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The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, economic modernizers, ex National Republicans, ex Free Soilers and Whigs in 1854, the Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern states for most of the period between 1860 and 1932.[16] The Republican Party originally championed classical liberal ideas, including anti-slavery and economic reforms.[17][18] The party was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System
Third Party System
and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
formed the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran as a candidate. He called for many social reforms, some of which were later championed by New Deal
New Deal
Democrats in the 1930s. He lost the election and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP, they were at odds with the new conservative economic stance, leading to them leaving for the Democratic Party and an ideological shift to the right in the Republican Party.[19] The liberal New Deal
New Deal
Democrats dominated the Fifth Party System
Fifth Party System
at the national level. The weak liberal Republican element was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in 1964 and fulfilled during the Reagan Era.[20][page needed] Currently, their ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' more progressive platform (also called modern liberalism). The GOP's political platform supports for lower taxes, free market capitalism, free enterprise, a strong national defense, more gun rights, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative and seeks to uphold traditional values based largely on Judeo-Christian ethics. The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest. Since 1952, there has been a reversal against protectionism and the party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States
Mountain States
and rural areas in the North[21][22] as well as from conservative Catholics,[23][24] Mormons[25] and Evangelicals nationwide. The party has won 24 of the last 40 presidential elections and there have been a total of 19 Republican Presidents, the most from any one party.[26] The first was 16th President Abraham Lincoln, who served from 1861 until his assassination in 1865; and the most recent being 45th and current president Donald Trump, who took office on January 20, 2017. The Republican Party is currently the primary party in power in the United States, holding the presidency (Donald Trump), majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, a majority of governorships and state legislatures (full control of 32/50, split control of five others).[27] Furthermore, the GOP presently hold "trifectas" (the executive branch and both chambers of the legislative branch) in a majority of states (26/50) and a "trifecta plus" (executive, legislative and judicial branches) at the federal level (as five of the nine Supreme Court justices were appointed by Republican Presidents).[28]

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 20th century

1.2.1 New Deal
New Deal
era

1.3 21st century

1.3.1 Recent trends

2 Name and symbols 3 Structure and organization 4 Positions

4.1 Economic policies 4.2 Separation of powers and balance of powers 4.3 Environmental policies 4.4 Immigration 4.5 Foreign policy and national defense 4.6 Social policies

4.6.1 Abortion
Abortion
and embryonic stem cell research 4.6.2 Civil rights 4.6.3 Gun ownership 4.6.4 Drugs 4.6.5 Education 4.6.6 LGBT rights 4.6.7 Anti-discrimination laws 4.6.8 Puerto Rican statehood

5 Composition

5.1 Factions

5.1.1 Establishment vs. anti-establishment 5.1.2 Conservatives, moderates, liberals and progressives

5.2 Business community 5.3 Demographics

5.3.1 Gender 5.3.2 Education 5.3.3 Ethnicity 5.3.4 Religious beliefs

5.4 Geography

6 Republican Presidents 7 Electoral history

7.1 In congressional elections: 1950–present 7.2 In presidential elections: 1856–present

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History Main article: History of the United States
United States
Republican Party 19th century Further information: Third Party System

Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1861–1865) and the first Republican President

Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, ex Whigs and ex Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the briefly popular Know Nothing
Know Nothing
Party. The main cause was opposition to the Kansas– Nebraska
Nebraska
Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti- Nebraska
Nebraska
movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin.[29] The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party.[30] The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854 in Jackson, Michigan.[31] By 1858, the Republicans dominated nearly all Northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. It oversaw the preserving of the Union, the end of slavery and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War
American Civil War
and Reconstruction (1861–1877). The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. With the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont
in the 1856 United States Presidential Election demonstrated it dominated most Northern states. Early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan "free labor, free land, free men", which had been coined by Salmon P. Chase, a Senator from Ohio
Ohio
(and future Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
and Chief Justice of the United States). "Free labor" referred to the Republican opposition to slave labor and belief in independent artisans and businessmen. "Free land" referred to Republican opposition to the plantation system whereby slave owners could buy up all the good farmland, leaving the yeoman independent farmers the leftovers. The party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power and the expansion of freedom. Representing the fast-growing Western states, Lincoln won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union and destroying slavery during the American Civil War
American Civil War
and over Reconstruction. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
ran Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the spoils system whereas the Half-Breeds led by Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883.

Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1869–1877)

The Republican Party supported business generally, hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans and (after 1893) the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans have strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition. As the Northern post-bellum economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, fast-growing cities and prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System (1850s–1890s). However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act
Sherman Antitrust Act
and the Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission
in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. The high McKinley Tariff
McKinley Tariff
of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
in 1884 and 1892. The election of William McKinley
William McKinley
in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted (except for 1912 and 1916) until 1932. McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893
Panic of 1893
and that Republicans would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit.[32] The Republican Civil War era program included free homestead farms, a federally subsidized transcontinental railroad, a national banking system, a large national debt, land grants for higher education, a new national banking system, a wartime income tax and permanent high tariffs to promote industrial growth and high wages. By the 1870s, they had adopted as well a hard money system based on the gold standard and fought off efforts to promote inflation through Free Silver.[33] They created the foundations of the modern welfare state through an extensive program of pensions for Union veterans.[34] Foreign-policy issues were rarely a matter of partisan dispute, but briefly in the 1893–1904 period the GOP supported imperialistic expansion regarding Hawaii, the Philippines and the Panama Canal.[35] 20th century Further information: Fourth Party System
Fourth Party System
and Progressive Era

Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1901–1909)

The 1896 realignment cemented the Republicans as the party of big business while Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
added more small business support by his embrace of trust busting. He handpicked his successor William Howard Taft in 1908, but they became enemies as the party split down the middle. Taft defeated Roosevelt for the 1912 nomination and Roosevelt ran on the ticket of his new Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party. He called for social reforms, many of which were later championed by New Deal
New Deal
Democrats in the 1930s. He lost and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP they found they did not agree with the new conservative economic thinking, leading to an ideological shift to the right in the Republican Party.[36] The Republicans returned to the White House throughout the 1920s, running on platforms of normalcy, business-oriented efficiency and high tariffs. The national party avoided the prohibition issue after it became law in 1920. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
and Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924 and 1928 respectively. The Teapot Dome scandal threatened to hurt the party but Harding died and Coolidge blamed everything on him as the opposition splintered in 1924. The pro-business policies of the decade seemed to produce an unprecedented prosperity until the Wall Street Crash of 1929
Wall Street Crash of 1929
heralded the Great Depression. New Deal
New Deal
era Main articles: Old Right (United States), Fifth Party System, and History of the United States Republican Party
History of the United States Republican Party
§ Fighting the New Deal Coalition: 1932–1980

Dwight Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1953–1961)

The New Deal
New Deal
coalition of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. Blacks moved into the Democratic Party during the New Deal
New Deal
era as they could vote in the North, but not in the South. After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal
New Deal
legislation sailed through Congress and the economy moved sharply upward from its nadir in early 1933. However, long-term unemployment remained a drag until 1940. In the 1934 midterm elections, 10 Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving them with only 25 against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives likewise had overwhelming Democratic majorities. The Republican Party split into a majority "Old Right" (based in the Midwest) and a liberal-wing based in the Northeast that supported much of the New Deal. The Old Right sharply attacked the "Second New Deal" and said it represented class warfare and socialism. Roosevelt was reelected in a landslide in 1936, but as his second term began the economy declined, strikes soared and he failed to take control of the Supreme Court or to purge the Southern conservatives in the Democratic Party. Republicans made a major comeback in the 1938 elections and had new rising stars such as Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
of Ohio
Ohio
on the right and Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
of New York on the left. Southern conservatives joined with most Republicans to form the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues in Congress until 1964. Both parties split on foreign policy issues, with the anti-war isolationists dominant in the Republican Party and the interventionists who wanted to stop Hitler dominant in the Democratic Party. Roosevelt won a third and fourth term in 1940 and 1944. Conservatives abolished most of the New Deal during the war, but they did not attempt to reverse Social Security or the agencies that regulated business. Historian George H. Nash argues:

Unlike the "moderate", internationalist, largely eastern bloc of Republicans who accepted (or at least acquiesced in) some of the "Roosevelt Revolution" and the essential premises of President Truman's foreign policy, the Republican Right at heart was counterrevolutionary, anti-collectivist, anti-Communist, anti-New Deal, passionately committed to limited government, free market economics, and congressional (as opposed to executive) prerogatives, the G.O.P. conservatives were obliged from the start to wage a constant two-front war: against liberal Democrats from without and "me-too" Republicans from within.[37]

The Democrats elected majorities to Congress almost continuously after 1932 (the GOP won only in 1946 and 1952), but the conservative coalition blocked practically all major liberal proposals in domestic policy. After 1945, the internationalist wing of the GOP cooperated with Harry S. Truman's Cold War
Cold War
foreign policy, funded the Marshall Plan and supported NATO, despite the continued isolationism of the Old Right.

Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1969–1974)

Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1981–1989)

The second half of the 20th century saw election or succession of Republican presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and George H. W. Bush. Eisenhower had defeated conservative leader Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
for the 1952 nomination, but conservatives dominated the domestic policies of the Eisenhower administration. Voters liked Eisenhower much more than they liked the GOP and he proved unable to shift the party to a more moderate position. After 1970, the liberal-wing began to fade away. Ever since he left office in 1989, Reagan has been the iconic conservative Republican and Republican presidential candidates frequently claim to share his views and aim to establish themselves and their policies as the more appropriate heir to his legacy.[38] In 1994, the party, led by House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich campaigning on the "Contract with America", was elected to majorities in both Houses of Congress during the Republican Revolution. However, Gingrich was unable to deliver on most of its promises and after the impeachment and acquittal of President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in 1998 and 1999 and subsequent Republican losses in the House, he resigned. Since Reagan's day, presidential elections have been close. However, the Republican presidential candidate won a majority of the popular vote only in 2004 while coming in second in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2012 and 2016. 21st century The Senate majority lasted until 2001 when the Senate became split evenly, but it was regained in the 2002 elections. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, support for gun ownership and deregulation.

