REUTERS (/ˈrɔɪtərz/ ) is an international news agency
United Kingdom . It is a division of Thomson
Until 2008, the
Reuters news agency formed part of an independent
Reuters Group plc , which was also a provider of financial
market data. Since the acquisition of
Reuters Group by the Thomson
Corporation in 2008, the
Reuters news agency has been a part of
Thomson Reuters, making up the media division.
Reuters transmits news
in English , French , Arabic , Spanish , German , Italian , Portuguese
, Russian , Japanese , Korean , Urdu , and Chinese . It was
established in 1851.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Nineteenth century
* 1.2 1900s
* 1.3 2000s
* 2 Journalists
* 2.1 Fatalities
* 3 Criticism and controversy
* 3.1 Policy of objective language
* 3.2 Climate change reporting
* 3.3 Photograph controversies
* 3.4 Accusations of pro-
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso bias
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in
Britain at the
London Royal Exchange .
Paul Reuter worked at a
book-publishing firm in
Berlin and was involved in distributing
radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848 . These
publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a
prototype news service in
Aachen using homing pigeons and electric
telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851.
Headquartered in London, the company initially covered commercial
news, serving banks, brokerage houses, and business firms. The first
newspaper client to subscribe was the
Morning Advertiser in
1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica
Encyclopedia writing that "the value of
Reuters to newspapers lay not
only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the
first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's
agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the
first to report news scoops from abroad.
Reuters was the first to
Abraham Lincoln 's assassination in Europe, for instance, in
1865. In 1872,
Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South
America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in
overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883,
transmitting messages electrically to
Reuters began using radio to transmit news internationally,
a pioneering act. In 1925,
The Press Association (PA) of Great
Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, and full owners some
years later. During the world wars,
The Guardian reported that
Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve
national interests. In 1941
Reuters deflected the pressure by
restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the
Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of
Reuters to the Newspaper
Proprieters' Association, and co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to
associations that represented daily newspapers in
New Zealand and
Australia . The
Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to
maintain the company's independence. At that point,
become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text
and images to newspapers, other news agencies, and radio and
television broadcasters." Also at that point, it directly or through
national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching
virtually all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of
smaller ones," according to Brittanica.
Reuters scooped news of the erection of the
Berlin Wall .
Becoming one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data
over oceans via computers in the 1960s, in 1973
Reuters "began making
computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to
clients." In 1981,
Reuters began making electronic transactions on
its computer network, and afterwards developed a number of electronic
brokerage and trading services.
Reuters was floated as a public
company in 1984, when
Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges
such as the
London Stock Exchange (LSE) and
NASDAQ . Reuters
published the first story of the
Berlin Wall being breached in 1989.
Share price grew during the dotcom boom , then fell after the banking
troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout
the world came from three major agencies: the
Associated Press ,
Agence France-Presse .
Reuters merged with Thomson
Corporation in Canada in 2008, forming Thomson Reuters. In 2009,
Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing
its shares on the
Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock
Exchange . The last surviving member of the
Reuters family founders,
Marguerite, Baroness de Reuter , died at age 96 on 25 January 2009.
As of 2010,
Reuters was headquartered in New York City, and provided
financial information to clients while also maintaining its
traditional news-agency business.
Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO. Almost every
major news outlet in the world subscribed to
Reuters as of 2014.
Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20
languages as of 2014. In July 2016,
Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its
intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to
private equity firms. In October 2016,
Thomson Reuters announced
expansions and relocations to
Toronto . As part of cuts and
restructuring, in November 2016,
Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated
2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees.
Reuters News Agency employs some 2,500 journalists and 600
photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide.
Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair
presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the
values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for
reliability, accuracy, speed and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000,
Kurt Schork , an American reporter , was killed in an
ambush while on assignment in
Sierra Leone . In April and August 2003,
Taras Protsyuk and
Mazen Dana were killed in separate
incidents by U.S. troops in
Iraq . In July 2007,
Namir Noor-Eldeen and
Saeed Chmagh were killed when they were struck by fire from a U.S.
military Apache helicopter in Baghdad. During 2004, cameramen Adlan
Chechnya and Dhia Najim in
Iraq were also killed. In April
Fadel Shana was killed in the
Gaza Strip after being
hit by an Israeli tank .
Reuters journalist to be taken hostage in action was
Anthony Grey . Detained by the Chinese government while covering
Cultural Revolution in
Peking in the late 1960s, it was said
to be in response to the jailing of several Chinese journalists by the
colonial British government of
Hong Kong . He was considered to be
the first political hostage of the modern age and was released after
being imprisoned for 27 months from 1967 to 1969. Awarded an OBE by
the British Government after his release, he went on to become a
best-selling historical novelist.
In May 2016 the Ukrainian website
Myrotvorets published the names and
personal data of 4,508 journalists, including
Reuters reporters, and
other media staff from all over the world, who were accredited by the
self-proclaimed authorities in the separatist -controlled regions of
000000001993-07-12-000012 July 1993
000000001993-07-12-000012 July 1993
000000002000-05-24-000024 May 2000
000000002003-04-08-00008 April 2003
000000002003-08-17-000017 August 2003
000000002004-05-09-00009 May 2004
000000002004-11-01-00001 November 2004
000000002005-08-28-000028 August 2005
000000002007-07-12-000012 July 2007
000000002007-07-12-000012 July 2007
000000002008-04-16-000016 April 2008
000000002010-04-10-000010 April 2010
000000002011-03-29-000029 March 2011
000000002013-12-20-000020 December 2013
CRITICISM AND CONTROVERSY
POLICY OF OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE
Reuters building entrance in
New York City
New York City
Reuters has a policy of taking a "value-neutral approach," which
extends to not using the word "terrorist" in its stories, a practice
which has attracted criticism following the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks .
