Resistance movement
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A resistance movement is an organized effort by least portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an
occupying power Military or belligerent occupation, often simply occupation, is provisional control by a ruling power over a territory, without a claim of formal sovereignty.Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press ...
and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of
nonviolent resistance 250px, A "No NATO" protester in Chicago, 2012 Nonviolent resistance (NVR), or nonviolent action, is the practice of achieving goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental ques ...
(sometimes called
civil resistance Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can ...
), or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
during the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
, or in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country. On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide ...
, there has been a dispute between states since at least 1899, when the first major codification of the
laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood, states and territor ...
in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II on Land War, the
Martens Clause The Martens Clause ( pronounced ) was introduced into the preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II – Laws and Customs of War on Land. __NOTOC__ The clause took its name from a declaration read by Friedrich Martens, the delegate of Russia at ...
was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered
francs-tireurs Image:100franctireur.jpg, 400px, ''Capture of a Franc-tireur'', by Carl Johann Lasch. (, French language, French for "free shooters") were irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870 ...

francs-tireurs
to be
unlawful combatants An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is, according to United States law, a person who directly engages in armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments ...
subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, referred in Article 1. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts "... in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes..." This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant. Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a
terrorist Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...

terrorist
group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognized as having a right to resist occupation.Khan, Ali (
Washburn University Washburn University (WU) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, ...
– School of Law)
"A Theory of International Terrorism"
''Connecticut Law Review'', vol. 19, p. 945, 1987.
Ultimately, the distinction is a
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of reso ...

political
judgment.


Etymology

The
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as desc ...
records use of the word "resistance" in the sense of organised opposition to an invader from 1862. The modern usage of the term "Resistance" became widespread from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, especially the
French Resistance The French Resistance (french: La Résistance) was a collection of organisations who fought the Nazi occupation of France The Military Administration in France (german: Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; french: Occupation de la France par l' ...
. The term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries. Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an
anachronism An anachronism (from the Greek , 'against' and , 'time') is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, language terms and customs from different time periods. The most common typ ...
. However, such movements existed prior to World War II (albeit often called by different names), and there have been many after it for example in struggles against colonialism and foreign military occupations. "Resistance" has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country.


Background

Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority,
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...

government
, or
administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management, the act of directing people towards accomplishing a goal ** Administration (government), management in or of government *** Administrative division ** Academic administration ...
. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting
tyranny A tyrant (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following peri ...
or
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...
. Some resistance movements are
underground Underground most commonly refers to: * Subterranea (geography), the regions beneath the surface of the Earth Underground may also refer to: Places Commercial and cultural venues * The Underground (Boston), a music club in the Allston neighborhood ...
organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under
military occupation Military or belligerent occupation, often simply occupation, is provisional control by a ruling power over a territory, without a claim of formal sovereignty.Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, ...
or
totalitarian 259x259px, Democracy Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit (2020): perceived authoritarian regimes in red, democracies in green, and color intensity ≈ regime intensity Totalitarianism is a form of government and a political system that prohi ...
domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
range from
nonviolent resistance 250px, A "No NATO" protester in Chicago, 2012 Nonviolent resistance (NVR), or nonviolent action, is the practice of achieving goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental ques ...
and
civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizenship, citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government, corporation or other authority. By some definitions, civil disobedience has to be nonviolent to be c ...
, to
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States ...
and
terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neu ...
, or even
conventional warfare Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more sovereign state, states in open confrontation. The forces on each side are well-defined, and fight using weapons that pri ...
if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as
terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neu ...
, even when such attacks target only the military or security forces.
Resistance during World War II Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation to propaganda, hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. In many countries, re ...
was mainly dedicated to fighting the
Axis Axis may refer to: Politics *Axis of evil The phrase "axis of evil" was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, less than five months after the 9/11 attacks, and often repeated t ...
occupiers. Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period. Although the United Kingdom did not suffer invasion in World War II, preparations were made for a British resistance movement in the event of a German invasion (see
Auxiliary UnitsThe Auxiliary Units or GHQ Auxiliary Units were specially-trained, highly-secret quasi military units created by the British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central ...
).