George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States
President of the United States
(1989–1993)

George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(2001–2009)

Former presidents Bush are the second father and son to both be elected president, the first being John Adams
John Adams
and John Quincy Adams

In the presidential election of 2008, the party's nominees were Senator John McCain
John McCain
of Arizona
Arizona
for President and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin for Vice President. They were defeated by Senator Barack Obama of Illinois
Illinois
and Senator Joe Biden
Joe Biden
of Delaware. In 2009, Republicans Chris Christie
Chris Christie
and Bob McDonnell
Bob McDonnell
were elected to the governorships of New Jersey and Virginia. 2010 was a year of electoral success for the Republicans, starting with the upset win of Scott Brown in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
special Senate election for the seat held for many decades by the Democratic Kennedy brothers. In the November elections, Republicans recaptured control of the House, increased their number of seats in the Senate and gained a majority of governorships.[39] In the presidential election of 2012, the Republican nominees were former Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for President and Representative Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
for Vice President. The Democrats nominated incumbents Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Joe Biden. The campaign focused largely on the Affordable Care Act
Affordable Care Act
and President Obama's stewardship of the economy, with the country facing high unemployment numbers and a rising national debt four years after his first election. Romney and Ryan were defeated by Obama and Biden. In addition, while Republicans lost 7 seats in the House in the November congressional elections, they still retained control. However, Republicans were not able to gain control of the Senate, continuing their minority status with a net loss of 2 seats. After the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took control of the Senate by gaining nine seats.[40] With a final total of 247 seats (57%) in the House and 54 seats in the Senate, the Republicans ultimately achieved their largest majority in the Congress since the 71st Congress in 1929.[41]

Donald Trump, 45th and current President of the United States (2017–present)

After the 2016 elections, Republicans maintained a majority in the Senate, House, Governorships and elected Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as President. The Republican Party controls 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017, the most it has held in history;[42] and at least 33 governorships, the most it has held since 1922.[43] The party has total control of government (legislative chambers and governorship) in 25 states,[44][45] the most since 1952;[46] while the opposing Democratic Party has full control in five states.[47] Recent trends For most of the post-World War II era, Republicans had little presence at the state legislative level. This trend began to reverse in the late 1990s, with Republicans increasing their state legislative presence and taking control of state legislatures in the south, which had begun to vote for Republican presidential candidates decades earlier, but had retained Democrats in the legislatures. From 2004 to 2014, the Republican State Leadership Committee (RSLC) raised over $140 million targeted to state legislature races while the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee (DLSC) raised less than half that during that time period. Following the 2014 midterm elections, Republicans control 68 of 98 partisan state legislative houses, the most in the party's history and have control of both the governorship and state legislatures in 24 states as opposed to only 7 states with Democratic governors and state legislatures.[48] According to a January 2015 poll by the Pew Research
Pew Research
Center, 41% of Americans
Americans
view the Republicans favorably while 46% view the Democrats favorably.[49] With the inauguration of Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
as President, the Republican Party remained fairly cohesive for much of the 2000s as both strong economic libertarians and social conservatives opposed the Democrats, whom they saw as the party of bloated and more secular, liberal government.[50] The Bush-era rise of what were known as "pro-government conservatives", a core part of the President's base, meant that a considerable group of the Republicans advocated for increased government spending and greater regulations covering both the economy and people's personal lives as well as for an activist, interventionist foreign policy. Survey groups such as the Pew Research Center found that social conservatives and free market advocates remained the other two main groups within the party's coalition of support, with all three being roughly of the same number.[51][52] However, libertarians and libertarian-leaning conservatives increasingly found fault with what they saw as Republicans' restricting of vital civil liberties while corporate welfare and the national debt hiked considerably under Bush's tenure. For example, Doug Bandow, former Special
Special
Assistant to President Ronald Reagan, criticized in The American Conservative
The American Conservative
how many Republican defenders of Bush thought that opposition to any Bush "decision is treason" as well as how many Bush defenders charged "critics with a lack of patriotism".[53] In contrast, some social conservatives expressed dissatisfaction with the party's support for economic policies that they saw as sometimes in conflict with their moral values.[54] In March 2013, National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus
Reince Priebus
gave a stinging report on the party's failures in 2012, calling on Republicans to reinvent themselves and officially endorse immigration reform. He said: "There's no one reason we lost. Our message was weak; our ground game was insufficient; we weren't inclusive; we were behind in both data and digital, and our primary and debate process needed improvement". He proposed 219 reforms that included a $10 million marketing campaign to reach women, minorities and gays as well as setting a shorter, more controlled primary season and creating better data collection facilities.[55] With a majority of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents under the age of 49 supporting legal recognition of same-sex marriages versus the opposition remaining from those over 50, the issue remains a particular divide within the party. Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich has remarked that the "[p]arty is going to be torn on this issue" with some constituents "going to flake off".[56][57] A Reuters/Ipsos survey from April 2015 found that 68% of Americans overall would attend the same-sex wedding of a loved one, with 56% of Republicans agreeing. Reuters journalist Jeff Mason remarked that "Republicans who stake out strong opposition to gay marriage could be on shaky political ground if their ultimate goal is to win the White House" given the divide between the social conservative stalwarts and the rest of the United States
United States
that opposes them.[58] The Republican candidate for President in 2012, Mitt Romney, lost to incumbent President Barack Obama, the fifth time in six elections the Republican candidate received fewer votes than his Democratic counterpart. In the aftermath of the loss, some prominent Republicans spoke out against their own party. For example, 1996 Republican Presidential candidate and longtime former Senator Bob Dole
Bob Dole
said that "today's GOP members are too conservative and overly partisan. They ought to put a sign on the National Committee doors that says closed for repairs".[59] Former Senator Olympia Snowe
Olympia Snowe
of Maine
Maine
stated as well that she was in agreement with Dole.[60] Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs (under George H.W. Bush) and former Secretary of State (under George W. Bush) Colin Powell
Colin Powell
remarked that the GOP has "a dark vein of intolerance in some parts of the party", commenting about the birther movement "[w]hy do senior Republican leaders tolerate this kind of discussion within the party?" and "I think the party has to take a look at itself".[61] The College Republican National Committee
Republican National Committee
(CRNC) released a report in June 2013 that was highly critical of the party, being titled "Grand Old Party for a Brand New Generation".[62][needs update] Name and symbols

