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A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance (sometimes called civil resistance), or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country.[1] On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in international law, there has been a dispute between states since at least 1899, when the first major codification of the laws of war in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause
Martens Clause
was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants.[2][3] More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, referred in Article 1. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts "... in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes..." This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant.[4] Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognised as having a right to resist occupation.[5] Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment. At present, international law, as practiced by states does not make any distinction and does not even grant a right of organized resistance even against the most serious violations, which is unsatisfactory at least to the extent that a right to forcibly resist against genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes on a massive scale should be recognized.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Background 3 Geographies of resistance 4 Controversy regarding definition 5 Freedom fighter 6 Common weapons 7 Examples of resistance movements

7.1 Pre-20th century 7.2 Pre–World War II 7.3 World War II 7.4 Post–World War II

8 Notable individuals in resistance movements

8.1 World War II (anti-Nazi, anti-Fascist etc.) 8.2 Other Resistance Movements and Figures

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

Etymology[edit] The modern usage of the term "Resistance" originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, especially the French Resistance. The term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries. Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II (albeit often called by different names), and there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism and foreign military occupations. "Resistance" has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country. Background[edit] Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, to industrial sabotage and guerrilla warfare, or even conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, even when such attacks target only the military or security forces. Resistance during World War II
Resistance during World War II
was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement
German resistance movement
in this period. Although the United Kingdom did not suffer invasion in World War II, preparations were made for a British resistance movement in the event of a German invasion (see Auxiliary Units) Geographies of resistance[edit] When we talk about geographies of resistance, we often take for granted that resistance takes place in the spaces where domination, power, or oppression is present. So, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as "power." In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile's (1997) "Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance," geographies of resistance show:

That people are positioned differently in unequal and multiple power relationships, that more or less powerful people are active in the constitution of unfolding relationships of authority, meaning and identity, that these activities are contingent, ambiguous and awkwardly situated, but that resistance seeks to occupy, deploy and create alternative spatilities from those defined through oppression and exploitation. From this perspective, assumptions about the domination/resistance couplet become questionable. — Steve Pile, 1996: 3

We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in relations to domination and authority, but also through other experiences, such as "desire and anger, capacity and ability, happiness and fear, dreaming and forgetting,"[7] meaning that resistance is not always about the dominated versus the dominator, the exploited versus the exploiter, or the oppressed versus the oppressor. There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which then can be, again, classified as violent and nonviolent resistance (and "other" which is unclear). Different geographical spaces can also make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. Furthermore, in order to understand any resistance – its capacity to achieve its objective effectively, its success or failure – we need to take closely into account many variables, such as political identities, cultural identities, class, race, gender and so on. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance. Harvey (1993),[citation needed] who looked at resistance in relations to capitalist economic exploitation, took on a fire accident happened in the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina in 1991, in which 20 of 200 workers were killed and 56 were injured due to poor working conditions and protections. He compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York, 1911, killing 146 workers, which caused a labor resistance by 100,000 people.[8] He argued that no resistance took place in respond to the fire accident in Hamlet because most of the people who died there were black and women workers, and he believed that not only class but also other identities such as race, gender, and sexuality were important factors in understanding nature and outcome of resistance. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken:

First, social justice must be defined from the perspective of the oppressed; second, a hierarchy of the oppressions has to be defined…..; third, political actions need to be understood and undertaken in terms of their situatedness and position in dynamic power relations: and finally, an epistemology capable of telling the difference between different differences has to be developed.

