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REUTERS /ˈrɔɪtərz/ is an international news agency headquartered in London
London
, England
England
. It is a division of Thomson Reuters .

Until 2008, the Reuters
Reuters
news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc , which was also a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation
Corporation
in 2008, the Reuters
Reuters
news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters
Reuters
transmits news in English , French , Arabic , Spanish , German , Italian , Portuguese , Russian , Japanese , Korean , Urdu , and Chinese . It was established in 1851.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Nineteenth century * 1.2 1900s * 1.3 2000s

* 2 Journalists

* 2.1 Fatalities

* 3 Criticism and controversy

* 3.1 Policy of objective language * 3.2 Climate change reporting * 3.3 Photograph controversies * 3.4 Accusations of pro- Fernando Henrique Cardoso bias

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

HISTORY

NINETEENTH CENTURY

The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London
London
Royal Exchange . Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin
Berlin
and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848 . These publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen
Aachen
using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen.

Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company initially covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, and business firms. The first newspaper client to subscribe was the London
London
_ Morning Advertiser _ in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with _Britannica Encyclopedia_ writing that "the value of Reuters
Reuters
to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters
Reuters
was the first to report Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters
Reuters
expanded into the far east, followed by South America
America
in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters
Reuters
began transmitting messages electrically to London
London
newspapers.

1900S

In 1923, Reuters
Reuters
began using radio to transmit news internationally, a pioneering act. In 1925, The Press Association (PA) of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters
Reuters
and became full owner some years later. During the world wars, _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_ reported that Reuters
Reuters
"came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters
Reuters
deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters
Reuters
Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters
Reuters
to the Newspaper Proprieters' Association, and co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
. The Reuters
Reuters
Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At "that point, Reuters
Reuters
had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, and radio and television broadcasters." Also at that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching virtually all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to _Brittanica_.

In 1961, Reuters
Reuters
scooped news of the erection of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall . Becoming one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s, in 1973 Reuters
Reuters
"began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters
Reuters
began making electronic transactions on its computer network, and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters
Reuters
was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters
Reuters
Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London
London
Stock Exchange (LSE) and NASDAQ
NASDAQ
. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall being breached in 1989.

2000S

Share price grew during the dotcom boom , then fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, _Brittanica_ wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press , Reuters, and Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
. Reuters
Reuters
merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008, forming Thomson Reuters. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange
and the New York Stock Exchange . The last surviving member of the Reuters
Reuters
family founders, Marguerite, Baroness de Reuter , died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. As of 2010, Reuters
Reuters
was headquartered in New York City, and provided financial information to clients while also maintaining its traditional news-agency business.

In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO. Almost every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters
Reuters
as of 2014. Reuters
Reuters
operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced expansions and relocations to Toronto
Toronto
. As part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees.

JOURNALISTS

The Reuters
Reuters
News Agency employs some 2,500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters
Reuters
journalists use the Reuters
Reuters
Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy, speed and exclusivity relies.

In May 2000, Kurt Schork , an American reporter , was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U.S. troops in Iraq
Iraq
. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they were struck by fire from a U.S. military Apache helicopter in Baghdad. During 2004, cameramen Adlan Khasanov in Chechnya and Dhia Najim in Iraq
Iraq
were also killed. In April 2008, cameraman Fadel Shana was killed in the Gaza Strip after being hit by an Israeli tank .

The first Reuters
Reuters
journalist to be taken hostage in action was Anthony Grey . Detained by the Chinese government while covering China's Cultural Revolution in Peking
Peking
in the late 1960s, it was said to be in response to the jailing of several Chinese journalists by the colonial British government of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. He was considered to be the first political hostage of the modern age and was released after being imprisoned for 27 months from 1967 to 1969. Awarded an OBE by the British Government after his release, he went on to become a best-selling historical novelist.

In May 2016 the Ukrainian website Myrotvorets published the names and personal data of 4,508 journalists, including Reuters
Reuters
reporters, and other media staff from all over the world, who were accredited by the self-proclaimed authorities in the separatist -controlled regions of eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
.