1874 Nast cartoon featuring the first notable appearance of the Republican elephant[63]

The red, white and blue Republican elephant, still a primary logo for many state GOP committees

The circa 2013 GOP logo

The party's founding members chose the name Republican Party in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party.[64] The idea for the name came from an editorial by the party's leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for "some simple name like 'Republican' [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery".[65] The name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption.[66] It is important to note that "republican" has a variety of meanings around the world and the Republican Party has evolved such that the meanings no longer always align.[67][68] The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party and the abbreviation "GOP" is a commonly used designation. The term originated in 1875 in the Congressional Record, referring to the party associated with the successful military defense of the Union as "this gallant old party". The following year in an article in the Cincinnati Commercial, the term was modified to "grand old party". The first use of the abbreviation is dated 1884.[69] The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol.[70] An alternate symbol of the Republican Party in states such as Indiana, New York and Ohio
Ohio
is the bald eagle as opposed to the Democratic rooster or the Democratic five-pointed star.[71][72] In Kentucky, the log cabin is a symbol of the Republican Party (not related to the gay Log Cabin Republicans
Log Cabin Republicans
organization).[73] Traditionally the party had no consistent color identity.[74][75][76] After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with Republicans. That election night, for the first time all of the major broadcast networks used the same color scheme for the electoral map: states won by Republican nominee George W. Bush
George W. Bush
were colored red and states won by Democratic nominee Al Gore
Al Gore
were colored blue. Although the assignment of colors to political parties is unofficial and informal, the media has come to represent the respective political parties using these colors. The party and its candidates have also come to embrace the color red.[citation needed] Structure and organization Further information: Politics of the United States § Organization of American political parties See also: List of state and territorial Republican Parties (United States) The Republican National Committee
Republican National Committee
(RNC) is responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Its current chairwoman is Ronna Romney McDaniel. The chair of the RNC is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the party's state committees. Under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, the RNC supervises the Republican National Convention
Republican National Convention
(the highest body in the party) and raises funds for candidates. On the local level, there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities, counties and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body. The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fundraising and strategy committees. The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) assists in House races while the National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) does so in Senate races. They each raise over $100 million per election cycle and play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates while the Republican Governors Association (RGA) assists in state gubernatorial races. In 2016, it is chaired by Governor Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
of New Mexico.[77] Positions

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Calvin Coolidge, 30th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1923–1929)

Republicans strongly believe that free markets and individual achievement are the primary factors behind economic prosperity. To this end, they advocate the elimination of government-run welfare programs in favor of private sector nonprofits and encouraging personal responsibility. Republicans also frequently advocate in favor of fiscal conservatism during Democratic administrations, but have shown themselves willing to increase federal debt when they are in charge of the government, such as the implementation of the Bush tax cuts, Medicare Part D and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.[78][79][80][81] Modern Republicans advocate the theory of supply side economics, which holds that lower tax rates increase economic growth.[82] Many Republicans oppose higher tax rates for higher earners, which they believe are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. They believe private spending is more efficient than government spending. Republicans believe individuals should take responsibility for their own circumstances. They also believe the private sector is more effective in helping the poor through charity than the government is through welfare programs and that social assistance programs often cause government dependency. Some[who?] agree there should be some "safety net" to assist the less fortunate while limiting it to encourage employment and monitoring it[how?] to reduce abuse. 2016 and 2017 polls also found that an overwhelming majority of Republicans support protectionism and autarky and oppose free trade.[83][84][85] Republicans believe corporations should be able to establish their own employment practices, including benefits and wages, with the free market deciding the price of work. Since the 1920s, Republicans have generally been opposed by labor union organizations and members. At the national level, Republicans supported the Taft-Hartley Act
Taft-Hartley Act
of 1947, which gives workers the right not to participate in unions. Modern Republicans at the state level generally support various "right-to-work" laws that weaken unions. Most Republicans tend to oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that such increases hurt businesses by forcing them to cut and outsource jobs and pass costs along to consumers. The party opposes a single-payer health care system, claiming such a system constitutes socialized medicine. While opposed to the Affordable Care Act
Affordable Care Act
and its requirement to buy insurance, some[who?] Republicans support some of its provisions, such as laws promoting coverage of pre-existing medical conditions.[citation needed] The Republican Party has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs.[citation needed] Separation of powers and balance of powers Many contemporary Republicans voice support of strict constructionism, the judicial philosophy that the Constitution should be interpreted as close to the original intent as is practicable.[86] Most Republicans point to Roe v. Wade, which legalized abortion nationwide, as a case of judicial activism. Republicans favor judicial restraint and have actively sought to block judges whom they see as being activist judges. Republicans believe in federalism, with limitations on federal authorities and a larger role for states. As such, they often take a less expansive reading of congressional power under the Commerce Clause. Environmental policies Main article: Political positions of the Republican Party § Environmental policies Historically, progressive leaders in the Republican Party supported environmental protection. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the National Park Service.[87] While Republican President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
was not an environmentalist, he signed legislation to create the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and had a comprehensive environmental program.[88] However, this position has changed since the 1980s and the administration of President Ronald Reagan, who labeled environmental regulations a burden on the economy.[89] Since then, Republicans have increasingly taken positions against environmental regulation.[90][91] Since the 1990s, a significant part of the American conservative movement has worked to challenge climate science and climate policy.[89] While the scientific consensus for human activity created climate-warming is around 97%,[92] according to a Pew Research
Pew Research
survey 44% of American adults in the general public acknowledged human activity as the cause of climate change and 23% of Republicans.[93] Republican views on global warming and scientific consensus on climate change show a similar trend and few Republican lawmakers support climate policy that builds on international consensus.[89]

Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th Governor of California
California
(2003–2011)

In 2006, then California
California
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in California. Then President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
opposed mandatory caps at a national level. Bush's decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the supreme court by 12 states,[94] with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007.[95] Bush also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols[89][96] which sought to limit greenhouse gas emissions and thereby combat climate change, a decision heavily criticized by climate scientists.[97]

John McCain, United States
United States
Senator from Arizona
Arizona
(1987–present)

Senator John McCain
John McCain
has also previously proposed laws regulating carbon emissions, such as the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act, although his position on climate change is unusual among high-ranking party members.[89] Some Republican candidates have supported the development of alternative fuels in order to achieve energy independence for the United States. The Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon emissions.[98] Some Republicans support increased oil drilling in protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position that has drawn criticism from activists.[99] Many Republicans during the presidency of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
had opposed then President's new environmental regulations, such as those on carbon emissions from coal. In particular, many Republicans support building the Keystone Pipeline, which is supported by businesses, but opposed by indigenous peoples' groups and environmental activists.[100][101][102] The Republican Party is unique in denying anthropogenic climate change among conservative political parties across the Western world.[103][104] From 2008 to 2017, the Republican Party went from "debating how to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist", according to The New York Times.[105] In 2011, "more than half of the Republicans in the House and three-quarters of Republican senators" said "that the threat of global warming, as a man-made and highly threatening phenomenon, is at best an exaggeration and at worst an utter 'hoax' ", according to Judith Warner writing in The New York Times
The New York Times
Magazine.[106] In 2014, more than 55% of congressional Republicans were climate change deniers, according to NBC News.[107][108] According to PolitiFact
PolitiFact
in May 2014, "relatively few Republican members of Congress...accept the prevailing scientific conclusion that global warming is both real and man-made...eight out of 278, or about 3 percent".[109][110] In 2016, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State University professor of environmental sociology Riley Dunlap and his co-authors wrote in the peer-reviewed journal Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development:

Republican antipathy to governmental regulations, combined with enormous campaign contributions to the GOP from fossil fuel interests, means that most Republican politicians have strong ideological as well as material reasons for opposing measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to pressure from party activists and voters.[111]

A 2017 study by the Center for American Progress Action Fund of climate change denial in the Congress found 180 members who deny the science behind climate change and all were Republicans.[112][113][114] In 2014, Democrats scored 87% and Republican 4% on the National Environmental Scorecard of the League of Conservation Voters.[115] In 2016, the average House Republican score was 5%; the average Senate Republican score was 14%; the average House Democrat score was 94%; and the average Senate Democrat score was 95%.[116] Immigration See also: Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States
and Illegal immigration
Illegal immigration
to the United States Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a platform that allows for migrant workers and a path to citizenship (supported by establishment types), versus a position focused on securing the border and deporting illegal immigrants (supported by populists). In 2006, the White House supported and Republican-led Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House (also led by Republicans) did not advance the bill.[117] After the defeat in the 2012 presidential election, particularly among Latinos, several Republicans advocated a friendlier approach to immigrants. However, in 2016 the field of candidates took a sharp position against illegal immigration, with leading candidate Donald Trump proposing building a wall along the southern border. Proposals calling for immigration reform with a path to citizenship have attracted broad Republican support in some[which?] polls. In a 2013 poll, 60% of Republicans supported the pathway concept.[118] Foreign policy and national defense See also: History of foreign policy and national defense in the Republican Party

Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense
United States Secretary of Defense
(2001–2006)

