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The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics (Russian: Сою́зные Респу́блики, tr. Soyúznye Respúbliki) were ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).[1] The Soviet Union was created by the treaty between soviet socialist republics of Belarus, Russian Federation, Transcaucasian Federation and Ukraine, which became union republics of the Soviet Union. For most of its history, the USSR was a highly centralized state; the decentralization reforms during the era of Perestroika ("Restructuring") and Glasnost ("Openness") conducted by Mikhail Gorbachev are cited as one of the factors which led to the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.

There were two different types of republics in the Soviet Union: union republics which, according to the Soviet Constitution, had the right of secession from the Soviet Union and autonomous republics which subordinated to union republics in which they were located. The autonomous status of all republics was nominal and was fully controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and government of the Soviet Union that was also controlled by the Party. Before the adaptation of the "Perestroika" policy of political liberalization in 1980s, any deviation from the Party policy in any form was subject to legal persecutions.

In 1940, a new entity was created for the annexation of Finland (see Winter War). The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic became the only union republic from which such status was completely removed in 1956 without any form of discussion including referendum.

Overview

According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR".[2]

In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union officially consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation (until 1990), had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party.

Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted mostly in lands that had formerly belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.

In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic. They also allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.[3][4][5]

All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them (all except the Baltic states, Georgia and Ukraine) being very loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 (as the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSRs) under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, and that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation.[6][7] Their position is supported by the European Union,[8] the European Court of Human Rights,[9] the United Nations Human Rights Council[10] and the United States.[11] In contrast, the Russian government and state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate.[12] Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution (versions adopted in 1924, 1936 and 1977), each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, the corresponding Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union.

In practice, the USSR was a highly centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets (Councils) of People's Deputies. These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian SFSR.

Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics. State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, and appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party.

Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, and, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem. Every republic of the Soviet Union also was awarded with the Order of Lenin.

Union Republics of the Soviet Union

Map of the Union Republics from 1956 to 1991, as numbered by the Soviet Constitution

The number of the union republics of the USSR varied from 4 to 16. In majority of years and at the later decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics. Rather than listing the republics in alphabetical order, the republics were listed in constitutional order, which, particularly by the last decades of the Soviet Union, did not correspond to order either by population or economic power.

Emblem Name Flag Capital Official languages Joined Sovereignty /
Independence
Population (1989) Pop.
%
Area (km²) (1991) Area
%
Post-Soviet and de facto states No.
Emblem of the Armenian SSR.svg Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Armenian SSR Yerevan Armenian, Russian 1922 August 23, 1990
September 21, 1991
3,287,700 1.15 29,800 0.13  Armenia 13
Emblem of the Azerbaijan SSR.svg Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Azerbaijan SSR Baku Azerbaijani, Russian 1922 September 23, 1989
August 30, 1991
7,037,900 2.45 86,600 0.39  Azerbaijan
 Artsakh
7
Emblem of the Byelorussian SSR (1981-1991).svg Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Belarusian SSR Minsk Byelorussian, Russian 1922 July 27, 1990
August 25, 1991
10,151,806 3.54 There were two different types of republics in the Soviet Union: union republics which, according to the Soviet Constitution, had the right of secession from the Soviet Union and autonomous republics which subordinated to union republics in which they were located. The autonomous status of all republics was nominal and was fully controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and government of the Soviet Union that was also controlled by the Party. Before the adaptation of the "Perestroika" policy of political liberalization in 1980s, any deviation from the Party policy in any form was subject to legal persecutions.

In 1940, a new entity was created for the annexation of Finland (see Winter War). The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic became the only union republic from which such status was completely removed in 1956 without any form of discussion including referendum.

According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR".[2]

In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union officially consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation (until 1990), had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party.

Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted mostly in lands that had formerly belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.

In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic. They also allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.[3][4][5]

All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them (all except the Baltic states, Georgia and Ukraine) being very loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 (as the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSRs) under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, and that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation.Soviet Union officially consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation (until 1990), had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party.

Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted mostly in lands that had formerly belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.