There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors. Some resistance takes place in order to oppose, change, or reform the exploitation of the capitalist economic systems and the capitals, while other resistance takes place against the state or authority in power. Moreover, some other resistance takes place in order to resist or question the social/culture norms or discourse or in order to challenge a global trend called "globalization". For example, LGBT social movements[9] is an example of resistance that challenges and tries to reform the existing cultural norms in many societies. Resistance can also be mapped in various scales ranging from local to national to regional and to global spaces. We can look at a big-scale resistance movement such as Anti-globalization movement[10] that tries to resist the global trend of capitalist economic system. Or we can look at the Internal resistance to South African apartheid,[11] which took place at national level. Most, if not all, social movements can be considered as some forms of resistance. Not all resistance takes place in physical spaces or geographies but in "other spaces" as well. Some resistance happens in the form of Protest Art[12] or in the form of music. Music can be used and has been used as a tool or space to resist certain oppression or domination. Gray-Rosendale, L. (2001) put it this way:[13]

Music acts as a rhetorical force that sanctions the construction of the boys’ new black urban subjectivities that both challenge urban experience and yet give voice to it…..music contributes a way to avoid physical and psychological immobility and to resist economic and cultural adaptation….and challenges the social injustice prevalent within the Northern economy. — Gray-Rosendale, 2001: 154–56

In the age of advanced IT and mass consumption of social media, resistance can also occur in the cyberspace. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of NSW's Tobacco Resistance and Control (A-TRAC) team created a Facebook page to help promote anti-smoking campaign and rise awareness for its members.[14] Sometimes, resistance takes place in people's minds and ideology or in people's "inner spaces." For example, sometimes people have to struggle within or fight against their inner spaces, with their consciousness and, sometimes, with their fear before they can resist in the physical spaces. In other cases, people sometimes simply resist to certain ideology, belief, or culture norms within their minds. These kinds of resistance are less visible but very fundamental parts of all forms of resistance. Controversy regarding definition[edit] Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication 1-02, the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability". In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist (change) the policies of a government or occupying power. This may be accomplished through violent or non-violent means. In this view, a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it; and the correct[according to whom?] military term for removing or overthrowing a government is an insurgency. However, in reality many resistance movements have aimed to displace a particular ruler, especially if that ruler has gained or retained power illegally. Freedom fighter[edit] "Freedom fighter" redirects here. For other uses, see Freedom Fighters.

Mujahideen
Mujahideen
loyal to Yunus Khalis, in October 1987

Freedom fighter is another term for those engaged in a struggle to achieve political freedom for themselves or obtain freedom for others.[15] Though the literal meaning of the words could include "anyone who fights for the cause of freedom", in common use it may be restricted to those who are actively involved in an armed rebellion, rather than those who campaign for freedom by peaceful means, or those who fight violently for the freedom of others outside the context of an uprising (though this title may be applied in its literal sense) Generally speaking, freedom fighters are people who use physical force to cause a change in the political and or social order. Notable examples include Umkhonto we Sizwe
Umkhonto we Sizwe
in South Africa, the Sons of Liberty in the American Revolution, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, and the National Resistance Army in Uganda, which were considered freedom fighters by supporters. However, a person who is campaigning for freedom through peaceful means may still be classed as a freedom fighter, though in common usage they are called political activists, as in the case of the Black Consciousness Movement. In India, "Freedom fighter" is an officially recognized category by the Indian government covering those who took part in the country's independence movement; people in this category (can also include dependant family members)[16] get pensions and other benefits like special railway counters.[17] People described as freedom fighters are often also called assassins, rebels, insurgents or terrorists. This leads to the aphorism "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter".[18] The degree to which this occurs depends on a variety of factors specific to the struggle in which a given freedom fighter group is engaged. During the Cold War, the term freedom fighter was first used with reference to the Hungarian rebels in 1956.[19] Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
picked up the term to explain America's support of rebels in countries controlled by communist states or otherwise perceived to be under the influence of the Soviet Union, including the Contras
Contras
in Nicaragua, UNITA
UNITA
in Angola
Angola
and the multi-factional mujahideen in Afghanistan.[19] In the media, an effort has been made by the BBC
BBC
to avoid the phrases "terrorist" or "freedom fighter", except in attributed quotes, in favor of more neutral terms such as "militant", "guerrilla", "assassin", "insurgent", "rebel", "paramilitary" or "militia".[20] Common weapons[edit] Main article: Insurgency
Insurgency
weapons and tactics Partisans often use captured weapons taken from their enemies, or weapons that have been stolen or smuggled in. During the Cold War, partisans often received arms from either NATO
NATO
or Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
member states. Forces sympathetic to the communist ideology often received aid from the latter in the form of military equipment. Where partisan resources are stretched, improvised weapons are also deployed. Examples of resistance movements[edit] The following examples are of groups that have been considered or would identify themselves as groups. These are mostly, but not exclusively, of armed resistance movements. For movements and phases of activity involving non-violent methods, see civil resistance and nonviolent resistance. Pre-20th century[edit]