Reuters' editorial policy states: "We are committed to reporting the
facts and in all situations avoid the use of emotive terms. The only
exception is when we are quoting someone directly or in indirect
Associated Press , by contrast, does use the term
"terrorist" in reference to non-governmental organizations who carry
out attacks on civilian populations. )
Following the 11 September attacks,
Reuters global head of news
Stephen Jukes reiterated the policy in an internal memo and later
explained to media columnist
Howard Kurtz (who criticized the policy):
"We all know that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom
fighter, and that
Reuters upholds the principle that we do not use the
word terrorist...We're trying to treat everyone on a level playing
field, however tragic it's been and however awful and cataclysmic for
the American people and people around the world. We're there to tell
the story. We're not there to evaluate the moral case."
In early October 2001, CEO
Tom Glocer and editor-in-chief Geert
Linnebank and Jukes later released a statement acknowledging that
Jukes' memo "had caused deep offence among members of our staff, our
readers, and the public at large" and wrote: "Our policy is to avoid
the use of emotional terms and not make value judgments concerning the
facts we attempt to report accurately and fairly. We apologize for the
insensitive manner in which we characterized this policy and extend
our sympathy to all those who have been affected by these tragic
In September 2004,
The New York Times
The New York Times reported that
managing editor, David A. Schlesinger objected to Canadian newspapers'
Reuters articles to insert the word terrorist. Schlesinger
said: "my goal is to protect our reporters and protect our editorial
CLIMATE CHANGE REPORTING
In July 2013, David Fogarty, former
Reuters climate change
correspondent in Asia, resigned after a career of almost 20 years with
the company and wrote about a "climate of fear" which resulted in
"progressively, getting any climate change-themed story published got
harder" following comments from then deputy editor-in-chief Paul
Ingrassia that he was a "climate change sceptic ". In his comments,
Fogarty stated that "Some desk editors happily subbed and pushed the
button. Others agonised and asked a million questions. Debate on some
story ideas generated endless bureaucracy by editors frightened to
take a decision, reflecting a different type of climate within
Reuters—the climate of fear," and that "by mid-October, I was
informed that climate change just wasn't a big story for the present.
…Very soon after that conversation I was told my climate change role
was abolished." Ingrassia, currently Reuters' managing editor,
formerly worked for
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones for 31
Reuters responded to Fogarty's piece by stating that "Reuters
has a number of staff dedicated to covering this story, including a
team of specialist reporters at Point Carbon and a columnist. There
has been no change in our editorial policy."
Subsequently, climate blogger Joe Romm cited a
Reuters article on
climate as employing "false balance ", and quoted Dr. Stefan
Rahmstorf, Co-Chair of Earth System Analysis at the Potsdam Institute
that "imply, a lot of unrelated climate skeptics nonsense has been
added to this
Reuters piece. In the words of the late Steve Schneider,
this is like adding some nonsense from the
Flat Earth Society to a
report about the latest generation of telecommunication satellites. It
is absurd." Romm opined that "We can't know for certain who insisted
on cramming this absurd and non-germane 'climate sceptics nonsense'
into the piece, but we have a strong clue. If it had been part of the
reporter's original reporting, you would have expected direct quotes
from actual skeptics, because that is journalism 101. The fact that
the blather was all inserted without attribution suggests it was added
at the insistence of an editor."
Reuters was accused of bias against
its coverage of the
2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict after the wire
service used two doctored photos by a Lebanese freelance photographer,
Adnan Hajj. In August 2006,
Reuters announced it had severed all ties
with Hajj and said his photographs would be removed from its database.
Reuters was criticised again by
Haaretz for "anti-Israeli"
bias when it cropped the edges of photos, removing commandos' knives
held by activists and a naval commando's blood from photographs taken
aboard the Mavi Marmara during the
Gaza flotilla raid , a raid that
left nine Turkish activists dead. It has been alleged that in two
separate photographs, knives held by the activists were cropped out of
the versions of the pictures published by Reuters.
Reuters said it is
standard operating procedure to crop photos at the margins, and
replaced the cropped images with the original ones after it was
brought to the agency's attention.
ACCUSATIONS OF PRO-FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO BIAS
In March 2015, the Brazilian affiliate of
Reuters released a text
containing an interview with Brazilian ex-president Fernando Henrique
Cardoso about the ongoing Petrobrás scandal . One of the paragraphs
mentioned a comment by a former Petrobrás manager, in which he
suggests corruption in that company may date back to Cardoso's
presidency. Attached to it, there was a comment between parenthesis:
"Podemos tirar se achar melhor" ("we can take it out if think it's
better"), which is now absent from the current version of the text.
The agency later issued a text in which they confirm the mistake,
explaining it was a question by one of the Brazilian editors to the
journalist who wrote the original text in English, and that it was not
supposed to be published.
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Thomson Reuters Foundation
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Reuters Interactive launches on BTX Enterprise as Reuters
Interactive community site
* Editorials on Reuters' use of 'terrorist': The Wall Street
Journal\'s James Taranto, Norman Solomon, Institute for Public
* Criticism of references to the Holocaust
Reuters photo caption of New York City\'s World Trade Center site
after 11 September causes controversy
Reuters Investigation Leads To Dismissal Of Editor
* Breaking News: How the Wheels Came Off at Reuters