Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros (Spanish: Guerra de las Comunidades de
Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by
citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his
administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels
controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid,
Tordesillas, and Toledo.
The revolt occurred in the wake of political instability in the Crown
of Castile after the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504. Queen Joanna I
the Mad, Isabella's daughter, inherited the throne with her Burgundian
husband King Philip I. However, Philip died two years into their
reign, and their son Charles was only six years old. Due to his youth
and Joanna's mental instability, Castile was ruled by the nobles and
her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a regency. After
Ferdinand's death in 1516, the sixteen-year-old Charles was proclaimed
king of both Castile and Aragon. Charles had been raised in the
Netherlands with little knowledge of Castilian. He arrived in Spain in
October 1517 accompanied by a large retinue of Flemish nobles and
clerics. These factors resulted in mistrust between the new king and
the Castilian social elites, who could see the threat to their power
In 1519, Charles was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He departed for
Germany in 1520, leaving the Dutch cardinal
Adrian of Utrecht
Adrian of Utrecht to rule
Castile in his absence. Soon, a series of anti-government riots broke
out in the cities, and local city councils (Comunidades) took power.
The rebels chose Charles' own mother, Queen Joanna, as an alternative
ruler, hoping they could control her madness. The rebel movement took
on a radical anti-feudal dimension, supporting peasant rebellions
against the landed nobility. On April 23, 1521, after nearly a year of
rebellion, the reorganized supporters of the emperor struck a
crippling blow to the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar. The
following day, rebel leaders Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and
Francisco Maldonado were beheaded. The army of the comuneros fell
apart. Only the city of Toledo kept alive the rebellion led by María
Pacheco, until its surrender in October 1521.
The character of the revolution is a matter of historiographical
debate. According to some scholars, the revolt was one of the first
modern revolutions, notably because of the anti-noble sentiment
against social injustice and its basis on ideals of democracy and
freedom. Others consider it a more typical rebellion against high
taxes and perceived foreign control. From the 19th century onwards,
the revolt has been mythologized by various Spaniards, generally
liberals who drew political inspiration from it. Conservative
intellectuals have traditionally adopted more pro-Imperial stances
toward the revolt, and have been critical of both the motives and the
government of the comuneros. With the end of Franco's dictatorship and
the establishment of the autonomous community of Castile and León,
positive commemoration of the Comunidades has grown. April 23 is now
Castile and León
Castile and León Day, and the incident is often
referred to in Castilian nationalism.
1.1 Succession of Charles
1.2 New taxes: The Cortes of Santiago and Corunna
2 Beginnings of the Revolt
2.1 Rebelliousness in Toledo
2.2 Proposals to other cities
3 Expansion of the Revolt
3.1 Blockade of Segovia
3.2 The Junta of Ávila
3.3 Burning of Medina del Campo
3.4 The Junta of Tordesillas
3.5 Scope of the rebellion
4 Popular and governmental response
4.1 Turning of the nobles
4.2 Response of Charles V
5 Organization, funding, and diplomacy
6 Battle of Tordesillas
6.1 Leadership disputes
6.2 Royal capture
7 Events of December and January
7.1 Reorganization of the comuneros
7.2 Military initiatives in Palencia and Burgos
7.3 Royalist response
8 Rebel campaigns of early 1521
8.1 Padilla's decision on the rebels' next move
8.2 Battle of Torrelobatón
8.3 Acuña's southern campaign
9 Battle of Villalar
10 End of the war
10.1 Resistance of Toledo
10.2 Revolt of February 1522
Pardon of 1522
12 Later influence
13 See also
A 1516 portrait of King Charles I of Castile and Aragon, later Holy
Roman Emperor Charles V, by Bernard van Orley. Charles would rule one
of the largest empires in European history—through his father
Philip, Burgundy and the Netherlands; through his mother Joanna,
Castile, Aragon, and Naples; and through his grandfather Maximilian
and his election in 1519 as Holy Roman Emperor, Germany, Austria, and
much of Northern Italy.
Discontent had been brewing for years before the Revolt of the
Comuneros. The second half of the 15th century saw profound political,
economic, and social changes in Spain. Economic growth created new
urban industries and offered a route to power and wealth not tied to
the aristocracy. Support from these urban elites was critical to
Ferdinand and Isabella's centralization of power, and they acted as a
counterweight to the landed aristocracy and the clergy.
However, with Queen Isabella I's death in 1504, this alliance between
the national government and the budding middle class faltered. The
Castilian government decayed with each successive administration,
becoming rife with corruption. King Philip I ruled for a mere two
years; he was replaced by Archbishop Cisneros as regent for a short
time, and then by Isabella's widower Ferdinand who ruled from
Aragon. Ferdinand's claim to continue ruling Castile as regent was
somewhat tenuous after Isabella's death, but no plausible alternatives
existed as the sovereign, their widowed daughter Joanna, was mentally
unfit to reign on her own. The landed nobility of Castile took
advantage of the weak and corrupt Royal Council to illegally expand
their territory and domain with private armies while the government
did nothing. In response, the towns signed mutual defense pacts,
relying on each other rather than the national government.
The budgets of both Castile and Aragon had been in poor condition for
some time. The government had expelled the Jews in 1492 and the
Granada in 1502, moves that undercut lucrative trades and
businesses. Ferdinand and Isabella had been forced to borrow money
to pay troops during and after the Reconquista, and Spanish military
obligations had only increased since then. A large number of troops
were required to maintain stability in recently conquered Granada,
threatened by revolt from the maltreated moriscos (former Muslims who
had converted to Christianity) and frequent naval raids from Muslim
nations along the Mediterranean. Additionally, Ferdinand had
invaded and occupied the Iberian part of Navarre in 1512, and forces
were required to garrison it against Navarrese revolts and French
armies. Very little money was left to pay for the royal army in
Castile proper, let alone service foreign debts. The corruption in the
government since Isabella's death only made the budget shortfalls
Succession of Charles
In 1516, Ferdinand died. The remaining heir was Ferdinand and
Isabella's grandson Charles, who became King Charles I of both Castile
and Aragon in co-regency with his mother Joanna. Charles was brought
up in Flanders, the homeland of his father Philip, and barely knew
Castilian. The people greeted him with skepticism, but also hoped
he would restore stability. With the arrival of the new king in late
1517, his Flemish court took positions of power in Castile; young
Charles only trusted people he knew from the Netherlands. Among the
most scandalous of these was the appointment of the twenty-year-old
William de Croÿ
William de Croÿ as Archbishop of Toledo. The Archbishopric was an
important position; it had been held by Archbishop Cisneros, the
former regent of the country. Six months into his rule,
discontent openly simmered among rich and poor alike. Even some monks
began to agitate, denouncing the opulence of the royal court, the
Flemish, and the nobility in their sermons. One of the first public
protests involved placards posted in churches, which read:
You, land of Castile, very wretched and damned are you to suffer that
as noble a kingdom as you are, you will be governed by those who have
no love for you.