In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic. They also allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.[3][4][5]

All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them (all except the Baltic states, Georgia and Ukraine) being very loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 (as the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSRs) under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, and that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation.[6][7] Their position is supported by the European Union,[8] the European Court of Human Rights,[9] the United Nations Human Rights Council[10] and the United States.[11] In contrast, the Russian government and state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate.[12] Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution (versions adopted in 1924, 1936 and 1977), each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, the corresponding Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union.

In practice, the USSR was a highly centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets (Councils) of People's Deputies. These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian SFSR.

Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics. State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, and appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party.

Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, and, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem. Every republic of the Soviet Union also was awarded with the Order of Lenin.

A hall in Bishkek's Soviet-era Lenin Museum decorated with the flags of Soviet Republics

  • Poster of the unity of the Soviet republics in the late 1930s. All republics, except Russia, are shown with their respective traditional clothes.

    Poster of the unity of the Soviet republics in the late 1930s. All republics, except Russia, are shown with their respective traditional clothes.

  • Poster of the unity of the Soviet republics in the late 1940s. Note that the map also points out the Karelo-Finnish SSR capital, Petrozavodsk.

  • Union Republics of the Soviet Union

    Emblem Name Flag Capital Official languages Joined Sovereignty /
    Independence
    Population (1989) Pop.
    %
    Area (km²) (1991) Area
    %
    Post-Soviet and de facto states No.
    Emblem of the Armenian SSR.svg Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the RSFSR. The Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic (Soviet Socialist Republic of Taurida) was also proclaimed in 1918, but did not became a union republic and was made into an autonomous republic of the RSFSR, although the Crimean Tatars had a relative majority until the 1930s or 1940s according to censuses. When the Tuvan People's Republic joined the Soviet Union in 1944, it did not become a union republic, and was instead established as an autonomous republic of the RSFSR.

    The leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Todor Zhivkov, suggested in the early 1960s that the country should become a union republic, but the offer was rejected.[16][17][18] During the Soviet–Afghan War, the Soviet Union proposed to annex Northern Afghanistan as its 16th union republic in what was to become the Afghan Soviet Socialist Republic.[19]

    Unrealized Soviet states

    Workers' communes

    Autonomous Republics of the Soviet Union

    Several of the Union Republics themselves, most notably Russia, were further subdivided into Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs). Though administratively part of their respective Union Republics, ASSRs were also established based on ethnic/cultural lines.

    Emblem Name Flag Years of membership Capital Official languages Area (km2) Soviet Socialist Republic Post-Soviet subjects
    Emblem of the Abkhaz ASSR (1978–1992).svg Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Abkhaz ASSR.svg 1931–1992 Sukhumi Abkhazian, Georgian, Russian 8,600  Georgian SSR  Abkhazia
    Emblem of the Adjar ASSR.svg Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Adjarian ASSR.svg 1921–1990 Batumi Georgian, Russian 2,880  Georgian SSR  Adjara
    Coat of arms of Bashkir ASSR.svg Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Bashkir ASSR.svg 1919–1991 Ufa Bashkir, Russian 143,600  Russian SFSR  Bashkortostan
    Coat of arms of the Buryat ASSR.svg Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Buryat ASSR.svg 1923–1990 Ulan-Ude Buryat, Russian 69,857  Russian SFSR  Buryatia
    Coat of arms of Chechen-Ingush ASSR.png Checheno-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR.svg 1936–1944
    1957–1991
    Grozny Chechen, Ingush, Russian 19,300  Russian SFSR  Chechnya
     Ingushetia
    Coat of Arms of Chuvash ASSR.svg Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Chuvash ASSR.svg 1925–1992 Cheboksary Chuvash, Russian 18,300  Russian SFSR  Chuvashia
    Emblem of the Dagestan ASSR (1978-1991).svg Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Dagestan ASSR.svg 1921–1991 Makhachkala Aghul, Avar, Azerbaijani, Chechen, Dargwa, Kumyk, Lezgian, Lak, Nogai, Rutul, Tabasaran, Tat, Tsakhur, Russian 50,300  Russian SFSR  Dagestan
    Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic[note 1] 1990–1991 Gorno-Altaysk Altai, Russian[citation needed] 92,600  Russian SFSR  Altai Republic
    Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR.png Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR.svg 1936–1944