FATALITIES

NAME NATIONALITY LOCATION DATE

Hos Maina Kenyan Somalia 000000001993-07-12-000012 July 1993

Dan Eldon Kenyan Somalia 000000001993-07-12-000012 July 1993

Kurt Schork American Sierra Leone 000000002000-05-24-000024 May 2000

Taras Protsyuk Ukrainian Iraq 000000002003-04-08-00008 April 2003

Mazen Dana Palestinian Iraq 000000002003-08-17-000017 August 2003

Adlan Khasanov Russian Chechnya 000000002004-05-09-00009 May 2004

Dhia Najim Iraqi Iraq 000000002004-11-01-00001 November 2004

Waleed Khaled Iraqi Iraq 000000002005-08-28-000028 August 2005

Namir Noor-Eldeen Iraqi Iraq 000000002007-07-12-000012 July 2007

Saeed Chmagh Iraqi Iraq 000000002007-07-12-000012 July 2007

Fadel Shana\'a Palestinian Gaza Strip 000000002008-04-16-000016 April 2008

Hiro Muramoto Japanese Thailand 000000002010-04-10-000010 April 2010

Sabah al-Bazee Iraqi Iraq 000000002011-03-29-000029 March 2011

Molhem Barakat Syrian Syria 000000002013-12-20-000020 December 2013

CRITICISM AND CONTROVERSY

POLICY OF OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE

Reuters
Reuters
building entrance in New York City
New York City

Reuters
Reuters
has a policy of taking a "value-neutral approach," which extends to not using the word "terrorist" in its stories, a practice which has attracted criticism following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
. Reuters' editorial policy states: "We are committed to reporting the facts and in all situations avoid the use of emotive terms. The only exception is when we are quoting someone directly or in indirect speech." (The Associated Press , by contrast, does use the term "terrorist" in reference to non-governmental organizations who carry out attacks on civilian populations. )

Following the September 11 attacks, Reuters
Reuters
global head of news Stephen Jukes reiterated the policy in an internal memo and later explained to media columnist Howard Kurtz (who criticized the policy): "We all know that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter, and that Reuters
Reuters
upholds the principle that we do not use the word terrorist...We're trying to treat everyone on a level playing field, however tragic it's been and however awful and cataclysmic for the American people and people around the world. We're there to tell the story. We're not there to evaluate the moral case."

In early October 2001, CEO Tom Glocer and editor-in-chief Geert Linnebank and Jukes later released a statement acknowledging that Jukes' memo "had caused deep offence among members of our staff, our readers, and the public at large" and wrote: "Our policy is to avoid the use of emotional terms and not make value judgments concerning the facts we attempt to report accurately and fairly. We apologize for the insensitive manner in which we characterized this policy and extend our sympathy to all those who have been affected by these tragic events."

In September 2004, _ The New York Times _ reported that Reuters
Reuters
global managing editor, David A. Schlesinger objected to Canadian newspapers' editing of Reuters
Reuters
articles to insert the word _terrorist_. Schlesinger said: "my goal is to protect our reporters and protect our editorial integrity."

CLIMATE CHANGE REPORTING

In July 2013, David Fogarty, former Reuters
Reuters
climate change correspondent in Asia, resigned after a career of almost 20 years with the company and wrote about a "climate of fear" which resulted in "progressively, getting any climate change-themed story published got harder" following comments from then deputy editor-in-chief Paul Ingrassia that he was a "climate change sceptic ". In his comments, Fogarty stated that "Some desk editors happily subbed and pushed the button. Others agonised and asked a million questions. Debate on some story ideas generated endless bureaucracy by editors frightened to take a decision, reflecting a different type of climate within Reuters—the climate of fear," and that "by mid-October, I was informed that climate change just wasn't a big story for the present. …Very soon after that conversation I was told my climate change role was abolished." Ingrassia, currently Reuters' managing editor, formerly worked for _The Wall Street Journal_ and Dow Jones for 31 years. Reuters
Reuters
responded to Fogarty's piece by stating that "Reuters has a number of staff dedicated to covering this story, including a team of specialist reporters at Point Carbon and a columnist. There has been no change in our editorial policy."

Subsequently, climate blogger Joe Romm cited a Reuters
Reuters
article on climate as employing "false balance ", and quoted Dr. Stefan Rahmstorf, Co-Chair of Earth System Analysis at the Potsdam Institute that "imply, a lot of unrelated climate skeptics nonsense has been added to this Reuters
Reuters
piece. In the words of the late Steve Schneider, this is like adding some nonsense from the Flat Earth Society to a report about the latest generation of telecommunication satellites. It is absurd." Romm opined that "We can't know for certain who insisted on cramming this absurd and non-germane 'climate sceptics nonsense' into the piece, but we have a strong clue. If it had been part of the reporter's original reporting, you would have expected direct quotes from actual skeptics, because that is journalism 101. The fact that the blather was all inserted without attribution suggests it was added at the insistence of an editor."