With the unrest growing, Charles' paternal grandfather Holy Roman
Emperor Maximilian I died in 1519. A new election had to be held to
choose the next emperor. Charles campaigned aggressively for the post,
vying with King
Francis I of France
Francis I of France to bribe the most
prince-electors. Charles I won the election, becoming Emperor
Charles V and cementing the power of the House of Habsburg. He
prepared to head to Germany to take possession of his new domains in
the Holy Roman Empire.
New taxes: The Cortes of Santiago and Corunna
Charles had already stressed the treasury to its limit with his
extravagant Flemish court, and over 1 million gold florins were spent
in bribes for the election. Taxes[note a] had to be raised to
cover the debt, but any new taxes must be approved by the Cortes
(Castile's own parliamentary body). Thus, in late March 1520, Charles
convened the Cortes in Santiago de Compostela. Charles ensured the
Cortes would only have limited power, and further attempted to stack
the Cortes with pliable representatives he could bribe. Support
for the opposition only increased in response, and the representatives
demanded that their grievances be heard first before any new tax was
A group of clerics soon circulated a statement in protest of the king.
It argued three points: any new taxes should be rejected; Castile
should be embraced and the foreign Empire rejected; and if the king
did not take into account his subjects, the Comunidades themselves
should defend the interests of the kingdom. It was the first time
where the word comunidades (communities, communes) was used to signify
the independent populace, and the name would stick to the councils
At this point, most of the members of the Cortes in Santiago intended
to vote against the king's requested duties and taxes, even with the
Cortes stacked with royalists. In response, Charles decided to suspend
the Cortes on April 4. He convened them again in Corunna on April
22, this time getting his program passed. On May 20, he embarked
for Germany, and left as regent of his Spanish possessions his former
Adrian of Utrecht
Adrian of Utrecht (better known as the future Pope Adrian
Beginnings of the Revolt
Rebelliousness in Toledo
Toledo, home of the first Comunidad
Juan López de Padilla, leader of the Comunidad of Toledo
In April 1520, Toledo was already unstable. The city council had been
at the forefront of protests against Charles' bid to become Holy Roman
Emperor. They decried the short-term expenses that would be borne by
Castile and questioned the role of Castile in this new political
framework, given the possibility that the land would become a mere
imperial province. The situation erupted when the royal government
summoned the most radical of the city councilors away from the city,
intending to send back more easily controllable replacements on a
royal salary. The order came on April 15; one day later, as the
councilors prepared to leave, a large crowd opposed to the departure
rioted and drove out the royal administrators instead. A citizen's
committee was elected under the leadership of Juan López de Padilla
and Pedro Laso de la Vega, naming themselves a Comunidad. On April 21,
the remaining administrators were driven from the fortifications of
the Alcázar of Toledo.
Following Charles' departure to Germany, the riots multiplied in the
cities of central Castile, especially after the arrival of legislators
who had voted "yes" to the taxes Charles had asked for.
some of the earliest and most violent incidents; on May 30, a mob of
woolworkers murdered two administrators and the city's legislator who
had voted in favor. Incidents of a similar size occurred in cities
Burgos and Guadalajara, while others, such as León, Ávila,
and Zamora, suffered minor altercations.
Proposals to other cities
With widespread discontent circulating, on June 8 Toledo's council
suggested to cities with a vote in the Cortes to hold an emergency
meeting. They proffered five goals:
Cancel the taxes voted in the Cortes of Corunna.
A return to the local-controlled encabezamiento system of taxation.
Reserve official positions and church benefices for Castilians.
Prohibit money from leaving the kingdom to fund foreign affairs.
Designate a Castilian to lead the kingdom in the absence of the
These claims, especially the first two, spread quickly through
society. Ideas began to circulate of replacing the king; Toledo's
leaders floated the possibility of turning the cities of Castile into
independent free cities, similar to Genoa and other Italian
republics. Competing proposals suggested keeping the monarchy, but
dethroning Charles. They proposed that he be replaced by either his
mother Queen Joanna or his Castilian-born brother Ferdinand. With
these ideas, the revolt shifted from a simple protest against taxes to
a broader revolution. Many cities, while not quite in outright revolt,
stopped sending taxes to the Royal Council and began to
Expansion of the Revolt
Blockade of Segovia
Segovia, the city of the first armed clash between the comuneros and
The situation moved closer to armed conflict on June 10. Rodrigo
Ronquillo had been sent to
Segovia by the Royal Council to investigate
the recent murder of Segovia's legislator, but
Segovia refused him
entry. Unable to besiege a city of 30,000 with only a small force,
Ronquillo instead set out to blockade foodstuffs and other supplies
from entering Segovia. The people of Segovia, led by militia leader
and noble Juan Bravo, rallied around the Comunidad.
aid against Ronquillo's army from the Comunidades of Toledo and
Madrid. The cities responded by sending their militias, captained by
Juan de Padilla and Juan de Zapata, who won in the first major
confrontation between the forces of the king and the rebels.
The Junta of Ávila
Other cities now followed the lead of Toledo and Segovia, deposing
their governments. A revolutionary Cortes, La Santa Junta de las
Comunidades ("Holy Assembly of the Communities"),[note b] held its
first session in Ávila and declared itself the legitimate government
deposing the Royal Council. Padilla was named Captain-General, and
troops were assembled. Still, only four cities sent representatives at
first: Toledo, Segovia, Salamanca, and Toro.
Burning of Medina del Campo
Castillo de la Mota
Castillo de la Mota of Medina del Campo
Faced with the situation in Segovia, Regent and Cardinal Adrian of
Utrecht decided to use the royal artillery, located in nearby Medina
del Campo, to take
Segovia and defeat Padilla. Adrian ordered his
Antonio de Fonseca to seize the artillery. Fonseca
arrived on August 21 in Medina, but encountered heavy resistance from
the townspeople, as the city had strong trade links to Segovia.