    1957–1991

    Nalchik Kabardian, Karachay-Balkar, Russian 12,500  Russian SFSR  Kabardino-Balkaria
    Coat of arms of Kalmyk ASSR.svg Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Kalmyk ASSR.svg 1935–1943

    1958–1991

    Elista Kalmyk Oirat, Russian 76,100  Russian SFSR  Kalmykia
    QoraqalpogistonASSRgerbi.png Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Karakalpak ASSR.svg 1932–1991 Nukus Karakalpak (1956-1980s), Russian 165,000  Uzbek SSR  Karakalpakstan
    Coat of arms of Karelian ASSR.svg Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Karelian ASSR.svg 1923–1940
    1956–1991
    Petrozavodsk Finnish (1956-1980s), Russian 147,000  Russian SFSR  Karelia
    Coat of arms of Komi ASSR.svg Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Komi ASSR.svg 1936–1990 Syktyvkar Komi, Russian 415,900  Russian SFSR  Komi Republic
    Coat of arms of Mari ASSR.svg Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Mari ASSR.svg 1936–1990 Yoshkar-Ola Mari (Meadow and Hill variants), Russian 23,200  Russian SFSR  Mari El
    Coat of Arms of Mordovian ASSR.png Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Mordovian ASSR.svg 1934–1990 Saransk Erzya, Moksha, Russian 26,200  Russian SFSR  Mordovia
    Coat of Arms of Nakhichevan ASSR.png Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Nakhichevan ASSR.svg 1921–1990 Nakhichevan Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian 5,500  Azerbaijan SSR  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
    Coat of arms of North Ossetian ASSR.svg North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the North Ossetian ASSR.svg 1936–1992 Ordzhonikidze Ossetian, Russian 8,000  Russian SFSR  North Ossetia-Alania
    Coat of Arms of Tatarstan ASSR.png Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Tatar ASSR.svg 1920–1990 Kazan Tatar, Russian 68,000  Russian SFSR  Tatarstan
    Coat of arms of the Tuvan ASSR (1978-1992).svg Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Tuvan ASSR (1978-1992).svg 1961–1992 Kyzyl Tuvan, Russian 170,500  Russian SFSR  Tuva
    Coat of Arms of Udmurt ASSR.png Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Udmurt ASSR.svg 1934–1990 Izhevsk Udmurt, Russian 42,100  Russian SFSR  Udmurtia
    Emblem of the Yakut ASSR.svg Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Yakut ASSR.svg 1922–1991 Yakutsk Yakut, Russian 3,083,523  Russian SFSR  Sakha Republic

    Former Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union

    Emblem Name Flag Capital Titular nationality Years of membership Population Area (km²) Soviet Socialist Republic Post-Soviet states
    Coat of arms of Crimean ASSR.svg Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Crimean ASSR (1938).svg Simferopol Crimean Tatars
    Russians
    1921–1945
    1991–1992
    1,126,000
    (1939)
    26,860  Russian SFSR
     Ukrainian SSR
     Ukraine
     Russia (de facto since 2014)
    Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Kabardin ASSR (1954-1957).svg Nalchik Kabardians 1944–1957 420,115
    (1959)
    12,470  Russian SFSR  Russia
    Coat of arms of the Kirghiz ASSR (1921-1925).gif Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (1920–25) Flag of Kirghiz ASSR (1920-25).svg Alma-Ata Kazakhs 1920–1925 6,503,000
    (1926)
    2,960,000  Russian SFSR  Kazakhstan
     Uzbekistan
     Russia
    Coat of Arms of the Kazakh ASSR (1927-1937).gif Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic Flag of The Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic.svg 1925–1936
    Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (1926–36) Flag of the Kirghiz ASSR (1929-1937).svg Frunze Kyrgyz 1926–1936 993,000
    (1926)
    196,129  Russian SFSR  Kyrgyzstan
    Coat of Arms of Moldavian ASSR (1927-1938).png Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Moldavian ASSR (1925-1932).svg Tiraspol Moldovans 1924–1940 599,150
    (1939)
    8,288  Ukrainian SSR  Transnistria (de facto)
     Moldova (de jure)
     Ukraine
    Emblem of the Mountain ASSR.svg Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Mountain ASSR (1921-1924).svg Vladikavkaz Balkars, Chechens, Ingushes, Kabardians, Karachays, Ossetians, Terek Cossacks 1921–1924 1,286,000
    (1921)
    74,000  Russian SFSR  Russia
    Coat of Arms of Tajik ASSR.png Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (1924-1929).svg Dushanbe Tajiks 1924–1929 740,000
    (1924)
     Uzbek SSR  Tajikistan
    Emblem of the Turkestan ASSR.svg Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Turkestan ASSR (1919-1921).svg Tashkent Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Turkmens 1918–1924 5,221,963
    (1920)
     Russian SFSR  Kazakhstan
     Uzbekistan
     Turkmenistan
     Tajikistan
     Kyrgyzstan
    Coat of arms of Volga German ASSR.svg Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Volga German ASSR.svg Engels Soviet Germans 1923–1941 606,532
    (1939)
    27,400  The leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Todor Zhivkov, suggested in the early 1960s that the country should become a union republic, but the offer was rejected.[16][17][18] During the Soviet–Afghan War, the Soviet Union proposed to annex Northern Afghanistan as its 16th union republic in what was to become the Afghan Soviet Socialist Republic.[19]