PHOTOGRAPH CONTROVERSIES

According to Ynetnews , Reuters
Reuters
was accused of bias against Israel
Israel
in its coverage of the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict after the wire service used two doctored photos by a Lebanese freelance photographer, Adnan Hajj. In August 2006, Reuters
Reuters
announced it had severed all ties with Hajj and said his photographs would be removed from its database.

In 2010, Reuters
Reuters
was criticised again by Haaretz for "anti-Israeli" bias when it cropped the edges of photos, removing commandos' knives held by activists and a naval commando's blood from photographs taken aboard the _Mavi Marmara_ during the Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raid
, a raid that left nine Turkish activists dead. It has been alleged that in two separate photographs, knives held by the activists were cropped out of the versions of the pictures published by Reuters. Reuters
Reuters
said it is standard operating procedure to crop photos at the margins, and replaced the cropped images with the original ones after it was brought to the agency's attention.

ACCUSATIONS OF PRO-FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO BIAS

In March 2015, the Brazilian affiliate of Reuters
Reuters
released a text containing an interview with Brazilian ex-president Fernando Henrique Cardoso about the ongoing Petrobrás scandal . One of the paragraphs mentioned a comment by a former Petrobrás manager, in which he suggests corruption in that company may date back to Cardoso's presidency. Attached to it, there was a comment between parenthesis: "Podemos tirar se achar melhor" ("we can take it out if think it's better"), which is now absent from the current version of the text. The agency later issued a text in which they confirm the mistake, explaining it was a question by one of the Brazilian editors to the journalist who wrote the original text in English, and that it was not supposed to be published.

SEE ALSO

* Journalism portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

* Media of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* List of news agencies * Interbank market , competitor * Press Association , a UK rival of Reuters

Related to Reuters
Reuters

* Reuters Market Data System * Reuters 3000 Xtra * Reuters Instrument Code * Reuters Insider * Reuters TV * Reuters Market Light

Related to Thomson Reuters

* Thomson Reuters Business Classification * Thomson Reuters Messenger * Thomson Reuters Citation Laureates * Thomson Reuters Indices * Thomson Reuters/Jefferies CRB Index * Thomson Reuters league tables * Thomson Reuters Realized Volatility Index * Thomson Reuters Foundation