Fonseca ordered the setting of a fire to distract the resistance, but
it grew out of control. Much of the town was destroyed, including a
Franciscan monastery and a trade warehouse containing goods valued at
more than 400,000 ducats. Fonseca had to withdraw his troops, and
the event was a public relations disaster for the government.
Uprisings throughout Castile occurred, even in cities that previously
had been neutral such as Castile's capital, Valladolid. The
establishment of the Comunidad of
Valladolid caused the most important
core of the Iberian plateau to declare for the rebels, upending the
stability of the government. New members now joined the Junta of
Ávila and the Royal Council looked discredited; Adrian had to flee to
Medina de Rioseco
Medina de Rioseco as
Valladolid fell. The royal army, with many of
its soldiers unpaid for months, started to disintegrate.
The Junta of Tordesillas
Joanna the Mad, officially the Queen and co-regent of Castile with her
son Charles, actually had no power whatsoever
The comunero army now properly organized itself, integrating the
militias of Toledo, Madrid, and Segovia. Once told of Fonseca's
attack, the comunero forces went to
Medina del Campo
Medina del Campo and took
possession of the artillery that had just been denied to Fonseca's
troops. On August 29, the comuneros' army arrived at Tordesillas
with the goal of declaring Queen Joanna the sole sovereign. The Junta
moved from Ávila to
Tordesillas at the Queen's request and invited
cities that had not yet sent representatives to do so. A total of
thirteen cities were represented in the Junta of Tordesillas: Burgos,
Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid, León, Salamanca, Zamora, Toro,
Toledo, Cuenca, Guadalajara, and Madrid. The only invited cities
that failed to attend were the four Andalusian cities: Seville,
Granada, Cordova, and Jaén. Since most of the kingdom was represented
at Tordesillas, the Junta renamed itself the Cortes y Junta General
del Reino ("General Assembly of the Kingdom"). On September 24,
1520, the mad Queen, for the only time, presided over the Cortes.
The legislators met with Queen Joanna and explained the purpose of the
Cortes: to proclaim her sovereignty and restore lost stability to the
kingdom. The next day, September 25, the Cortes issued a declaration
pledging to use arms if necessary and for the whole to aid any one
city that was threatened. On September 26, the Cortes of Tordesillas
declared itself the new legitimate government and denounced the Royal
Council. Oaths of self-defense were taken by all the cities
represented over the week, finishing by September 30. The
revolutionary government now had structure and a free hand to act,
with the Royal Council still ineffective and confused.
Scope of the rebellion
Bronze sculpture of Juan de Padilla in Toledo
The comuneros were strong in the central plateau of the Iberian
Peninsula, as well as scattered other places such as Murcia. The
rebels sought to propound their revolutionary ideas to the rest of the
kingdom, but without much success. There were few attempts at
rebellion elsewhere, such as in Galicia to the northwest or in
Andalusia to the south. Comunidades in the south were set up in
Jaén, Úbeda, and Baeza, unique in Andalusia, but with time they were
drawn back into the royalists.
Murcia stayed with the rebel cause, but
did not coordinate much with the Junta, and the rebellion there had a
character closer to the nearby
Revolt of the Brotherhoods
Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Valencia
in Aragon. In
Extremadura to the southwest, the city of Plasencia
joined the Comunidades, but this was undermined by the close proximity
of other royalist cities such as
Ciudad Rodrigo and Cáceres. A
close correlation can be drawn between poor economic fortunes over the
previous twenty years and the rebellion; central Castile suffered from
agricultural failure and other setbacks under the Royal Council, while
Andalusia was relatively prosperous with its maritime trade.
Andalusia's leadership also feared that in the instability of a civil
Granada would likely revolt.
The rebels were strongest in the central plateau of Spain; the
Andalusia in the South and Galicia in the North.
Aragon was distracted by the Revolt of the Brotherhoods, and Navarre
was occupied by Castilian troops who guarded against the return of the
Navarrese king and the French. Rebel cities are in purple; Royalist
cities are in green; cities with both elements present or that
vacillated are in both colors.
Popular and governmental response
Adrian of Utrecht, future Pope Adrian VI, was considered an effective
regent despite the difficult situation. He spearheaded the recruitment
of nobility to the royalist side, and two Castilian co-regents were
appointed to lessen the appearance of foreign control.
Turning of the nobles
The growing success of the comuneros emboldened people to accuse
members of the old government of complicity with royal abuses. The
protests attacked the landed nobility as well, many of whom had
illegally taken property during the reign of the regents and weak
kings after Isabella's death. In Dueñas, the Count of Buendía's
vassals revolted against him on September 1, 1520, encouraged by rebel
monks. This uprising was followed by others of a similar
anti-feudal nature. The leadership of the comuneros was forced to
take a stance on these new rebellions; reluctant to openly endorse
them, the Junta initially denounced them but did nothing to oppose
them. The dynamics of the uprising thus changed profoundly, as it
could now jeopardize the status of the entire manorial system. The
nobles had previously been somewhat sympathetic to the cause due to
their loss of privileges to the central government. However, these new
developments lead to a dramatic drop in support for the comuneros from
aristocrats, who were frightened by the more radical elements of the
Response of Charles V
At first, Charles seemed not to grasp the magnitude of the revolt. He
continued to demand payments from Castile; with the government of
Castile still in arrears, Cardinal Adrian found it impossible to
secure any new loans. A letter from Cardinal Adrian on August 25
warned Charles of the severity of the situation:
Your Highness is making a great error if you think that you will be
able to collect and make use of this tax; there is no one in the
Kingdom, not in
Valladolid or any other city who will ever
pay anything of it; all the grandees and members of the council are
amazed that Your Highness has scheduled payments from these funds.
— Adrian of Utrecht
Once he realized that a full-fledged revolution was underway, Charles
responded vigorously. Through Cardinal Adrian, he undertook new policy
initiatives, such as canceling the taxes granted in the Cortes of
Corunna. Most important was the appointment of two new Castilian
co-regents: the Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández, and the
Admiral of Castile, Fadrique Enríquez. This negated two of the
most salient complaints of the rebels. In addition, Adrian approached
the nobles to convince them that their best interests lay with the
king. The Royal Council was re-established in the fief of Admiral
Enríquez, Medina de Rioseco, which enabled the Council to be nearer
to the revolting cities and reassure skeptical supporters. While
the royal army was still in tatters, many high nobles maintained their
own well-trained mercenary armies—armies that with the revolt's
recent radicalization would now fight for the king.