    Several of the Union Republics themselves, most notably Russia, were further subdivided into Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs). Though administratively part of their respective Union Republics, ASSRs were also established based on ethnic/cultural lines.

    <

    Under Mikhail Gorbachev, glasnost ("openness") and perestroika ("restructuring") were intended to liberalise and open up the Soviet Union. However, they had a number of effects which caused the power of the republics to increase. First, political liberalization allowed the governments within the republics to gain legitimacy by invoking democracy, nationalism, or a combination of both. In addition, liberalization led to fractures within the Communist Party which resulted in reduced ability to govern the Union effectively. The rise of nationalist and right-wing movements, notably led in Russia by Boris Yeltsin, in the previously homogeneously Communist political system led to the crumbling of the Union's foundations. With the central role of the Communist Party removed from the constitution, the Communist Party lost its control over the political system and was banned from operating after an attempted coup d'état.

    Throughout the unravelling of the restructuring, the Soviet government attempted to find a new structure which would reflect the increased power of the republics. Some autonomous republics, like Tatarstan, Checheno-Ingushetia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Crimea, Transnistria, Gagauzia sought the union statute in New Union Treaty. Efforts to found a Union of Sovereign States proved unsuccessful and the republics began to secede from the Union. By 6 September 1991, the Soviet Union's State Council recognized the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania bringing the number of union republics down to 12. On 8 December 1991, the remaining leaders of the republics signed the Belavezha Accords which agreed that the USSR would be dissolved and replaced with a Commonwealth of Independent States. On 25 December, President Gorbachev announced his resignation and turned all executive powers over to Yeltsin. The next day the Council of Republics voted to dissolve the Union. Since then, the republics have been governed independently with some adopting significantly more liberal policies while others, particularly in Central Asia, have retained leadership personnel from the Soviet time to this day.

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ a b c The annexation of the Baltic republics in 1940 is considered an illegal occupation by the current Baltic governments and by a number of foreign countries.[6][9][10][11][13][14][15] The Soviet Union considered the initial annexation legal, but officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, three months prior to its final dissolution
    1. ^ Known as Oyrot Autonomous Oblast in 1922-1948 and Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast in 1948-1990.