Geographies of resistance

When geographies of resistance are discussed, it is often taken for granted that resistance takes place where domination, power, or oppression occurs and so resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination does not provide a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination, or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what is categorized as "power". In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile's (1997) "Opposition, Political Identities and Spaces of Resistance," geographies of resistance show: We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in relations to domination and authority, but also through other experiences, such as "desire and anger, capacity and ability, happiness and fear, dreaming and forgetting", meaning that resistance is not always about the dominated versus the dominator, the exploited versus the exploiter, or the oppressed versus the oppressor. There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which then can be, again, classified as violent and nonviolent resistance (and "other" which is unclear). Different geographical spaces can also make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. Furthermore, in order to understand any resistance its capacity to achieve its objective effectively, its success or failure we need to take closely into account many variables, such as political identities, cultural identities, class, race, gender and so on. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance. Harvey (1993), who looked at resistance in relations to capitalist economic exploitation, took on a fire accident happened in the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina in 1991, in which 20 of 200 workers were killed and 56 were injured due to poor working conditions and protections. He compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York, 1911, killing 146 workers, which caused a labor resistance by 100,000 people. He argued that no resistance took place in respond to the fire accident in Hamlet because most of the people who died there were black and women workers, and he believed that not only class but also other identities such as race, gender, and sexuality were important factors in understanding nature and outcome of resistance. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken: There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors. Some resistance takes place in order to oppose, change, or reform the exploitation of the capitalist economic systems and the capitals, while other resistance takes place against the state or authority in power. Moreover, some other resistance takes place in order to resist or question the social/culture norms or discourse or in order to challenge a global trend called "
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), is the process of foreign relations ...

globalization
". For example,
LGBT social movements Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT people in society. Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the 2000s movement for same-sex marriage, or they may focus on liber ...
is an example of resistance that challenges and tries to reform the existing cultural norms in many societies. Resistance can also be mapped in various scales ranging from local to national to regional and to global spaces. We can look at a big-scale resistance movement such as Anti-globalization movement that tries to resist the global trend of capitalist economic system. Or we can look at the Internal resistance to South African apartheid, which took place at national level. Most, if not all, social movements can be considered as some forms of resistance. Not all resistance takes place in physical spaces or geographies but in "other spaces" as well. Some resistance happens in the form of Protest art, Protest Art or in the form of music. Music can be used and has been used as a tool or space to resist certain oppression or domination. Gray-Rosendale, L. (2001) put it this way: In the age of advanced IT and mass consumption of social media, resistance can also occur in the cyberspace. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of NSW's Tobacco Resistance and Control (A-TRAC) team created a Facebook page to help promote anti-smoking campaign and rise awareness for its members. Sometimes, resistance takes place in people's minds and ideology or in people's "inner spaces". For example, sometimes people have to struggle within or fight against their inner spaces, with their consciousness and, sometimes, with their fear before they can resist in the physical spaces. In other cases, people sometimes simply resist to certain ideology, belief, or culture norms within their minds. These kinds of resistance are less visible but very fundamental parts of all forms of resistance.


Controversy regarding definition

Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication 1-02, the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability". In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist (change) the policies of a government or occupying power. This may be accomplished through violent or non-violent means. In this view, a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it; and the correct military term for removing or overthrowing a government is an insurgency. However, in reality many resistance movements have aimed to displace a particular ruler, especially if that ruler has gained or retained power illegally.