Some[who?] in the Republican Party support unilateralism on issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external support in matters of its national defense. In general, Republican thinking on defense and international relations is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing conflicts between nations as struggles between faceless forces of international structure as opposed to being the result of the ideas and actions of individual leaders. The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's Evil Empire stance on the Soviet Union and George W. Bush's Axis of evil
Axis of evil
stance. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, many[who?] in the party have supported neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration took the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, while other[which?] prominent Republicans strongly oppose the use of enhanced interrogation techniques, which they view as torture.[119] Republicans have frequently advocated for restricting foreign aid as a means of asserting the national security and immigration interests of the United States.[120][121][122] The Republican Party generally supports a strong alliance with Israel and efforts to secure peace in the Middle East between Israel
Israel
and its Arab
Arab
neighbors.[123][124] In recent years, Republicans have begun to move away from the two-state solution approach to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[125][126] According to the 2016 platform,[127] the party's stance on the status of Taiwan
Taiwan
is the following: "We oppose any unilateral steps by either side to alter the status quo in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits on the principle that all issues regarding the island's future must be resolved peacefully, through dialogue, and be agreeable to the people of Taiwan". In addition, if "China were to violate those principles, the United States, in accord with the Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act, will help Taiwan
Taiwan
defend itself". In a 2014 poll, 59% of Republicans favored doing less abroad and focusing on the country's own problems instead.[128] Social policies The Republican Party is generally associated with social conservative policies, although it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. The social conservatives want laws that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion and marijuana.[129] Most conservative Republicans also oppose gun control, affirmative action and illegal immigration.[129][130] Abortion
Abortion
and embryonic stem cell research A majority of the party's national and state candidates are pro-life and oppose elective abortion on religious or moral grounds. While many advocate exceptions in the case of incest, rape or the mother's life being at risk, in 2012 the party approved a platform advocating banning abortions without exception.[131] They oppose government and tax-payer funding for abortion providers, notably Planned Parenthood.[132] Although Republicans have voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, some[which?] members actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines because it involves the destruction of human embryos.[133][134][135] Civil rights Republicans are generally against affirmative action for women and some minorities, often describing it as a "quota system" and believing that it is not meritocratic and that it is counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination. Many[who?] Republicans support race-neutral admissions policies in universities, but support taking into account the socioeconomic status of the student.[136][137] Gun ownership Republicans generally support gun ownership rights and oppose laws regulating guns. Drugs See also: Illegal drug trade in the United States Republicans have historically supported the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
and oppose the legalization of drugs.[138] More recently, several[which?] prominent Republicans have advocated for the reduction and reform of mandatory sentencing laws with regards to drugs.[139] Education Most Republicans support school choice through charter schools and school vouchers for private schools and they denounce the performance of the urban public school system and the teachers' unions. The party has insisted on a system of greater accountability for public schools, most prominently in recent years with the No Child Left Behind Act
No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001. Many Republicans, including Ronald Reagan, opposed the creation of the United States Department of Education
United States Department of Education
when it was initially created in 1979.[citation needed] LGBT rights Owing largely to the prominence of the religious right in conservative politics in the United States, the Republican Party has taken positions regarded as outwardly hostile to the gay rights movement. Republicans have historically strongly opposed same-sex marriage (the party's overall attitude on civil unions is much more divided, with some in favor and others opposed), with the issue a galvanizing one that many believe helped George W. Bush
George W. Bush
win re-election in 2004. In both 2004[140] and 2006,[141] congressional Republican leaders[which?] promoted the Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment which would legally restrict the definition of marriage to heterosexual couples. In both attempts, the amendment failed to secure enough votes to invoke cloture and thus ultimately was never passed. As more states legalized same-sex marriage in the 2010s, Republicans increasingly supported allowing each state to decide its own marriage policy.[142] The Republican Party platform
Party platform
opposed the inclusion of gay people in the military from 1992 to present. LGBT groups within the Republican Party include the Log Cabin Republicans. A 2014 Pew Research
Pew Research
poll indicated that 61% of Millennial Republicans are in favor of same-sex marriage.[143] Anti-discrimination laws The Republican Party opposed the inclusion of sexual preference in anti-discrimination statutes from 1992 to 2004.[144] The 2008 and 2012 Republican Party platform
Party platform
supported anti-discrimination statues based on sex, race, age, religion, creed, disability, or national origin, but both platforms were silent on sexual orientation and gender identity.[145][146] A 2013 poll found that 61% of Republicans support laws protecting gay and lesbian people against employment discrimination[142] and a 2007 poll showed 60% of Republicans supported expanding federal hate crime laws to include sexual orientation and gender identity.[147] Puerto Rican statehood See also: Statehood movement in Puerto Rico The 2016 platform declares: "We support the right of the United States citizens of Puerto Rico to be admitted to the Union as a fully sovereign state. We further recognize the historic significance of the 2012 local referendum in which a 54 percent majority voted to end Puerto Rico's current status as a U.S. territory, and 61 percent chose statehood over options for sovereign nationhood. We support the federally sponsored political status referendum authorized and funded by an Act of Congress in 2014 to ascertain the aspirations of the people of Puerto Rico. Once the 2012 local vote for statehood is ratified, Congress should approve an enabling act with terms for Puerto Rico's future admission as the 51st state
51st state
of the Union".[127] Composition Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International Democrat Union
International Democrat Union
as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe,[13] which has close relations to the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll, 25% of Americans
Americans
identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991.[148] In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal.[149] Historically speaking, the Republican base initially consisted of Northern white Protestants and African Americans
Americans
nationwide, with the first presidential candidate John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont
receiving almost no votes in the South. This trend continued into the 20th century, with 1944 Republican presidential candidate Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
having only 10% of his popular votes in the South. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the core base shifted considerably, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic, especially since 1992. Every Northeastern state except for New Hampshire
New Hampshire
has voted Democratic six straight elections or more. The party's current base consists of groups such as white, married Protestants, rural and suburban citizens and non-union workers without college degrees, with urban residents, ethnic minorities, the unmarried and union workers having shifted to the Democratic Party.[150] Factions Main article: Factions in the Republican Party (United States) The modern Republican Party includes conservatives, social conservatives, economic liberals, neoconservatives, paleoconservatives, populists, moderates, libertarians and the religious right.[citation needed] Establishment vs. anti-establishment