Organization, funding, and diplomacy
The first political defeats of the comuneros came in October 1520. The
comuneros' attempt to use Queen Joanna for legitimacy did not bear
fruit, as she blocked their initiatives and refused to sign any
edicts. In turn, dissenting voices inside the comuneros now began
to be heard, especially in Burgos. The wavering position of
soon known to the royalists, and the
Constable of Castile negotiated
with Burgos's government. The Royal Council granted a number of
significant concessions to
Burgos in exchange for them leaving the
Following this incident, the Royal Council hoped that other cities
Burgos and leave the comuneros peacefully. Valladolid,
the former seat of royal power, was considered especially likely to
turn, but too many supporters of the king had left city politics and
lost their influence. It remained rebel-controlled. The Admiral of
Castile continued his campaign to try to convince the comuneros to
return to the royal government and thereby avoid a violent
suppression. This attitude concealed a great shortage of funds on
the royal side.
During October and November 1520, both sides accepted that a military
conclusion would soon be necessary and actively devoted themselves to
fundraising, recruiting soldiers, and training their troops. The
comuneros organized their militias in the major cities and levied new
taxes on the countryside; they also took measures aimed at eliminating
waste, routinely auditing their treasurers and dismissing those
thought to be corrupt. The royal government, which had lost much
of its revenue due to the revolt, sought loans from
Portugal and from
conservative Castilian bankers, who saw reassuring signs in the switch
of the allegiance of Burgos.
Battle of Tordesillas
Main article: Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros
§ Battle of Tordesillas
The royal army, commanded by the Constable of Castile's son, the Count
of Haro, consisted of 6,000 infantry, 2,100 cavalry, and 12–15
artillery pieces. Pedro Girón's rebel force was larger but slower,
with 10,000 infantry, 900 cavalry, and 13 artillery pieces. The
rebels' deficiency in cavalry would hurt them throughout the war.
Gradually, both the city of Toledo and its leader Juan de Padilla lost
influence within the Junta, though Padilla retained popularity and
prestige among the commoners. Two new figures emerged within the
Comunidades, Pedro Girón and Antonio Osorio de Acuña. Girón was one
of the most powerful nobles who supported the comuneros; his rebellion
is thought to originate from Charles' refusal to grant Girón the
prestigious Duchy of Medina-Sidonia a year prior to the war. Antonio
de Acuña was the Bishop of Zamora. Acuña was also the head of the
Comunidad in Zamora and the leader of its army, which included more
than 300 priests.
On the royalist side, the nobles could not agree on what tactics to
use. Some preferred to directly challenge the rebels in combat, while
others such as the
Constable of Castile favored continued waiting and
the building of defensive fortifications. The Admiral of Castile
preferred negotiations and exhausting all the possible peaceful
options first. Patience, however, began to run thin; armies were
expensive to maintain once assembled. In late November 1520, both
armies took positions between
Medina de Rioseco
Medina de Rioseco and Tordesillas, and a
confrontation was inevitable.
With Pedro Girón in command, the army of the comuneros advanced on
Medina de Rioseco, following the orders of the Junta. Girón
established his headquarters in Villabrágima, a town merely 8
kilometres (5.0 mi) from the royalist army. The royalists
occupied nearby villages to cut communication lines back to other
This situation continued until December 2, when Girón, apparently
thinking the royal army would remain entrenched,[note c] moved his
forces west to the small town of Villalpando. The town surrendered
the next day without resistance, and the troops began looting the
estates in the area. However, with this movement, the comuneros left
the path to
Tordesillas completely unprotected. The royal army took
advantage of the blunder, marching by night on December 4 and
Tordesillas the next day. The small rebel garrison was
Tordesillas marked a serious defeat for the comuneros, who
lost Queen Joanna and with her their claim to legitimacy. In addition,
thirteen representatives of the Junta were imprisoned, though others
fled and escaped. Morale fell among the rebels, and much angry
criticism was directed towards Pedro Girón for his maneuvering of the
troops out of position and for his failure to attempt to retake
Tordesillas or capture Medina de Rioseco. Girón was obliged to resign
from his post and withdrew from the war.
Events of December and January
Reorganization of the comuneros
Following the loss of Tordesillas, the comuneros regrouped in
Valladolid. The Junta reconvened on December 15, but with only eleven
cities represented, down from a height of fourteen.
Guadalajara's representatives did not return, and
Burgos had left
Valladolid would be the third capital of the rebels,
after Ávila and Tordesillas.
The situation was somewhat worse for the army, with a large number of
Valladolid and Villalpando. This forced the rebels to
intensify their recruitment drives, especially in Toledo, Salamanca,
Valladolid itself. With these new recruits and the arrival of Juan
de Padilla to Valladolid, the rebel military apparatus was rebuilt and
morale bolstered. At the beginning of 1521, the comuneros prepared for
an all-out war, despite disagreements within the movement. Some
suggested seeking a peaceful resolution, while others favored
continuing the war. Those who favored war were divided between two
Simancas and Torrelobatón, a less ambitious proposal
defended by Pedro Laso de la Vega; or lay siege to Burgos, a tactic
favored by Padilla.
Military initiatives in Palencia and Burgos
Arco de Santa María
Arco de Santa María in Burgos, one of the few cities loyal to the
king on the Iberian plateau
In the far north of Castile, the rebel army began a series of
operations conducted by Antonio de Acuña, bishop of Zamora. They
received orders from the Junta on December 23 to try and raise a
rebellion in Palencia. They were tasked with expelling royalists,
collecting taxes on behalf of the Junta, and creating an
administration sympathetic to the comuneros cause. Acuña's army made
a series of raids into the area around Dueñas, raising more than
4,000 ducats and inspiring the peasantry. He returned to
early 1521, then came back to Dueñas on January 10 to begin a major
offensive against the nobles of Tierra de Campos. The nobles' land and
holdings were completely devastated.
In mid-January, Pedro de Ayala, Count of Salvatierra, joined the
comuneros and organized an army of about two thousand men who set
about raiding the north of Castile. Nearby,
Burgos awaited the
fulfillment of the pledges made by Cardinal Adrian after they had
joined the royalist cause two months prior. The slow response led to
dissatisfaction and uncertainty in the city. Ayala and Acuña, aware
of this situation, decided to besiege Burgos, Ayala from its north and
Acuña from its south. They also sought to undermine the defenses by
encouraging a revolt of the inhabitants of Burgos.