Freedom fighter

Freedom fighter is another term for those engaged in a struggle to achieve political freedom for themselves or obtain freedom for others. Though the literal meaning of the words could include "anyone who fights for the cause of freedom", in common use it may be restricted to those who are actively involved in an armed forces, armed rebellion, rather than those who campaign for freedom by peaceful means, or those who fight violently for the freedom of others outside the context of an uprising (though this title may be applied in its literal sense) Generally speaking, freedom fighters are people who use physical force to cause a change in the political and or social order. Notable examples include Umkhonto we Sizwe in South Africa, the Sons of Liberty in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, and the National Resistance Army in Uganda, which were considered freedom fighters by supporters. However, a person who is campaigning for freedom through peaceful means may still be classed as a freedom fighter, though in common usage they are called political activists, as in the case of the Black Consciousness Movement. In India, "Freedom fighter" is an officially recognized category by the Government of India, Indian government covering those who took part in the Indian independence movement, country's independence movement; people in this category (can also include dependant family members) get pensions and other benefits like special railway counters. People described as freedom fighters are often also called assassination, assassins, rebellion, rebels, insurgents or terrorism, terrorists. This leads to the aphorism "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". The degree to which this occurs depends on a variety of factors specific to the struggle in which a given freedom fighter group is engaged. During the Cold War, the term ''freedom fighter'' was first used with reference to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungarian rebels in 1956. Ronald Reagan picked up the term to explain Reagan Doctrine, America's support of rebels in countries controlled by communist states or otherwise perceived to be under the influence of the Soviet Union, including the Contras in Nicaragua, UNITA in Angola and the multi-factional Afghan mujahideen, mujahideen in Afghanistan. In the media, the BBC tries to avoid the phrases "terrorist" or "freedom fighter", except in attributed quotes, in favor of more neutral terms such as "Insurgent, militant", "guerrilla warfare, guerrilla", "assassin", "insurgent", "Rebellion, rebel", "paramilitary" or "militia".


Common weapons

Partisans often use captured weapons taken from their enemies, or weapons that have been stolen or smuggled in. During the Cold War, partisans often received arms from either NATO or Warsaw Pact member states. Where partisan resources are stretched, improvised weapons are also deployed.


Examples of resistance movements

The following examples are of groups that have been considered or would identify themselves as groups. These are mostly, but not exclusively, of armed resistance movements. For movements and phases of activity involving non-violent methods, see
civil resistance Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can ...
and
nonviolent resistance 250px, A "No NATO" protester in Chicago, 2012 Nonviolent resistance (NVR), or nonviolent action, is the practice of achieving goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental ques ...
.


Pre–20th century

* The Sicarii were a first-century Jewish movement opposing Roman occupation of the Jewish Promised Land. * Pemulwuy – An indigenous Australian who resisted the History of Australia (1788–1850), European colonization of Australia. In 1797, a state of
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States ...
existed Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars, between indigenous people and settler communities in Sydney. The Aboriginals were led by Pemulwuy, a member of the Bidjigal tribe who occupied the land.Willey, K., ''When the Sky Fell Down: The Destruction of the Tribes of the Sydney Region, 1788–1850s'', Collins, Sydney, 1979 Pemulwuy was eventually shot and killed by Henry Hacking in 1802.Collins, D., ''An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales'', Vol. 1, Cadell and Davies, London, 1798. * The Patriot (American Revolution), American Continental forces of the American Revolutionary War were essentially a resistance movement against the British Empire. * The 1808 invasion of Spain by Bonaparte sparked Guerrilla warfare in the Peninsular War, a resistance movement composed mostly of the lower classes, who felt that the nobility was simply allowing themselves to fall under French control. Lord Wellington remarked that it was extraordinary that the French had managed to remain in the country for so long (about 4 years). * Landsturm – German resistance groups fighting against the French in the Napoleonic Wars. * Carbonari – 19th-century Italian movement resisting Austrian or House of Bourbon, Bourbon rule. * The Polish National Government (January Uprising), Polish National Government – Underground Polish supreme authority during the January Uprising against partitions of Poland, Russian occupation of Poland. In 1863–1864, it was a real shadow government supported by majority of Poles, who even paid taxes for it, and was a significant problem for Russian secret police (Okhrana). * Andrés Avelino Cáceres' Resistance – Andean resistance movement against invading Chilean forces during the War of the Pacific. * Jandamarra – The first Indigenous Australian to use firearms and conduct organized warfare in battle against settlers; leading a war against Euro-Australian settlers for three years, from 1894 to 1897. The resistance movement ended when Jandamarra was shot dead by a Aboriginal tracker. * Tsali – Cherokee tribal member who led a small band of Cherokee people against the United States military during the Trail of Tears era. Executed in exchange for the survival of his band, the band were integrated into the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. * Osceola – Seminole chief who was very influential. Resisted deportation during the period of Indian removal. Led a number of successes until being captured by the United States during faux peace talks, died a few months later in prison. * Francis Marion was an American Revolutionary War partisan who led a partisan guerrilla movement against the British. * Bushwhackers were Confederate States of America, Confederate guerrillas who engaged in raids, robberies, and massacres against the Union (American Civil War), Union forces and affiliated citizens. Continued resisting for some years after the American Civil War ended. Responsible for the Lawrence Massacre * Jayhawkers were Union (American Civil War), Union guerrillas who engaged in the same acts as the bushwhackers did, they were also active during Bleeding Kansas, most prominent member was John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown responsible for the Pottawatomie Massacre and John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. * The Yellow Turban Rebellion, Yellow Turbans were peasant rebels against the Eastern Han dynasty, led by Zhang Jue, was crushed by the lack of co-ordination with other Yellow Turban groups as well as destabilization. * The Abbasid Revolution overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty under Abu Muslim, which was caused by discrimination against non-Arab Muslims and government corruption. * The Mamluks were Turkic peoples, Turkic slaves who overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty. * The Jacobite risings were a series of rebellions, uprisings, and wars to reinstate the Stuart dynasty. * The Katipunan, Kataas-Taasang, Ka-Galang-galangang, Katipunan ng mga Anak Ng Bayan (KKK) was an organization in the Philippines that instigated the Philippine Revolution in 1896 against the Spanish colonials and resulted in the dissolution of the ''Republic of Biak na Bato'' and the exile of the Philippine Government, headed by Emillo Aguinaldo.


