A RESOURCE is a source or supply from which benefit is produced. Resources can be broadly classified on bases upon their availability they are renewable and non renewable resources.They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use , on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and in the base of their distribution as ubiquitous and localized. An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology.Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth or wants, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism (see biological resource ).
The concept of resources has been applied in diverse realms, with respect to economics , biology and ecology , computer science , management , and human resources , and is linked to the concepts of competition , sustainability , conservation , and stewardship . In application within human society , commercial or non-commercial factors require resource allocation through resource management .
Resources have three main characteristics: utility , limited availability , and potential for depletion or consumption . Resources have been variously categorized as biotic versus abiotic , renewable versus non-renewable , and potential versus actual, along with more elaborate classification.
* 1 Economic
* 2 Biological
* 3 Economic versus biological
In economics a resource is defined as a service or other asset used
to produce goods and services that meet human needs and wants.
In biology and ecology a resource is defined as a substance that is
required by a living organism for normal growth , maintenance , and
reproduction (see biological resource ). The main essential resources
for animals are food, water, and territory. For plants key resources
include sunlight, nutrients, water, and a place to grow.
Resources,can be consumed by an organism and, as a result, become
unavailable to other organisms.
ECONOMIC VERSUS BIOLOGICAL
There are three fundamental differences between economic versus ecological views: 1) the economic resource definition is human-centered (anthropocentric ) and the biological or ecological resource definition is nature-centered (biocentric or ecocentric ); 2) the economic view includes desire along with necessity, whereas the biological view is about basic biological needs; and 3) economic systems are based on markets of currency exchanged for goods and services, whereas biological systems are based on natural processes of growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
Main article: Resource (computer science)
A computer resource is any physically or virtual component of limited
availability within a computer or information management system.
Natural resources are derived from the environment . Many natural resources are essential for human survival, while others are used for satisfying human desire. Conservation is the management of natural resources with the goal of sustainability . Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.
Resources can be categorized on the basis of origin:
Abiotic resources comprise non-living things (e.g., land , water ,
air and minerals such as gold, iron, copper, silver).
* Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere . Forests and
their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other
marine organisms are important examples.
Natural resources are also categorized based on the stage of development:
* Potential resources are known to exist and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India and Kuwait that have sedimentary rocks, but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource. * Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined, and are being used in present times. For example, petroleum and natural gas is actively being obtained from the Mumbai High Fields. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved. That part of the actual resource that can be developed profitably with available technology is called a reserve resource, while that part that can not be developed profitably because of lack of technology is called a stock resource.
Natural resources can be categorized on the basis of renewability:
Non-renewable resources are formed over very long geological
Dependent upon the speed and quantity of consumption, overconsumption can lead to depletion or total and everlasting destruction of a resource. Important examples are agricultural areas, fish and other animals, forests, healthy water and soil, cultivated and natural landscapes. Such conditionally renewable resources are sometimes classified as a third kind of resource, or as a subtype of renewable resources. Conditionally renewable resources are presently subject to excess human consumption and the only sustainable long term use of such resources is within the so-called zero ecological footprint , wherein human use less than the Earth's ecological capacity to regenerate.
Natural resources are also categorized based on distribution:
* Ubiquitous resources are found everywhere (e.g., air, light, water). * Localized resources are found only in certain parts of the world (e.g., copper and iron ore, geothermal power).
Actual vs. potential natural resources are distinguished as follows:
* Actual resources are those resources whose location and quantity are known and we have the technology to exploit and use them. * Potential resources are the ones of which we have insufficient knowledge or we do not have the technology to exploit them at present.
On the basis of ownership, resources can be classified as individual, community, national, and international.
LABOUR OR HUMAN RESOURCES
In economics, labour or human resources refers to the human effort in
production of goods and rendering of services.
In a project management context, human resources are those employees responsible for undertaking the activities defined in the project plan.
CAPITAL OR INFRASTRUCTURE
In social studies , capital refers to already-produced durable goods used in production of goods or services . In essence, capital refers to human-made resources created using knowledge and expertise based on utility or perceived value. Common examples of capital include buildings, machinery, railways, roads, and ships. As resources, capital goods may or may not be significantly consumed, though they may depreciate in the production process and they are typically of limited capacity or unavailable for use by others.
TANGIBLE VERSUS INTANGIBLE
Whereas, tangible resources such as equipment have actual physical existence, intangible resources such as corporate images, brands and patents, and other intellectual property exist in abstraction.
Generally the economic value of a resource is controlled by supply and demand. Some view this as a narrow perspective on resources because there are many intangibles that cannot be measured in money. Natural resources such as forests and mountains have aesthetic value. Resources also have an ethical value.
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USE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Typically resources cannot be consumed in their original form, but
rather through RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT they must be processed into more
usable commodities and usable things. With increasing population, the
demand for resources is increasing. There are marked differences in
resource distribution and associated economic inequality between
regions or countries, with developed countries using more natural
resources than developing countries.
Various problems relate to the usage of resources:
Various benefits can result from the wise usage of resources:
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Miller, G.T. & S. Spoolman (2011). _Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions_ (17th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks-Cole. ISBN 0-538-73534-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Ricklefs, R.E. (2005). _The Economy of Nature_ (6th ed.). New York, NY: WH Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8697-4 . * ^ McConnell, C.R., S.L. Brue, and S.M. Flynn. 2011. Economics: principles, problems, and policies, 19th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY. ISBN 0-07-351144-7 . * ^ Mankiw, N.G. 2008. Principles of Economics, 5th ed. South-Western College Publishing, Boston, MA. ISBN 1-111-39911-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Samuelson, P.A. and W.D. Nordhaus. 2004 . Economics, 18th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA. ISBN 0-07-287205-5 . * ^ Morley, D. 2010. Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, 13th ed. Course Technology, Stamford, CT. ISBN 0-538-74810-9 . * ^ Hut, PM (2008-09-07). "Getting and Estimating Resource Requirements - People". Pmhut.com. Retrieved 2012-01-02. * ^ Berry, John. 2004. _Tangible Strategies for Intangible Assets_. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071412865