Still in Germany, Charles V issued the
Edict of Worms
Edict of Worms on December 17,
1520 (not to be confused with the
Edict of Worms
Edict of Worms of May 25, 1521,
against Martin Luther), which condemned 249 prominent Comunidad
members. For secular rebels, the punishment was death; clergy were to
receive lighter penalties. Similarly, the edict also declared that
those who supported the Comunidades were traitors, disloyal, rebels,
The Royal Council's next move was the occupation of
Palencia, a town loyal to the Count of Salvatierra. The Junta sent
Padilla to meet Acuña; their combined force besieged the royal army
at the castle of Mormojón. The royal army slipped away by nightfall,
and Mormojón was forced to pay tribute to avoid being pillaged.
Ampudia was recovered by the rebels the next day, January 16.
Meanwhile, the rebellion in
Burgos scheduled for January 23 was a
failure due to poor coordination with the besieging army; it started
two days early and was easily crushed. The comuneros of
Burgos had to
surrender, and this was the last rebellion to be seen in
Rebel campaigns of early 1521
Padilla's decision on the rebels' next move
The taking of the Castle of Torrelobatón, built in the 13th century,
provided a much-needed victory for the comuneros. The castle was
renovated in 2007 and is now a tourist site.
After abandoning the siege of
Burgos due to the failure of its revolt,
Padilla decided to return to Valladolid, while Acuña opted to resume
his skirmishing and harassment of noble properties around Tierra de
Campos. With this series of actions, Acuña intended to destroy or
occupy the homes of the prominent nobles. The rebels now set
themselves completely against the manorial system. This would be one
of the strongest features of the second phase of the rebellion.
After the recent setbacks suffered by the comuneros, Padilla realized
that they needed a victory to raise morale. He decided to take
Torrelobatón and its castle.
Torrelobatón was a stronghold halfway
Tordesillas and Medina de Rioseco, and was very close to
Valladolid. Taking it would grant the rebels an excellent fortress for
launching military operations and remove a threat on Valladolid.
Battle of Torrelobatón
On February 21, 1521, the siege of
Torrelobatón began. Outnumbered,
the town nevertheless resisted for four days, thanks to its walls. On
February 25, the comuneros entered the town and subjected it to a
massive looting spree as a reward to the troops. Only churches were
spared. The castle resisted for another two days. The comuneros
then threatened to hang all of the inhabitants, at which point the
castle surrendered. The defenders did secure an agreement to spare
half of the goods inside the castle, thus avoiding further
The victory in
Torrelobatón lifted the spirits of the rebel camp
while worrying the royalists about the rebel advance, exactly as
Padilla hoped. The faith of the nobles in Cardinal Adrian was again
shaken, as he was accused of having done nothing to avoid losing
Constable of Castile began to send troops to the
Tordesillas area to contain the rebels and prevent any further
Despite the renewed enthusiasm among the rebels, a decision was made
to remain in their positions near
Valladolid without pressing their
advantage or launching a new attack. This caused many of the soldiers
to return to their home communities, tired of waiting for salaries and
new orders. This was a problem the comunero forces had throughout
the war; they possessed only a small number of full-time soldiers, and
their militias were constantly "dissolving and recruiting." A
serious attempt to negotiate a peaceful end to the war was tried again
by the moderates, but was undercut by extremists of both sides.
In the north, after the failure of the siege of
Burgos in January, the
Count of Salvatierra resumed his campaign. He set off to cause an
uprising in Merindades, the homeland of the Constable of Castile, and
Medina de Pomar
Medina de Pomar and Frías.
Acuña's southern campaign
Main article: Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros
§ Acuña's campaign, March–April
The Church of the Virgin of Highest Grace in Mora, completely
reconstructed after royalist troops set fire to it while 50 refugees
took shelter inside. The royalist commander
Prior Zúñiga denied
William de Croÿ, the young Flemish
Archbishop of Toledo
Archbishop of Toledo appointed by
Charles, died in January 1521 in Worms, Germany. In Valladolid, the
Junta proposed to
Antonio de Acuña that he submit himself as a
candidate for the seat.
Acuña departed for Toledo in February with a small force under his
command. He traveled south, declaring his impending claim on the
archdiocese to every village as he passed. This raised enthusiasm
among the commoners, who received him with cheers, but aroused
suspicion in the aristocracy. They feared Acuña might attack their
holdings as he did in Tierra de Campos. The Marquis of Villena and
Duke of Infantado contacted Acuña and persuaded him to sign a pact of
Acuña soon had to confront Antonio de Zúñiga, who had been
appointed commander of the royalist army in the Toledo area. Zúñiga
was a prior in the Knights of St. John, who maintained a base in
Castile at the time. Acuña received information that Zúñiga was
in the area of Corral de Almaguer, and pursued battle with him near
Tembleque. Zúñiga drove the rebel forces off, and then launched a
counterattack of his own between Lillo and El Romeral, inflicting a
crushing defeat on Acuña. Acuña, a relentless self-promoter, tried
to minimize the loss and even claimed that he had emerged victorious
from the confrontation.
Undaunted, Acuña continued into Toledo. He appeared at the Zocodover
Plaza in the heart of the city on March 29, 1521, Good Friday. The
crowd gathered around him and took him directly to the cathedral,
claiming the archbishop's chair for him. The next day he met
with María Pacheco, wife of Juan de Padilla and de facto leader of
the Toledo Comunidad in her husband's absence. A brief rivalry emerged
between the two, but it was resolved after mutual attempts at
Once settled in the archdiocese of Toledo, Acuña began to recruit any
men he could find, enlisting soldiers from fifteen to sixty years old.
After royalist troops burned the town of Mora on April 12, Acuña
returned to the countryside with roughly 1,500 men under his command.
He moved into Yepes, and from there conducted raids and operations
against royalist-controlled rural areas. He first attacked and
pillaged Villaseca de la Sagra, then faced Zúñiga again in an
inconclusive battle near the
Tagus river in Illescas. Light
skirmishing near Toledo would continue until news of Villalar ended
Battle of Villalar
Main article: Battle of Villalar
A 19th century work by Manuel Picolo López depicting the Battle of
In early April 1521, the royalist side moved to combine their armies
and threaten Torrelobatón. The
Constable of Castile moved his troops
(including soldiers recently transferred from the defense of Navarre)
Burgos to meet with the Admiral's forces near
Tordesillas. Meanwhile, the comuneros reinforced their troops at
Torrelobatón, which was far less secure than the comuneros preferred.