Pre–World War II

* Filipino guerrilla units after official end of Philippine–American War (1902–1913) * Charlemagne Peralte and his Cacos (military group), Cacos rebels who resisted the United States occupation of Haiti. * Rise of the Ukrainian Army (1918–1921) * Forest Guerrillas (1921–1922) * Jewish paramilitary organizations that resisted the Mandatory Palestine, British authorities in Palestine (1920s until 1948) prior to the founding of the State of Israel include the Haganah, the Irgun, and Lehi (militant group), Lehi. * Augusto César Sandino led a rebellion against the United States occupation of Nicaragua. * Lwów Eaglets * Black Lions (1936) * Irish Republican Army (1918–1922) * Turkish National Movement, Turkish national movement ** Association for the Defense of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia * TIGR, Italy (1927–1941) * White movement


World War II

* Military history of Albania during World War II, Albanian resistance movement * Austrian resistance movement (O5) * Belgian resistance movement * British resistance movements ** SIS Section D and Section VII (planned Resistance organisations) ** Resistance in the German-occupied Channel Islands ** The
Auxiliary UnitsThe Auxiliary Units or GHQ Auxiliary Units were specially-trained, highly-secret quasi military units created by the British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central ...
, organized by Colonel Colin Gubbins as a potential British resistance movement against a possible invasion of the British Isles by Nazi forces, note that it was the only resistance movement established prior to invasion, albeit the invasion never came. * Bulgarian resistance movement * Anti-Fascist Organisation, Burmese resistance movement * 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, Chechen anti-Soviet resistance * Anti-Japanese resistance volunteers in China, Chinese resistance movements ** Anti-Japanese Army for the Salvation of the Country ** Chinese People's National Salvation Army ** Heilungkiang National Salvation Army ** Jilin Self-Defence Army ** Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army ** Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army ** Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army ** Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army ** Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army ** Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters ** Japanese occupation of Hong Kong#Strikes and anti-Japanese activities, Hong Kong resistance movements *** (Hong Kong-Kowloon big army) *** East River Column (Dongjiang Guerrillas, Southern China and Hong Kong organisation) ** Chinese Muslims in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Islamic resistance movement against Japan *** Muslim Detachment (回民義勇隊 Huimin Zhidui) *** Muslim corps * Crusaders (guerrilla), Crusaders – Croatian Ustaše guerrilla movement fighting against Yugoslav communist forces * German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Czech Resistance movement * Danish resistance movement * Dutch resistance movement ** The Stijkel Group, a Dutch resistance movement, which mainly operated around the S-Gravenhage area. ** Valkenburg resistance * Estonian resistance movement * Forest Brothers * French Resistance, French resistance movement ** Maquis (World War II), Maquis * German resistance to Nazism ** Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group ** Confessing Church ** Edelweiss Pirates ** Ehrenfeld Group ** European Union (resistance group), European Union ** Kreisau Circle ** National Committee for a Free Germany *** Anti-Fascist Committee for a Free Germany ** Neu Beginnen ** Red Orchestra (spy), Red Orchestra ** Robert Uhrig, Robert Uhrig Group ** Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization ** Solf Circle ** Vierergruppe (German Resistance), Vierergruppen in Hamburg, Munich and Vienna ** White Rose * German pro-Nazi resistance ** Volkssturm ** Werwolf – German guerrillas resisting Allied occupation of Germany, 1945 * Greek Resistance, Greek resistance movement ** Cretan resistance * Indian resistance movements: ** Quit India Movement, largely non-violent anti-British resistance within Indian territory ** Azad Hind *** Indian National Army, pro-Japanese Empire, Japanese force fighting against Allied forces * Italian resistance