    References

    1. ^ Hough, Jerry F (1997). Democratization and revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991. Brookings Institution Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-8157-3749-1.
    2. ^ Federalism and the Dictatorship of Power in Russia By Mikhail Stoliarov. Taylor & Francis. 2014. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-415-30153-4. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
    3. ^ "Walter Duranty Explains Changes In Soviet Constitution". Miami News. 1944-02-06. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
    4. ^ "League of Nations Timeline - Chronology 1944". Indiana.edu. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
    5. ^ "United Nations - Founding Members". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
    6. ^ a b "The Occupation of Latvia at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia". Am.gov.
    7. ^ "Estonia says Soviet occupation justifies it staying away from Moscow celebrations". Pravda.Ru. 3 May 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
    8. ^ Motion for a resolution on the Situation in Estonia by the EU
    9. ^ a b European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States
    10. ^ a b "UNITED NATIONS Human Rights Council Report". Ap.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
    11. ^ a b "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. 14 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
    12. ^ Russia denies Baltic 'occupation' by BBC News
    13. ^ European parliament: Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (No C 42/78) (1983). Official Journal of the European Communities. European Parliament.
    14. ^ Aust, Anthony (2005). Handbook of International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53034-7.
    15. ^ Ziemele, Ineta (2005). State Continuity and Nationality: The Baltic States and Russia. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 90-04-14295-9.
    16. ^ Elster, Jon (1996). The roundtable talks and the breakdown of communism. University of Chicago Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-226-20628-9.
    17. ^ Held, Joseph (1994). Dictionary of East European history since 1945. Greenwood Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-313-26519-4.
    18. ^ Gökay, Bülent (2001). Eastern Europe since 1970. Longman. p. 19. ISBN 0-582-32858-6.
    19. ^ Soviets may be poised to annex the Afghan North - Chicago Tribune. August 19, 1984. Retrieved on December 10, 2016. "Miraki said then-Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev urged Afghan President Babrak Karmal to win Afghan Communist Party approval for Moscow's annexation of eight northern provinces and their formation into the 16th Soviet republic, the Socialist Republic of Afghanistan. The defector said Brezhnev envisioned the southern half of the country as a powerless, Pa-than-speaking buffer with U.S.-backed Pakistan."

    Further reading

    Emblem Name Flag Years of membership Capital Official languages Area (km2) Soviet Socialist Republic Post-Soviet subjects
    Emblem of the Abkhaz ASSR (1978–1992).svg Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet

    1957–1991

    Nalchik Kabardian, Karachay-Balkar, Russian 12,500  Russian SFSR  Kabardino-Balkaria
    Coat of arms of Kalmyk ASSR.svg Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Kalmyk ASSR.svg 1935–1943

    1958–1991

    Elista Kalmyk Oirat, Russian 76,100  Russian SFSR  Kalmykia
    QoraqalpogistonASSRgerbi.png Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Karakalpak ASSR.svg 1932–1991 Nukus Karakalpak (1956-1980s), Russian 165,000  Uzbek SSR  Karakalpakstan
    Coat of arms of Karelian ASSR.svg Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Karelian ASSR.svg 1923–1940
    1956–1991
    Petrozavodsk Finnish (1956-1980s), Russian 147,000  Russian SFSR  Karelia
    Coat of arms of Komi ASSR.svg Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the Komi ASSR.svg 1936–1990 Syktyvkar Komi, Russian 415,900  Russian SFSR  Komi Republic
    Coat of arms of Mari ASSR.svg Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Mari ASSR.svg 1936–1990 Yoshkar-Ola Mari (Meadow and Hill variants), Russian 23,200  Russian SFSR  Mari El
    Coat of Arms of Mordovian ASSR.png Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Mordovian ASSR.svg 1934–1990 Saransk Erzya, Moksha, Russian 26,200  Russian SFSR  Mordovia
    Coat of Arms of Nakhichevan ASSR.png Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Nakhichevan ASSR.svg 1921–1990 Nakhichevan Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian 5,500  Azerbaijan SSR  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
    Coat of arms of North Ossetian ASSR.svg North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of the North Ossetian ASSR.svg 1936–1992 Ordzhonikidze Ossetian, Russian 8,000  Russian SFSR  North Ossetia-Alania
    Coat of Arms of Tatarstan ASSR.png Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Tatar ASSR.svg 1920–1990 Kazan Tatar, Russian 68,000 Elista Kalmyk Oirat, Russian 76,100  Russian SFSR  Kalmykia
    QoraqalpogistonASSRgerbi.png Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Flag of Karakalpak ASSR.svg 1932–1991 Nukus Karakalpak (1956-1980s), Russian 165,000