The Sicarii were a first-century Jewish movement opposing Roman occupation of the Jewish Promised Land.[21] Pemulwuy
Pemulwuy
– The first Aboriginal Australian
Aboriginal Australian
to resist the British. In 1797, a state of guerrilla warfare existed between indigenous people and the settler communities in Western Sydney. The aboriginals were led by Pemulwuy, a member of the Bidjigal tribe who occupied the land.[22] He was eventually shot and killed by British sailor Henry Hacking in 1802.[23] The American Continental forces of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
were essentially a resistance movement against the British Empire. The 1808 invasion of Spain by Bonaparte sparked a resistance movement composed mostly of the lower classes, who felt that the nobility was simply allowing themselves to fall under French control. Lord Wellington remarked that it was extraordinary that the French had managed to remain in the country for so long (about 4 years). Carbonari
Carbonari
– 19th-century Italian movement resisting Austrian or Bourbon rule. The Polish National Government
Government
– Underground Polish supreme authority during the January Uprising
January Uprising
against Russian occupation of Poland. During 1863–64 it was a real shadow government supported by majority of Poles, who even paid taxes for it, and was a significant problem for Russian secret police (Okhrana). Andrés Avelino Cáceres' Resistance – Andean resistance movement against invading Chilean forces during the War of the Pacific. Jandamarra
Jandamarra
– The first Indigenous Australian to use fire-arms and conduct organized warfare in battle against the British; led a war against Euro-Australian colonists for three years, from 1894–1897. Resistance movement
Resistance movement
ended when Jandamarra
Jandamarra
was shot dead by a native tracker. Tsali
Tsali
Cherokee
Cherokee
tribal member who led a small band of Cherokee people against the United States military during the Trail of Tears era. Executed in exchange for the survival of his band, the band were integrated into the Eastern Band of Cherokee
Cherokee
Indians. Osceola
Osceola
Seminole
Seminole
chief who was very influential. Resisted deportation during the Indian Removal
Indian Removal
era. Led a number of successes until being captured by the United States during faux peace talks, died a few months later in prison. Francis Marion
Francis Marion
was an American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
partisan who led a partisan guerrilla movement against the British. Bushwhackers were Confederate guerrillas who engaged in raids, robberies, and massacres against the Union forces and affiliated citizens. Continued resisting for some years after the American Civil War ended. Responsible for the Lawrence Massacre Jayhawkers were Union guerrillas who engaged in the same acts as the bushwhackers did, they were also active during Bleeding Kansas, most prominent member was John Brown responsible for the Pottawatomie Massacre and John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. The Yellow Turbans were peasant rebels against the Eastern Han dynasty, led by Zhang Jue, was crushed due to lack of coordination with other Yellow Turban groups as well as destabilization. The Abbasid Revolution
Abbasid Revolution
overthrows the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
under Abu Muslim, was caused by discrimination against non- Arab
Arab
Muslims
Muslims
and government corruption. The Mamluks
Mamluks
were Turkic slaves who overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty. The Jacobite risings
Jacobite risings
were a series of rebellions, uprisings, and wars to reinstate the Stuart dynasty. The Kataas-Taasang, Ka-Galang-galangang, Katipunan
Katipunan
ng mga Anak Ng Bayan (KKK) was an organization in the Philippines which instigated the Philippine Revolution in 1896 against the Spanish colonials. The result was the dissolution of the Republic of Biak na Bato and the exile of the Philippine Government, headed by Emillo Aguinaldo.