Ron Paul, United States
United States
Representative from Texas
Texas
(1997–2013)

In addition to splits over ideology, the party can be broadly divided into the establishment and anti-establishment. Nationwide polls of Republican voters in 2014 by the Pew Center identified a growing split in the Republican coalition, between "business conservatives" or "establishment conservatives" and "steadfast conservatives" or "populist conservatives".[151] The Tea Party movement
Tea Party movement
is typically aligned with the Republican Party, but it feuds with the pro-business wing of the party, which it sees as too moderate and too willing to compromise.[152] In Congress, Eric Cantor's position as Majority Leader went to California
California
Congressman Kevin McCarthy, who had been an advocate of the Export-Import Bank. It finances overseas purchases of American products, especially airplanes. However, McCarthy changed positions after meeting with populist Congressmen and decided to support the termination of the Bank.[153][154] Conservatives, moderates, liberals and progressives Republican conservatives are strongest in the South, Mountain West and Midwest, where they draw support from social conservatives. The moderates tend to dominate the party in New England
New England
and used to be well represented in all states. From the 1940s to the 1970s under such leaders as Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and Gerald Ford, they usually dominated the presidential-wing of the party. Since the 1970s, they have been less powerful, though they are always represented in the cabinets of Republican Presidents. In Vermont, Jim Jeffords, a Republican Senator became an independent in 2001 due to growing disagreement with President Bush and the party leadership. In addition, moderate Republicans have recently held the governorships in several New England
New England
states while Lincoln Chafee, a former moderate Republican senator is an independent-turned-Democrat former governor of Rhode Island. Former Senator Olympia Snowe
Olympia Snowe
and current Senator Susan Collins, both of Maine; and former Senator Scott Brown of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
are notable moderate Republicans from New England. Former Senator Mark Kirk
Mark Kirk
is another example of a moderate Republican from a Democratic stronghold, Illinois, who ironically held the Senate seat once held by President Barack Obama. From 1991 to 2007, moderate Republicans served as governors of Massachusetts. Prominent Republican moderates have included former Presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, Ford and Bush Sr. as well as former Senate leaders Howard Baker
Howard Baker
and Bob Dole, former Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
and former New York City Mayors Rudy Giuliani
Rudy Giuliani
and Michael Bloomberg. Some well-known conservative and libertarian conservative radio hosts, including national figures such as Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Larry Elder, Glenn Beck, Alex Jones, Mark Levin, Dana Loesch, Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Dennis Prager, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr
Howie Carr
and Michael Savage as well as many local commentators support Republican causes while vocally opposing those of the Democrats.[155]

Nelson Rockefeller, 41st Vice President of the United States (1974-1977)

Historically, the Republican Party has included a liberal-wing made up of individuals who like members of the liberal wing of the Democratic Party believe in the power of government to improve people's lives. Before 1932, leading progressive Republicans included Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr., Charles Evan Hughes, Hiram Johnson, William Borah, George W. Norris, Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
and Fiorello La Guardia.[156] Prominent liberal Republicans from 1936 to the 1970s included Alf Landon, Wendell Willkie, Earl Warren, Thomas E. Dewey, Prescott Bush, Nelson Rockefeller, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., George W. Romney, William Scranton, Charles Mathias, Lowell Weicker and Jacob Javits. Since 1976, liberalism has virtually faded out of the Republican Party, apart from a few Northeastern holdouts.[157] Business community Republicans are usually seen as the traditionally pro-business party and it garners major support from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. Republicans are about 50 percent more likely to be self-employed and are more likely to work in management.[158] A survey cited by The Washington Post in 2012 stated that 61 percent of small business owners planned to vote for then-Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Small business became a major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention. For example, South Dakota Senator John Thune
John Thune
discussed his grandfather's hardware store and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Senator Kelly Ayotte
Kelly Ayotte
referred to her husband's landscaping company.[159] Demographics The Democrats do better among younger Americans
Americans
and Republicans among older Americans. In 2006, Republicans won 38% of the voters aged 18–29.[160] Low-income voters tend to favor the Democrats while high-income voters tend to support the Republicans. In 2012, Obama won 60% of voters with income under $50,000 and 45% of those with incomes higher than that.[161] Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican while those under were 38%.[160] Gender Since 1980, a "gender gap" has seen slightly stronger support for the Republican Party among men than among women. In 2012, Obama won 55% of the women and 45% of the men—and more women voted than men.[161] In the 2006 House races, 43% of women voted Republican while 47% of men did so.[160] In the 2010 midterms, the "gender gap" was reduced with women supporting Republican and Democratic candidates equally 49% to 49%.[162][163] In recent elections, Republicans have found their greatest support among whites from married couples with children living at home.[164] Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for John Kerry
John Kerry
in 2004.[165] The 2012 returns revealed a continued weakness among unmarried women for the GOP, a large and growing portion of the electorate.[166] Although Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
lost women as a whole 44–55 to Obama, he won married women 53–46.[167] Obama won unmarried women 67–31.[168] Education In 2012, the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
conducted a study of registered voters with a 35–28, Democrat-to-Republican gap. They found that self-described Democrats had a +8 advantage over Republicans among college graduates, +14 of all post-graduates polled. Republicans were +11 among white men with college degrees, Democrats +10 among women with degrees. Democrats accounted for 36% of all respondents with an education of high school or less and Republicans were 28%. When isolating just white registered voters polled, Republicans had a +6 advantage overall and were +9 of those with a high school education or less.[169] An analysis of 2008 through 2012 survey data from the General Social Survey, the National Election Studies and the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
for the People and the Press led to the following assessment of the overall educational status of self-identified Democrats and Republicans:

