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The Republican Fascist Party
Republican Fascist Party
(Italian: Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy
Italy
led by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy. It was founded as the successor of former National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
as an anti-monarchist party. It considered King Victor Emmanuel III to be a traitor after he had signed the surrender to the Allies.

Contents

1 History 2 Ideology 3 Secretary of the PFR 4 National Congress 5 References

History[edit] After the Nazi-engineered Gran Sasso raid
Gran Sasso raid
liberated Mussolini, on 13 September 1943 the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(PNF). was revived as the PFR and as the single party of the Northern and Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic (the Salò
Salò
Republic). Its secretary was Alessandro Pavolini. The PFR did not outlast Mussolini's execution and the disappearance of the Salò
Salò
state in April 1945. However, it inspired the creation of the Italian Social Movement
Italian Social Movement
(MSI)[2] and the MSI has been seen as the successor to the PFR and the PNF.[3] The MSI was formed by former fascist leaders and veterans of the republic's fascist army.[4] The party tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.[5] The MSI was considered legal under Italy's postwar constitution which forbids the formation of overtly Fascist parties. Ideology[edit] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
was rooted in Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay.[6] Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy
Italy
is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.[7] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy.[8] This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.[9] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
opposed liberalism and capitalism, but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction.[10] It was opposed to Marxist socialism because Marxism
Marxism
was typically opposed to nationalism.[11] However, it was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre.[12] It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.[13] Secretary of the PFR[edit] Main article: List of Secretaries of Italian Fascist parties § Secretary of the Republican Fascist Party
Republican Fascist Party
(PFR)

Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini
(15 November 1943 – 28 April 1945)

National Congress[edit]

1st National Congress – Verona, 14–15 November 1943

References[edit]

^ Fasces
Fasces
and eagle respectively ^ Davies, Peter; Lynch, Derek (2002). The Routledge Companion to Fascism
Fascism
and the Far Right. Routledge. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-203-99472-6.  ^ Levy, 1996, p. 188. ^ Ignazi, 1998, p. 157. ^ Stanley Payne (1992). "Fascism". In Mary E. Hawkesworth; Maurice Kogan. Encyclopedia of Government and Politics. Psychology Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-415-07224-3.  ^ Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy
Italy
and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. p. 41. ^ Kallis, p. 50. ^ Andrew Vincent. Modern Political Ideologies. Third edition. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; West Sussex, England, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2010. p. 160. ^ John Whittam. Fascist Italy. Manchester, England, UK; New York City, USA: Manchester University Press, 1995. p. 160. ^ Eugen Weber. The Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the present. Heath, 1972. p. 791. ^ Stanislao G. Pugliese. Fascism, anti-fascism, and the resistance in Italy: 1919 to the present. Oxford, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004. pp. 43–44. ^ Stanley G.Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. p. 214. ^ Claudia Lazzaro. "Forging a Visible Fascist Nation: Strategies for Fusing the Past and Present." In Claudia Lazzaro, Roger J. Crum (eds). Donatello Among The Blackshirts: History And Modernity In The Visual Culture Of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005. p. 13.

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Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

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Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black
Black
Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
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Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

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Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
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in Canada

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Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
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People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black
Black
Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
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