Pre–World War II[edit]

Filipino guerrilla units after official end of Philippine–American War (1902–1913) Charlemagne Peralte
Charlemagne Peralte
and his Cacos rebels who resisted the United States occupation of Haiti. Rise of the Ukrainian Army (1918–1921) Forest Guerrillas (1921–1922) Augusto César Sandino
Augusto César Sandino
led a rebellion against the United States occupation of Nicaragua Lwów Eaglets Black Lions (1936) Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
(1918–1922) TIGR, Italy (1927–1941)

World War II[edit] See also: Resistance during World War II

Albanian resistance movement Austrian resistance
Austrian resistance
movement (O5) Azad Hind Belgian resistance movement Bulgarian resistance movement Burmese resistance movement Czech Resistance movement Chinese resistance movements

Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army Anti-Japanese Army for the Salvation of the Country Chinese People's National Salvation Army Heilungkiang National Salvation Army Jilin Self-Defence Army Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters Hong Kong resistance movements Gangjiu dadui (Hong Kong-Kowloon big army) Dongjiang Guerrillas (East River Guerrillas, Southern China and Hong Kong organisation)

Danish resistance movement Dutch resistance
Dutch resistance
movement Forest Brothers French resistance movement

Maquis

German resistance to Nazism Greek resistance movement

Cretan resistance

Italian resistance movement Jewish resistance movement, including Jewish partisans
Jewish partisans
and Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee Korean resistance movement Latvian resistance movement Lithuanian resistance during World War II Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian (Forest Brothers, Latvian national partisans, and Lithuanian partisans) resistance movements during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the Baltic countries
Baltic countries
(continued after the end of World War II). Luxembourgish resistance movement Norwegian resistance movement Philippine resistance movement (Multiple, often opposing organizations, were active during the Japanese Occupation) Polish Underground State
Polish Underground State
and Polish resistance organizations, such as:

Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(the Home Army), Polish underground army in World War II (400 000 sworn members) Narodowe Siły Zbrojne Bataliony Chłopskie Gwardia Ludowa
Gwardia Ludowa
(the Peoples' Guard) and Armia Ludowa
Armia Ludowa
(the Peoples' Army) Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa
Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa
(ZOB, the Jewish Fighting Organisation), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
in 1943 Zydowski Zwiazek Walki
Zydowski Zwiazek Walki
(ZZW, the Jewish Fighting Union), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
in 1943

Slovak resistance movement Slovene resistance movement Soviet resistance movement
Soviet resistance movement
of Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
and underground which had Moscow-organized and spontaneously formed cells opposing German occupation. Thai resistance movement Ukrainian Insurgent
Insurgent
Army – fought the Poles, the Germans and the Soviets. Yugoslav resistance movements:

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
– the partisans Chetniks

Viet Minh Werwolf
Werwolf
– German guerrillas resisting Allied occupation of Germany, 1945

Planned resistance movements

The Auxiliary Units, organized by Colonel Colin Gubbins
Colin Gubbins
as a potential British resistance movement against a possible invasion of the British Isles by Nazi forces, note that it was the only resistance movement established prior to invasion, albeit the invasion never came. Volunteer Fighting Corps
Volunteer Fighting Corps
(Japan)

Post–World War II[edit]