movement, Italian resistance against fascism ** ''Arditi del Popolo'' ** Assisi Network ** ''Brigate Fiamme Verdi'' ** ''Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale'' ** ''Concentrazione Antifascista Italiana'' ** DELASEM ** Christian Democracy (Italy), ''Democrazia Cristiana'' ** Four days of Naples ** ''Giustizia e Libertà'' ** Italian Civil War ** Italian Co-Belligerent Army, Italian Co-Belligerent Navy, Navy, and Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force, Air Force ** Italian Communist Party, Italian Communist Party (PCI) ** Italian Partisan Republics ** Italian Socialist Party, Italian Socialist Party (PSI) ** Labour Democratic Party, Labour Democratic Party (PDL) ** ''Movimento Comunista d'Italia'' ** National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy ** Action Party (Italy), ''Partito d'Azione'' ** Scintilla (communist group), Scintilla * Italian pro-fascist resistance ** Black Brigades ** Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia * Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, Japanese anti-imperial resistance ** Dissent in the Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan ** Japanese in the Chinese resistance to the Empire of Japan *** Japanese Communist Party *** Japanese People's Emancipation League *** Japanese People's Anti-war Alliance *** League to Raise the Political Consciousness of Japanese Troops * Japanese pro-imperial resistance ** Japanese holdout ** Volunteer Fighting Corps * Jewish resistance during the Holocaust, Jewish resistance movement, including Jewish partisans and Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee * Korean independence movement, Korean resistance movement * Latvian resistance movement * Lithuanian resistance during World War II * Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian (Forest Brothers, Latvian national partisans, and Lithuanian partisans) resistance movements during the Soviet Union, Soviet invasion and occupation of the Baltic countries (continued after the end of World War II). * Luxembourg Resistance, Luxembourgish resistance movement * Norwegian resistance movement * Philippine resistance against Japan, Philippine resistance movement (Multiple, often opposing organizations, were active during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Japanese Occupation) * Polish Underground State and Polish resistance movement in World War II, Polish resistance organizations, such as: ** Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), Polish underground army in World War II (400 000 sworn members) ** Narodowe Siły Zbrojne ** Bataliony Chłopskie ** Gwardia Ludowa (the People's Guard) and Armia Ludowa (the People's Army) ** Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB, the Jewish Fighting Organisation), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 ** Zydowski Zwiazek Walki (ZZW, the Jewish Fighting Union), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 * Russian pro-Nazi German collaborationist movement ** Anti-Soviet partisans ** Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (Russian pro-Nazi German collaborationist resistance movement) *** Russian Liberation Army ** GULAG Operation ** White movement members within pro-Nazi circles * Slovak National Uprising, Slovak resistance movement * Soviet resistance movement of Soviet partisans and underground which had Moscow-organized and spontaneously formed cells opposing German occupation. ** Belarusian resistance during World War II, Belarusian Soviet partisans ** Soviet partisans in Estonia, Estonian Soviet partisans ** Soviet partisans in Latvia, Latvian Soviet partisans ** Moldovan resistance during World War II, Moldovan Soviet partisans ** Soviet partisans in Finland ** Soviet partisans in Poland ** Young Guard (Soviet resistance) * Free Thai Movement, Thai resistance movement * Ukrainian Insurgent Army – fought the Home Army, Poles, the Nazi Germany, Germans and the Soviet Union, Soviets. * Yugoslavia#Yugoslavia during Second World War, Yugoslav resistance movements: ** Chetniks, Yugoslav Army in the Homeland - the ''Chetniks'' *** Blue Guard (Slovene), Blue Guard – Slovenian Chetniks ** Partisans (Yugoslavia), People's Liberation Army – the ''Partisans'' *** Croatian Partisans *** Macedonian Partisans *** Serbian Partisans *** Slovene Partisans * Viet Minh