Their forces were suffering from desertions, and the presence of
royalist artillery would make Torrelobatón's castle vulnerable. Juan
de Padilla considered withdrawing to Toro to seek reinforcements in
early April, but wavered. He delayed his decision until the early
hours of April 23, losing considerable time and allowing the royalists
to unite their forces in Peñaflor.
The combined royalist army pursued the comuneros. Again, the royalists
had a strong advantage in cavalry, with their army consisting of 6,000
infantry and 2,400 cavalry against Padilla's 7,000 infantry and 400
cavalry. Heavy rain slowed Padilla's infantry more than the royalist
cavalry and rendered the primitive firearms of the rebels' 1,000
arquebusiers nearly useless. Padilla hoped to reach the relative
safety of Toro and the heights of Vega de Valdetronco, but his
infantry was too slow. He gave battle with the harrying royalist
cavalry at the town of Villalar. The cavalry charges scattered the
rebel ranks, and the battle became a slaughter. There were an
estimated 500–1,000 rebel casualties and many desertions.
The three most important leaders of the rebellion were captured: Juan
de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and Francisco Maldonado. They were beheaded
the next morning in the Plaza of Villalar, with a large portion of the
royalist nobility present. The remains of the rebel army at
Villalar fragmented, with some attempting to join Acuña's army near
Toledo and others deserting. The rebellion had been struck a crippling
End of the war
After the Battle of Villalar, the towns of northern Castile soon
succumbed to the king's troops, with all its cities returning their
allegiance to the king by early May. Only
Madrid and Toledo kept their
Resistance of Toledo
María Pacheco receives notice of the death of her husband at
Villalar. The painting is a 19th-century work by Vicente Borrás.
The first news of Villalar arrived in Toledo on April 26, but was
largely ignored by the local Comunidad. The magnitude of the defeat
became apparent in a few days, after the first survivors began
arriving in the city and confirmed the fact that the three rebel
leaders had been executed. Toledo was declared in mourning over the
death of Juan de Padilla.
After the death of Padilla, Bishop Acuña lost popularity in favour of
María Pacheco, Padilla's widow. People began to suggest
negotiating with the royalists, seeking to avoid further suffering in
the city. The situation looked even worse after the surrender of
Madrid on May 11. The fall of Toledo seemed only to be a matter of
However, one ray of hope remained for the rebels. Castile had
withdrawn some of its troops from occupied Navarre to fight the
comuneros, and King
Francis I of France
Francis I of France used the opportunity to invade
with support from the Navarrese. The royalist army was forced to march
on Navarre to respond rather than besiege Toledo. Acuña left Toledo
to travel to Navarre, but he was recognized and caught. It is disputed
whether he was seeking to join the French and continue fighting, or
was simply fleeing.
María Pacheco took control of the city and the remains of the rebel
army, living in the Alcázar, collecting taxes, and strengthening
defenses. She requested the intervention of her uncle, the respected
Marquis of Villena, to negotiate with the Royal Council, hoping he
would be able to obtain better concessions. The Marquis eventually
abandoned the negotiations, and
María Pacheco took on personal
Prior Zúñiga, the commander of the besieging
forces. Her demands, though somewhat galling to honor, were ultimately
minor, such as guaranteeing the property and reputation of her
Still concerned about the French, the royal government gave in. With
the support of all parties, the surrender of Toledo was orchestrated
on October 25, 1521. Thus, on October 31 the comuneros left the
Alcázar of Toledo
Alcázar of Toledo and new officials were appointed to run the city.
The truce guaranteed the freedom and property of all the
Revolt of February 1522
The new administrator of Toledo restored order and brought the city
back under royal control. However, he also provoked former
María Pacheco continued her presence in the city and
refused to hand over all the hidden weapons until Charles V personally
signed the agreements reached with the Order of St. John. This
unstable situation came to an end on February 3, 1522, when the
generous terms of the surrender were annulled. Royal soldiers filled
the city and the administrator ordered Pacheco's execution. Riots
broke out in protest. The incident was temporarily remedied thanks to
the intervention of María de Mendoza, the sister of María Pacheco.
Another truce was granted, and while the former comuneros were
defeated, the distraction was exploited by
María Pacheco to escape to
Portugal disguised as a farmer.
Pardon of 1522
Charles V returned to Spain on July 16, 1522. Acts of repression
and retaliation against former comuneros did occur, but only
sporadically. Embarrassingly large numbers of important people had
supported the comuneros, or at least were suspiciously slow to declare
allegiance to the king, and Charles thought it unwise to press the
issue too much.
Back in Valladolid, Charles declared a general pardon on November
1. The pardon gave amnesty to everyone involved in the revolt with
the exception of 293 comuneros, a small figure given the huge number
of rebels. Both Pacheco and Bishop Acuña were among the 293 excluded
from the pardon. More pardons were issued later, after pressure from
the Cortes; by 1527, the repression was completely at end. Of the 293,
23 were executed, 20 died in prison, 50 purchased amnesty, and 100
were pardoned later. The fates of the rest are unknown.
María Pacheco successfully escaped to Portugal, where she lived in
exile the remaining ten years of her life. Bishop Acuña, captured in
Navarre, was stripped of his ecclesiastical standing and executed
after he killed a guard while trying to escape. Pedro Girón
received a pardon conditional on him going into exile to Oran in North
Africa, where he served as a commander against the Moors. Queen
Joanna was locked in
Tordesillas by her son. She would remain there
for thirty-five years, the rest of her life.
Emperor Charles V would go on to rule one of the largest and most
sprawling empires in European history. As a consequence, Charles was
nearly constantly at war, fighting France, England, the Papal States,
the Ottoman Turks, the Aztecs, the Incas, and the Protestant
Schmalkaldic League during his reign. Spain would provide the bulk of
the Habsburgs' armies and financial resources over this period.
Charles placed Castilians in high governmental positions in both
Castile and the Empire at large, and generally left the administration
of Castile in Castilian hands. In that sense, the revolt could be
Some of the reforms of Isabella I which reduced noble power were
reversed as a price for luring the nobility to the royalist side.
However, Charles understood that noble encroachment of power had
helped cause the revolt, and embarked upon a new reform program.