FLN American Indian Movement Polish resistance Armenian resistance Balochistan conflict
Balochistan conflict
(ongoing) Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
(1971) Casamance conflict
Casamance conflict
(ongoing) Conflict in the Niger Delta
Conflict in the Niger Delta
(ongoing) Continuity Irish Republican Army Contras
Contras
of Nicaragua Cursed soldiers
Cursed soldiers
Polish anticommunist resistance Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front Free Papua Movement
Free Papua Movement
(ongoing) Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army
(ongoing) Free Wales Army Front for the Liberation of the Golan (ongoing) General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries
General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries
(ongoing) Greek resistance Green Resistance
Green Resistance
(ongoing) Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity Hamas
Hamas
(ongoing) Hezbollah Hungarian Uprising West Sahara Independence Intifada (ongoing) Indian Independence movement
Indian Independence movement
and Pakistan movement Insurgency
Insurgency
in Jammu and Kashmir (ongoing) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Maghreb (2002–present) (ongoing) Caucasian separatists (ongoing) Iraqi Resistance Movement Irish National Liberation Army Irish People's Liberation Organisation Irish Republican Army Palestinian Militants (ongoing) Khalistan
Khalistan
(ongoing) Kurdistan conflictin Turkey and Iran Lebanese Front/ Lebanese Forces
Lebanese Forces
(1975–1990) Tamil Tigers Los Macheteros
Los Macheteros
– Puerto Rican armed independence movement (ongoing) Mau Mau Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru Polisario Front
Polisario Front
(ongoing) Czechoslovakian resistance Provisional Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
(1969–1997) Romanian anti-communist resistance movement Sandinistas Sindhudesh
Sindhudesh
(ongoing) Somali Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahideen
Mujahideen
(ongoing) South Thailand insurgency
South Thailand insurgency
(ongoing) South Yemen Movement (ongoing) Sudanese resistance (ongoing) Taliban
Taliban
(ongoing) Telangana Peasant Movement in India Tevaga Peasant Movement in India Tibetan resistance movement
Tibetan resistance movement
(ongoing) Tupamaros Viet Cong Viet Minh Zapatistas (ongoing) Black Panther Party Haganah Etzel Lehi Bhutan Tiger Force Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(ongoing) Paraguayan People's Army
Paraguayan People's Army
(ongoing) Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
(ongoing) Óglaigh na hÉireann (ongoing) Black Guerrilla
Guerrilla
Family (ongoing) People's Liberation Army/Communist Party of China Pathet Lao Yugoslav Partisans Ñancahuazú Guerrilla FLQ Shining Path
Shining Path
(ongoing) Trump Resistance Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement Symbionese Liberation Army Weather Underground Boricua Popular Army Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña MOVE Seattle Liberation Front MPLA Sandinista National Liberation Front
Sandinista National Liberation Front
(Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional). Umkhonto we Sizwe/African National Congress Real Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
(ongoing) Lord's Resistance Army
Lord's Resistance Army
(ongoing) Houthis (ongoing) Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
(ongoing) New People's Army
New People's Army
(ongoing) Popular Revolutionary Army
Popular Revolutionary Army
(ongoing) Communist Party of Indian (Maoist) (ongoing) National Liberation Front of Corsica
National Liberation Front of Corsica
(Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale Corsu) Ogaden National Liberation Front Mai-Mai
Mai-Mai
(ongoing) March 23 Movement FARC
FARC
(ongoing) East Turkestan Islamic Movement
East Turkestan Islamic Movement
(ongoing) Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
(Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda) (ongoing) Rojava Fruit of Islam

Notable individuals in resistance movements[edit] World War II (anti-Nazi, anti-Fascist etc.)[edit]

Mordechaj Anielewicz Josip Broz – Tito Edmund Charaszkiewicz Charles de Gaulle Mildred Harnack Jan Karski Henryk Iwański Jean Moulin Christian Pineau Hannie Schaft Aris Velouchiotis Mao Zedong Chiang Kai-shek Sandro Pertini Luigi Longo Ferruccio Parri Witold Pilecki Sophie Scholl Haile Selassie Ho Chi Minh Gunnar Sønsteby Max Manus

Other Resistance Movements and Figures[edit]

Buenaventura Durruti Giuseppe Garibaldi Geronimo Ho Chi Minh Lembitu Louis Joseph Papineau Nestor Makhno Maria Nikiforova Osceola Red Cloud Juba Rummu Jüri Osman Batur Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale Ülo Voitka Pancho Villa Emiliano Zapata Ernesto Guevara Abbas al-Musawi Russel Means Leonard Peltier John Brown Osama bin Laden Cochise William Quantrill Crazy Horse Tecumseh Fidel Castro Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Sitting Bull Mangas Colorado Alfred the Great El Cid Lawrence of Arabia Charlemagne Peralte Boudica King Arthur Spartacus Charles Martel Nat Turner Toussaint Louverture Jean-Jacques Dessalines Sans-Souci Nelson Mandela William Wallace Robert the Bruce Little Turtle Mahatma Gandhi

See also[edit]

