September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
^ "Reykjavik Golf Club".
^ "Christmas around the world". Hull in print. Hull City Council.
^ "Convenio de amistad entre Ciudad de México y Reykjavík" (in
^ Irvine, Chris (2013-07-15). "Reykjavik mayor proposes cutting ties
Moscow over gay law". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved
Iceland - Sister Cities". Retrieved 4 March 2015.
^ "Vinarbýir - Tórshavnar kommuna". torshavn.fo.
Wrocław będzie miał nowe miasto partnerskie".
^ "Sister Cities Ramp Up
Russia Boycott Over Antigay Law". Radio Free
Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
Hermannsdóttir, Edda (2006-07-03). "Consumption of alcoholic
beverages 2005". Prices and consumption. Reykjavík: Hagstofa
Íslands. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Reykjavík.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reykjavík.
Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision of the article
"Reykjavík" dated 2008-06-23, and does not reflect subsequent edits
to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
Official website (in Icelandic)
Districts of Reykjavik City
Háaleiti og Bústaðir
Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur
Cities and towns in Iceland
Vík í Mýrdal
Municipalities of Iceland
Eyja- og Miklaholtshreppur
Grímsnes- og Grafningshreppur
Skeiða- og Gnúpverjahreppur
50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is
disputed shown in italics.
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Douglas, Isle of Man (UK)
London, United Kingdom
Saint Helier, Jersey (UK)
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)
Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway)
Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland)
Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)
Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Prague, Czech Republic
Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK)
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5
San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5
Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5
1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
connections with Europe
5 Partially recognised country
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
Coordinates: 64°08′00″N 21°56′00″W / 64.13333°N
21.93333°W / 64.13333; -21.93333
ISNI: 0000 0004 0643 6825