Unpopular, corrupt, and ineffective officials were replaced; judicial
functions of the Royal Council were limited; and local courts were
revitalized. Charles also adjusted the membership of the Royal
Council; its hated president was replaced, the aristocracy's role
reduced, and more gentry were added to it. Realizing that the
urban elite needed to have a stake in the royal government once more,
Charles gave many of them positions, privileges, and government
salaries. The Cortes, while not as important as the comuneros had
hoped, nevertheless maintained its power; it was still required to
approve new taxes and could advise the king. Charles also
discouraged his officials from using overly coercive methods, after
seeing his heavy-handed treatment of the Cortes of Corunna
backfire. If anything, the co-option of the middle class worked
too well; when Charles' successor King Phillip II demanded a ruinously
large tax increase in the 1580s, the Cortes was too dependent on the
Crown for money to effectively resist policies that would wreck the
Juan Martín Díez, "El Empecinado" ("The Undaunted"), who tried to
rehabilitate the reputation of the comuneros in 1821
The revolt, fresh in the memory of Spain, is referenced in several
literary works during Spain's Golden Age.
Don Quixote references the
rebellion in a conversation with Sancho, and
Francisco de Quevedo
Francisco de Quevedo uses
the word "comunero" as a synonym for "rebel" in his works.
In the 18th century, the comuneros were not held in high regard by the
Spanish Empire. The government was not amenable to encouraging
rebellions, and only used the term to condemn opposition. In the
Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros in Paraguay, the rebels did not take the name
willingly; it was only meant to disparage them as traitors.
Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros in New
Granada (modern Colombia) was
similarly unrelated to the original except in name.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the image of the comuneros began
to be rehabilitated by scholars such as Manuel Quintana as precursors
of freedom and martyrs against absolutism. The decline of
Castilian liberty was linked to the later decline of Spain. The
first major commemorative event came in 1821, the third centenary of
the Battle of Villalar. Juan Martín Díez, a nationalistic liberal
military leader who had fought in the resistance against Napoleon, led
an expedition to find and exhume the remains of the three leaders
executed in 1521. Díez praised the comuneros on behalf of the liberal
government in power at the time, likely the first positive
governmental recognition for their cause. This view was challenged by
conservatives who viewed a centralized state as modern and
progressive, especially after the anarchy and fragmentation of the
1868 Revolution in Spain. Manuel Danvila, a conservative
government minister, published the six-volume Historia critica y
documentada de las Comunidades de Castilla from 1897–1900, one of
the most important works of scholarship on the revolt. Drawing on
collected original sources, Danvila emphasized the fiscal demands of
the comuneros, and cast them as traditionalist, reactionary, medieval,
and feudal. Though a liberal, intellectual Gregorio Marañón
shared the dim view of the comuneros that again prevailed in Spain; he
cast the conflict as one between a modern, progressive state open to
beneficent foreign influence against a conservative, reactionary, and
xenophobic Spain hypersensitive to religious and cultural deviance
with an insistence on spurious racial purity.
A floral offering at Villalar, on
Castile and León
Castile and León Day, April 23,
General Franco's government from 1939–1975 also encouraged an
unfavorable interpretation of the comuneros. According to
approved historians such as José María Pemán, the revolt was
fundamentally an issue of petty Spanish regionalism, something which
Franco did his best to discourage. Additionally, the comuneros did not
properly appreciate Spain's "imperial destiny."
Since the mid-twentieth century, others have sought more materialist
reasons for the revolt. Historians such as
José Antonio Maravall and
Joseph Pérez portray the developing revolt as alliances of different
social coalitions around shifting economic interests, with the
"industrial bourgeoisie" of artisans and woolworkers combining with
the intellectuals and the low nobility against the aristocrats and the
merchants. Maravall, who views the revolt as one of the first
modern revolutions, especially stresses the ideological conflict and
intellectual nature of the revolt, with features such as the first
proposed written constitution of Castile.
The April 23, 2007 gathering at Villalar. Villalar was renamed
Villalar de los Comuneros
Villalar de los Comuneros in 1932, under the liberal Second
With Spain's transition to democracy following Franco's death,
celebration of the comuneros started to become permissible again. On
April 23, 1976, a small ceremony was held clandestinely in Villalar;
only two years later, in 1978, the event had become a huge
demonstration of 200,000 in support of Castilian autonomy. The
autonomous community of
Castile and León
Castile and León was created in response to
public demand in 1983, and it recognized April 23 as an official
holiday in 1986. Similarly, each February 3 since 1988 has been
celebrated by the Castilian nationalist party
Tierra Comunera in
Toledo. The celebration highlights the roles of Juan de Padilla and
María Pacheco, and is done in memory of the rebellion in 1522, the
last event of the war.
List of people associated with the Revolt of the Comuneros
Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Brotherhoods
Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre
Italian War of 1521–1526
^ This article uses the term "tax" to encompass a variety of
revenue-raising methods the government used. Briefly, servicios were
flat monetary grants paid to the treasury; the encabezamiento was a
portion of the sales tax towns collected sent to the government; and
the cruzada ("crusade") was a special and semi-voluntary contribution
that counted as an indulgence and was generally used for war against
the Muslims. Charles wanted to abolish the lenient encabezamiento and
return to an older and harsher system of direct royal control of
tolls, pasturage fees, and the like. He also requested large servicios
at the Cortes he held. Part of the revenue problem the government had
was that income from the cruzada had fallen greatly since the
Reconquista had finished in 1492.
^ Junta, meaning "Congress" or "Assembly," did not yet have the
negative connotation of "Oligarchical military dictatorship" in the
^ There exists a theory that Girón's errors were in fact an
intentional betrayal of the comuneros. Considering his moderate stance
and later pardon by the government, historians such as Seaver consider
this possible, but unlikely.
This article incorporates text translated from the Spanish
article Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, licensed under the
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 10.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 113.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 151.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 66.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 93.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 147. The silk industry is held up as particularly
relevant, as the Moors had been deeply involved in it; more generally,
many Muslim converts to Christianity who had not been expelled still
emigrated from 1500 onward.
^ a b c Haliczer 1981, p. 147.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 163.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 145.
^ Lynch 1964, p. 36.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 126.
^ a b c d Lynch 1964, p. 38.
^ J. L. Díez 1977, p. 7. "Tú, tierra de Castilla, muy desgraciada y
maldita eres al sufrir que un tan noble reino como eres, sea gobernado
por quienes no te tienen amor."