Post–World War II

* Post-WWII anti-fascism (ongoing)


Africa

* Casamance conflict (ongoing) * Conflict in the Niger Delta (ongoing) * Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda, Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda) (ongoing) * Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahideen (ongoing) * Lord's Resistance Army (ongoing) * Mai-Mai (ongoing) * March 23 Movement * Mau Mau Rebellion, Mau Mau * MPLA * Ogaden National Liberation Front * Sudan Liberation Movement, Sudanese resistance (ongoing) * Symbionese Liberation Army * Umkhonto we Sizwe/African National Congress * ZANU–PF


East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania

* East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ongoing) * Free Papua Movement (ongoing) * Kuomintang insurgency in China ** Kuomintang Islamic insurgency ** Kuomintang in Burma * New People's Army (ongoing) * Pathet Lao * People's Liberation Army/Communist Party of China * South Thailand insurgency (ongoing) * Tibetan resistance movement (ongoing) * Viet Cong * Viet Minh


Europe

* Albanian insurgency in Yugoslavia ** Kosovo Liberation Army ** Kosovo Protection Corps ** National Liberation Army (Macedonia), National Liberation Army ** Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac * Anti-communist resistance in Poland (1944–1953), Anti-communist resistance in Poland * Caucasus Emirate (ongoing) * Continuity Irish Republican Army * Crusaders (guerrilla), Crusaders – Croatian Ustaše guerrilla movement fighting against Yugoslav communist forces * Cursed soldiers Polish anticommunist resistance * Free Wales Army * Greek People's Liberation Army, Greek resistance * Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungarian Uprising * Irish National Liberation Army * Irish People's Liberation Organisation * Irish Republican Army * Insurgency in the North Caucasus (ongoing) * Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru * National Liberation Front of Corsica (National Liberation Front of Corsica, Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale Corsu) * Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group), Óglaigh na hÉireann (ongoing) * Prague Spring * Provisional Irish Republican Army (1969–1997) * Real Irish Republican Army (ongoing) * Romanian anti-communist resistance movement * Spanish Maquis


Middle East

* Armenian irregular units, Armenian resistance * Free Patriotic Movement (1988-2005) * Free Syrian Army (2011-2014; Splinter branches and groups who use the name ongoing) * Front for the Liberation of the Golan (ongoing) * General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries (ongoing) * Green Resistance (ongoing) * Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) (ongoing) * Iraqi Resistance Movement * Hezbollah * Houthi insurgency in Yemen, Houthis (Ansar Allah) (ongoing) * Popular Mobilization Forces * Kurdistan Workers' Party (ongoing) * Kurdistan#Conflict and controversy, Kurdistan conflict in Kurdish–Turkish conflict, Turkey and Iran–PJAK conflict, Iran * Lebanese Front/Lebanese Forces (1975–1990) * National Liberation Front (Algeria) * Palestinian militants (ongoing) ** Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade ** Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine ** Hamas (ongoing) ** Palestinian Islamic Jihad (ongoing) ** Palestine Liberation Organization (ongoing) ** Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (ongoing) * National Resistance Front of Afghanistan (ongoing) * Polisario Front (ongoing) * People's Mujahedin of Iran * Rojava * South Yemen insurgency, South Yemen Movement (ongoing) * Taliban (ongoing)