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Company History". Thomson Reuters. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ " Reuters
Reuters
(news agency)". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_. March 26, 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2012. * ^ Mark A. Stevens (2001). _Merriam Webster\'s Collegiate Encyclopedia_. Merriam-Webster . pp. 1,366. ISBN 978-0877790174 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Allen, Katie (May 4, 2017). "Reuters: a brief history". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Read, Donald (1999), _The Power of News: The History of Reuters_, Oxford Scholarship Online, retrieved February 20, 2017 * ^ "News agency". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_. August 23, 2002. Retrieved February 18, 2017. * ^ "Baroness de Reuter, last link to news dynasty, dies". _ABC News (Australia) _. Reuters. 26 January 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Smith, Gerry (November 1, 2016), _Thomson Reuters Cuts 2,000 Jobs Worldwide in Restructuring_, _Bloomberg _, retrieved February 20, 2017 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Main Page
Main Page
- Handbook of Journalism". Handbook.reuters.com. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (5 April 2010). "Video Shows U.S. Killing of Reuters
Reuters
Employees". _ The New York Times _. Retrieved 24 August 2015. * ^ "Collateral Murder - Wikileaks - Iraq". YouTube. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (April 16, 2008). " Reuters
Reuters
cameraman killed in Gaza". Reuters. * ^ "Foreign Correspondents:The Tiny World of Anthony Grey". _Time _. 20 December 1968. Retrieved 22 May 2010. * ^ "Ukrainian Hackers Leak Personal Data Of Thousands Of Journalists Who Worked In Donbas". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. May 11, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tyson, Ann Scott, "Military's Killing of 2 Journalists in Iraq
Iraq
Detailed in New Book", _ The Washington Post _, 15 September 2009, p. 7. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Susan D. Moeller, "A Moral Imagination: The Media's Response to the War on Terrorism" in _Reporting War: Journalism in Wartime_ (eds. Stuart Allan & Barbie Zelizer: Routledge, 2004), p. 68. * ^ _Encyclopedia of Journalism_ (ed. Christopher H. Sterling: SAGE , 2009), p. 1669. * ^ Brian Mooney & Barry Simpson, _Breaking News: How the Wheels Came off at Reuters_ (Wiley , 2004), pp. 184–85. * ^ Austen, Ian (20 September 2004). " Reuters
Reuters
Asks a Chain to Remove Its Bylines". _The New York Times_. * ^ Kroh, Kiley (16 July 2013). " Reuters
Reuters
Exposed: Publication Openly Hostile to Climate Coverage, Top Editor Doubts Climate Science". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ "Climate Change \'Climate of Fear\': Reporter
Reporter
Blows Whistle on Reuters
Reuters
Common Dreams Breaking News & Views for the Progressive Community". Common Dreams. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ Chris O'Shea (16 April 2013). " Reuters
Reuters
Sends Paul Ingrassia to London
London
FishbowlNY". Mediabistro.com. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ Chris Roush (16 July 2013). "Ex- Reuters
Reuters
journalist: Wire service not interested in climate change stories". Talking Biz News. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ Romm, Joe (21 July 2013). "False Balance Lives At Reuters: Climatologist Slams \'Absurd\' Use of \'Unrelated Climate Skeptics Nonsense\'". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 17 June 2015. * ^ " Reuters
Reuters
admits altering Beirut photo". Ynetnews . August 6, 2006. * ^ " Reuters
Reuters
toughens rules after altered photo affair Photos". Reuters. Retrieved August 15, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mozgovaya, Natasha (8 June 2010). " Reuters
Reuters
under fire for removing weapons, blood from images of Gaza flotilla". _ Haaretz _. Retrieved 8 June 2010. * ^ "Para blindar FHC, \'Reuters\' propõe em matéria: \'podemos tirar se achar melhor\'". _ Jornal do Brasil _ (in Portuguese). 25 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015. * ^ Winter, Brian (23 March 2015). "Entrevista-FHC diz que Lula tem mais responsabilidade política em caso Petrobras do que Dilma". _ Reuters
Reuters
Brasil_ (in Portuguese). Thomson Reuters . Retrieved 25 March 2015. * ^ "Podemos tirar, se achar melhor". _ CartaCapital _ (in Portuguese). Editora Confiança. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Read, Donald (1992). _The Power of News: The History of Reuters 1849–1989_. Oxford, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-821776-5 . * Mooney, Brian; Simspon, Barry (2003). _Breaking News: How the Wheels Came off at Reuters_. Capstone. ISBN 1-84112-545-8 . * Fenby, Jonathan (12 February 1986). _The International News Services_. Schocken Books. p. 275. ISBN 0-8052-3995-2 , ISBN 978-0-8052-3995-9 . * Schwarzlose, Richard (1 January 1989). _Nation's Newsbrokers Volume 1: The Formative Years: From Pretelegraph to 1865_. Northwestern University Press. p. 370. ISBN 0-8101-0818-6 , ISBN 978-0-8101-0818-9 . * Schwarzlose, Richard (1 February 1990). _Nation's Newsbrokers Volume 2: The Rush to Institution: From 1865 to 1920_. Northwestern University Press. p. 366. ISBN 0-8101-0819-4 , ISBN 978-0-8101-0819-6 . * Schwarzlose, Richard (June 1979). _The American Wire Services_. Ayer Co Pub. p. 453. ISBN 0-405-11774-4 . * Silberstein-Loeb, Jonathan (2014). _The International Distribution of News: The Associated Press, Press Association, and Reuters, 1848–1947_.

FURTHER READING

* Reuters
Reuters
Interactive launches on BTX Enterprise as Reuters Interactive community site * Editorials on Reuters' use of 'terrorist': _The Wall Street Journal_\'s James Taranto, Norman Solomon, Institute for Public Accuracy/U.S. columnist * Criticism of references to the Holocaust * Reuters
Reuters
photo caption of New York City\'s World Trade Center site after 11 September causes controversy * Reuters
Reuters
Investigation Leads To Dismissal Of Editor * Breaking News: How the Wheels Came Off at Reuters

EXTERNAL LINKS

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