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 50.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 159.
^ a b c Pérez 2001, p. 39–40.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 75.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 77–79.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 160.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 161, and Seaver 1928, p. 87. Pérez 2001 lists the
final fall as happening on May 31; this is (almost certainly)
referring to the formal capture of the Alcázar. The defending forces
had long since left by then.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 3.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 50–52.
^ a b c Pérez 2001, p. 53–54.
^ a b c Haliczer 1981, p. 164.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 166.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 165.
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 129.
^ a b c Haliczer 1981, p. 6.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 60.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 164.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 167.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 61. In the spelling of the time, it was rendered
Cortes e Junta General del Reyno.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 147.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 179.
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 146–147.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 155.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 183, 205.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 185.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 65.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 306.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 155–156.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 163.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 156.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 215.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 179.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 192–195.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 181.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 170.
^ a b c Seaver 1928, p. 200–202.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 75.
^ a b c d e Guilarte 1983.
^ Lynch 1964, p. 40.
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 78.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 189
^ Seaver 1928, p. 206.
^ Pérez 1970, p. 262. Note that the original Junta of
thirteen cities represented, not fourteen;
Murcia joined later.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 95
^ Pérez 2001, p. 99
^ a b c Pérez 2001, p. 105
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 294
^ "Texto íntegro del Edicto de Worms" (in Spanish). Cervantes Virtual
Library. 1520-12-17. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Check date values in:
^ a b c Seaver 1928, p. 228, and Pérez 2001, p. 104. The two accounts
disagree on the amount of Mormojón's tribute: Seaver says 1,500
ducats, and Pérez 2,000.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 248.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 251.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 107. "Los asaltantes amenzaron con ahorcar a todos
los inhabitantes si no se rendía."
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 110.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 109.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 319.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 278.
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 333–334.
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 114–115.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 116
^ Seaver 1928, p. 332.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 120.
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 122.
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 324–325.
^ a b Pérez 1970, p. 313–314.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 111.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 204.
^ a b c Seaver 1928, p. 339.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 123.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 128.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 336.
^ a b Seaver 1928, p. 346–347.
^ a b Pérez 2001, p. 131.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 348.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 350.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 212.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 136.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 357.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 354.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 359.
^ a b Lynch 1964, p. 46.
^ a b Haliczer 1981, p. 213.
^ Lynch 1964, p. 48.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 218. The program was called "Stewards and
gentlemen," and about 400 well-paid positions were handed out.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 220.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 223.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 227.
^ Cervantes, Miguel de (1615). "Volume 2, Chapter 43".
Don Quixote de
la Mancha (in Spanish). Rodolfo Schevill and Adolfo Bonilla; digital
form and editing by Fred F. Jehle. p. 61.
ISBN 0-394-90892-9. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 236.
^ López, Adalberto (2005). The Colonial History of Paraguay: The
Revolt of the Comuneros, 1721–1735. Transaction Publishers.
p. 12. ISBN 0-87073-124-6.
^ Kuethe, Allan J. (1978). Military reform and society in New Granada,
1773–1808. University Presses of Florida. pp. 79–101.
^ Pérez 2001, p. 238.
^ a b c d Haliczer 1981, p. 7. Haliczer is citing Gutiérrez Nieto
1973, p. 57–58 for Quintana's views; p. 84 for Danvila's views; and
p. 98 for Marañón's views.
^ Seaver 1928, p. 376.
^ a b González Clavero, Mariano (2002). "Fuerzas políticas en el
proceso autonómico de Castilla y León: 1975–1983". Biblioteca
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish): 337–342. Retrieved
^ Gutiérrez Nieto 1973, p. 96. Nieto is referring to Pemán's Breve
Historia a España, p. 208–211.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 8. Haliczer is citing Pérez 1970, p. 19.
^ Haliczer 1981, p. 8.
^ "20.000 personas celebran en Villalar la fiesta de Castilla y León"
(in Spanish). Cadena SER. 2004-04-23. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
^ "Ley por la que se declara Fiesta de la Comunidad de Castilla y
León el día 23 de abril" (in Spanish). Madrid: Boletín Oficial del
Estado. 1986-04-17. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
^ "Toledo celebra el XX Homenaje a los Comuneros" (in Spanish). Tierra
Comunera. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
English language sources:
Haliczer, Stephen (1981). The Comuneros of Castile: The Forging of a
Revolution, 1475–1521. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin
Press. ISBN 0-299-08500-7.
Lynch, John (1964). Spain under the Habsburgs. (vol. 1). New York:
Oxford University Press.
Miller, Townsend (1963). The Castles and the Crown. New York:
Seaver, Henry Latimer (1966) . The Great Revolt in Castile: A
Study of the Comunero Movement of 1520–1521. New York: Octagon
Spanish and other language sources:
Díez, José Luis (1977). Los Comuneros de Castilla (in Spanish).
Madrid: Editorial Mañana. ISBN 84-7421-025-9.
Guilarte, Alfonso María (1983). El obispo Acuña: Historia de un
comunero (in Spanish). Valladolid: Ambito.
Maravall, José Antonio (1963). Las comunidades de Castilla: Una
primera revolución moderna (in Spanish). Madrid: Revista de
Occidente. OCLC 2182035.
Gutiérrez Nieto, Juan Ignacio (1973). Las comunidades como movimiento
antiseñorial: La formación del bando realista en la Guerra Civil
Castellana de 1520–1521 (in Spanish). Barcelona: Editorial Planeta.
Pérez, Joseph (1998) . La révolution des "Comunidades" de
Castille, 1520–1521 (in French). Bordeaux: Institut d'études
ibériques et ibéro-américaines de l'Université de Bordeaux.
Pérez, Joseph (2001). Los Comuneros (in Spanish). Madrid: La Esfera
de los Libros, S.L. ISBN 84-9734-003-5.
Unrest in Spain, 1517–1523
Navarre (partially occupied, disputed)
Granada (annexed by Castile)
King Charles I of Castile and Aragon
Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile and Aragon
Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht
William de Croÿ, sieur de Chièvres
Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros
Germaine of Foix
Revolt of the Comuneros
List of important figures
Battle of Villalar
Juan de Padilla
Antonio de Acuña
Revolt of the Brotherhoods
List of important figures
Frisian peasant rebellion (1515–1523)
Knights' Revolt (1522)