Residential community
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A residential community is a
community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation" in that the former refer ...

community
, usually a small town or
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...

commercial
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trade ...
es and/or
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
facilities, all three of which are considered to be the three main types of occupants of the typical community. Residential communities are typically communities that help support more commercial or industrial communities with
consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or services Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of ...
s and
workers The workforce or labour force is the labour pool either in employment or unemployed.https://www.bls.gov/bls/glossary.htm It is generally used to describe those working for a single types of companies, company or Industry (economics), industr ...
. That
phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, ; ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher a ...
is probably because some people prefer not to live in an
urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
or industrial area, but rather a
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
an or
rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and city, cities. The Health Resources an ...

rural
setting. For that reason, they are also called dormitory towns,
bedroom communities can be considered commuter towns. Here, riders wait in Maplewood for a train bound for New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United Sta ...
, or
commuter town can be considered commuter towns. Here, riders wait in Maplewood for a train bound for New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United Sta ...
s. An example of a residential community would include a small town or city outside a larger city or a large town located near a smaller but more commercially- or industrially-centered town or city, for instance Taitou in Gaocun, Wuqing, Tianjin, China.


China

In the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...
, a community (), also called residential unit or residential quarter () or
neighbourhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see spelling differences) is a geographically ...
() or residential community (), is an urban
residential area A residential area is a land used in which housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizati ...
and its residents administrated by a
subdistrictA subdistrict or sub-district is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ge ...
(). Communities are generally organized around a territory consisting of 100 to 700 households.


History

The reform that created residential communities as local government in their current form was called ''shèqū'' (
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
: 社区, "neighbourhood community building"). Originally, these organizations consisted of participating citizens and chiefs, the latter ones being installed by the central governance. Shequ represented an attempt to restructure the relationship between state and urban community in China. The social anthropologist
Fei Xiaotong Fei Xiaotong or Fei Hsiao-Tung (November 2, 1910 – April 24, 2005) was a Chinese anthropologist and sociologist. He was a pioneering researcher and professor of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, pattern ...
is considered the first to have proposed the introduction of the idea of shequ in China.Heberer, Thomas/Derichs, Claudia: Einführung in die politischen Systeme Ostasiens. VR China, Hongkong, Japana, Nordkorea, Südkorea, Taiwan (2): VSVerlag 2008, pp119-144. The introduction of shequ started after the collapse of the previously existing social institutions (''
danweiA work unit or ''danwei'' () is the name given to a place of employment in the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by popula ...
'') during the mid-1990s. Shequ were supposed to relieve the state of certain duties and responsibilities by transferring them to citizens participating in the shequ. They take over responsibilities which in democratic states are assumed by organisations of the civil community.


Local government

Each community has a community committee, neighborhood committee or residents' committee (). The creation, adjustment or dissolution of a community committee is decided by the subdistrict government. A community committee is directly elected and consists of 5 to 9 members; it is responsible to the residents assembly, which consists of all residents in the community who are over at or above the age of 18.


See also

*
Administrative divisions of China Due to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering ...
*
Age-restricted community An age-restricted community is a residential community, often gated community, gated, that Housing for Older Persons Act, legally discriminates on the basis of age to limit residency to a majority fraction of older individuals—typically 80% over a ...
* Xiaoqu


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Residential Community Chinese society
Human habitats This category is for various types of places intended for human residence, as opposed to and often in addition to e.g., places of work, study, or entertainment. The term habitat comes from ecology, and includes many interrelated features, especially ...
Types of communities Types of administrative division