Indian subcontinent

* Mukti Bahini (1971) * Bhutan Tiger Force * Indian Independence movement and Pakistan movement * Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir (ongoing) * Khalistan (ongoing) * Sindhudesh (ongoing) * Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, Tamil Tigers


Western hemisphere

* American Indian Movement * Black Guerrilla Family (ongoing) * Black Panther Party * Boricua Popular Army * Contras of Nicaragua * Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front * FARC (ongoing) * FLQ * Fruit of Islam * Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña * Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity * Los Macheteros – Puerto Rican armed independence movement (ongoing) * MOVE (Philadelphia organization), MOVE * Ñancahuazú Guerrilla * Paraguayan People's Army (ongoing) * Popular Revolutionary Army (ongoing) * Sandinista National Liberation Front, Sandinistas * Shining Path (ongoing) * Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement * Tupamaros * Weather Underground * Zapatista Army of National Liberation, Zapatistas (ongoing)


Notable individuals in resistance movements


World War II

* Mordechaj Anielewicz * Josip Broz Tito * Edmund Charaszkiewicz * Charles de Gaulle * Mildred Harnack * Jan Karski * Henryk Iwański * Marcel Louette * Max Manus * Jean Moulin * Christian Pineau * Hannie Schaft * Aris Velouchiotis * Mao Zedong * Chiang Kai-shek * Sandro Pertini * Luigi Longo * Ferruccio Parri * Witold Pilecki * Sophie Scholl * Haile Selassie * Gunnar Sønsteby


Other resistance movements and figures

* chief Mkwawa of Uhehe * chief Kimweri of Tanganyika * Kinjekitile Ng'wale * Michel Aoun * Hassan Nasrallah * Buenaventura Durruti * Giuseppe Garibaldi * Geronimo * Ho Chi Minh * Lembitu * Louis Joseph Papineau * Nestor Makhno * Maria Nikiforova * Osceola * Red Cloud * Juba (sniper), Juba * Rummu Jüri * Osman Batur * Mustafa Kemal Atatürk * Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale * Ülo Voitka * Pancho Villa * Emiliano Zapata * Ernesto Guevara * Abbas al-Musawi * Russel Means * Leonard Peltier * John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown * Osama bin Laden * Cochise * William Quantrill * Crazy Horse * Tecumseh * Fidel Castro * Maqbool Bhat * Vladimir Lenin * Leon Trotsky * Sitting Bull * Mangas Colorado * Alfred the Great * El Cid * Lawrence of Arabia * Charlemagne Peralte * Boudica * King Arthur * Spartacus * Charles Martel * Nat Turner * Toussaint Louverture * Jean-Jacques Dessalines * Sans-Souci * Nelson Mandela * William Wallace * Robert the Bruce * Little Turtle * Mahatma Gandhi


See also

* Anti-war * Anti-capitalism * Anti-communism * Anti-fascism * Anti-imperialism * Asymmetric warfare * People's war * Civil resistance * Civil rights movement * Collaborationism (and Collaboration), the opposite of resistance * Covert cell * Definitions of terrorism * Fictional resistance movements and groups * Fifth column – clandestine citizen operatives loyal to a foreign government * Guerrilla warfare * Insurgency * Irregular military * List of guerrillas * List of revolutions and rebellions * Nonviolent resistance * Opposition to the Iraq War * Opposition to the Vietnam War * Partisan (military) * Polish Secret State * Protesting * Propaganda * Reagan Doctrine * Rebellion * Resistance Studies Magazine * Riot * Social Change * Sniper * Special Activities Division * Special Operations Executive * Unconventional warfare


Citations


General references

* Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). ''Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian'', Martinus Nijhoff. . * Ticehurst, Rupert.
The Martens Clause and the Laws of Armed Conflict
30 April 1997, ''International Review of the Red Cross'' no. 317, pp. 125–34.


External links

* {{Authority control Resistance movements,