Anti-war Anti-communism Anti-fascism Asymmetric warfare Civil resistance Civil rights movement Collaborationism
Collaborationism
(and Collaboration), the opposite of resistance Covert cell Definitions of terrorism Fictional resistance movements and groups Fifth column
Fifth column
– clandestine citizen operatives loyal to a foreign government Guerrilla
Guerrilla
warfare Insurgency Irregular military List of guerrillas List of revolutions and rebellions Nonviolent resistance Opposition to the Iraq War Opposition to the Vietnam War Partisan (military) Polish Secret State Protesting Propaganda Reagan Doctrine Rebellion Resistance Studies Magazine Riot Social Change Sniper Special
Special
Activities Division Special
Special
Operations Executive Unconventional warfare

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Resistance movement

Notes[edit]

^ On the relation between military and civil resistance in occupied Norway 1940–45, see Magne Skodvin, "Norwegian Non-violent Resistance during the German Occupation", in Adam Roberts (ed.), The Strategy of Civilian Defence: Non-violent Resistance to Aggression, Faber, London, 1967, pp. 136–53. (Also published as Civilian Resistance as a National Defense, Harrisburg, US: Stackpole Books, 1968; and, with a new Introduction on "Czechoslovakia and Civilian Defence", as Civilian Resistance as a National Defence, Harmondsworth, UK/Baltimore, US: Penguin Books, 1969. ISBN 0-14-021080-6.) ^ Rupert Ticehurst (1997) in his footnote 1 cites The life and works of Martens as detailed by V. Pustogarov, "Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (1845–1909) – A Humanist of Modern Times", International Review of the Red Cross (IRRC), No. 312, May–June 1996, pp. 300–14. ^ Ticehurst (1997) in his footnote 2 cites F. Kalshoven, Constraints on the Waging of War, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987, p. 14. ^ Gardam (1993), p. 91. ^ Khan, Ali ( Washburn University
Washburn University
– School of Law). "A Theory of International Terrorism", Connecticut Law Review, vol. 19, p. 945, 1987. ^ See Jan Arno Hessbruegge, Human Rights and Personal Self-Defense in International Law, Oxford University Press (2017), Ch. 7, https://books.google.it/books/about/Human_Rights_and_Personal_Self_Defense_i.html?id=_6muDQAAQBAJ&redir_esc=y ^ Steve Pile (1997), "Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance," p. 3. ^ Pile (1997), "Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance," pp. 5–7. ^ "LGBT socialmovement". Retrieved 1 September 2013. ^ "Anti-globalization movement". Retrieved 1 September 2013. ^ "Internal resistance to South African apartheid". Retrieved 1 September 2013. ^ "Protest art". Retrieved 1 September 2013. ^ Gray-Rosendale, L. and Gruber, S. (2001), Alternative Rhetorics: challenges to the rhetorical tradition. New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 154–56. ^ Michelle Hughes, " Social media
Social media
and tobacco resistance control". Retrieved 1 September 2013. ^ Merriam-Webster definition ^ PTI (2016-08-18). "Pension of freedom fighters hiked by Rs 5,000". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2017-02-23.  ^ Lisa Mitchell (2009). Language, Emotion, and Politics
Politics
in South India: The Making of a Mother Tongue. Indiana University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-253-35301-7.  ^ Gerald Seymour, Harry's Game, 1975. ^ a b Garthoff, Raymond L. (1994). The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. pp. 18–19, 270–271. ISBN 0-8157-3060-8.  ^ BBC
BBC
guideline ^ Perry, Simon (2011). All Who Came Before. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1-60899-659-9.  ^ Willey, K., When the Sky Fell Down: The Destruction of the Tribes of the Sydney Region, 1788–1850s, Collins, Sydney, 1979 ^ Collins, D., An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, Vol. 1, Cadell and Davies, London, 1798.

References[edit]

Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian,Martinus Nijhoff ISBN 0-7923-2245-2. Ticehurst, Rupert. The Martens Clause
Martens Clause
and the Laws of Armed Conflict 30 April 1997, International Review of the Red Cross no 317, pp. 125–34. I

.