On average, self-identified Republicans have more years of education (4 to 8 months each, depending on the survey) and are probably more likely to hold, at the least, a 4-year college degree. (One major survey indicates that they are more likely, while the results of another survey are statistically insignificant.) It also appears that Republicans continue to out-test Democrats in surveys that assess political knowledge and/or current events. With respect to post-graduate studies, the educational advantage is shifting towards self-identified Democrats. They are now more likely to hold post-graduate college degrees. (One major survey indicates that they are more likely, while the results of another survey are statistically insignificant.)[170]

Ethnicity

Ben Carson, 17th United States
United States
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2017–present)

Republicans have been winning under 15% of the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2016). While historically the party had been supporters of rights for African Americans
Americans
starting in the 1860s, it lost its leadership position in the 1960s.[citation needed] The party abolished slavery under Abraham Lincoln, defeated the Slave Power and gave blacks the legal right to vote during Reconstruction in the late 1860s. Until the New Deal
New Deal
of the 1930s, blacks supported the Republican Party by large margins.[171] Black voters shifted to the Democratic Party beginning in the 1930s, when major Democratic figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt began to support civil rights and the New Deal offered them employment opportunities. They became one of the core components of the New Deal
New Deal
coalition. In the South, after the Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
to prohibit racial discrimination in elections was passed by a bipartisan coalition in 1965, blacks were able to vote again and ever since have formed a significant portion (20–50%) of the Democratic vote in that region.[172] For decades, a greater percentage of white voters identified themselves as Democrats, rather than Republicans. However, since the mid-1990s whites have been more likely to self-identify as Republicans than Democrats.[173] In the 2010 elections, two African American Republicans were elected to the House of Representatives.[174] The party has recently nominated African American candidates for senator or governor in Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland, though none were successful. In recent decades, Republicans have been moderately successful in gaining support from Hispanic
Hispanic
and Asian American
Asian American
voters. George W. Bush, who campaigned energetically for Hispanic
Hispanic
votes, received 35% of their vote in 2000 and 44% in 2004.[175] The party's strong anti-communist stance has made it popular among some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans
Americans
and Vietnamese Americans. The election of Bobby Jindal
Bobby Jindal
as Governor of Louisiana
Louisiana
has been hailed as pathbreaking.[176] He is the first elected minority governor in Louisiana
Louisiana
and the first state governor of Indian descent.[177] According to John Avlon
John Avlon
in 2013, the Republican party is more diverse at the statewide elected official level than the Democratic Party, including Nevada
Nevada
Governor Brian Sandoval
Brian Sandoval
and South Carolina Senator Tim Scott.[178] In 2012, 88% of Romney voters were white while 56% of Obama voters were white.[179] In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain
John McCain
won 55% of white votes, 35% of Asian votes, 31% of Hispanic
Hispanic
votes and 4% of African American votes.[180] In the 2010 House election, Republicans won 60% of the white votes, 38% of Hispanic
Hispanic
votes and 9% of the African American vote.[181] Religious beliefs Religion has always played a major role for both parties, but in the course of a century the parties' religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews and Southern Protestants heavily Democratic and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the 1970s and 1980s that undercut the New Deal
New Deal
coalition.[182] Voters who attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004 and those who attend occasionally gave him only 47% while those who never attend gave him 36%. Fifty-nine percent of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics
Catholics
(even though John Kerry
John Kerry
was Catholic). Since 1980, large majorities of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70–80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004 and 70% for Republican House candidates in 2006. Jews continue to vote 70–80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 54–46 in the 2010 midterms.[183] The main line traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Disciples) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968). The mainline denominations are rapidly shrinking in size. Mormons
Mormons
in Utah
Utah
and neighboring states voted 75% or more for Bush in 2000.[184]

This map shows the vote in the 2004 presidential election by county[A]

This map shows the vote in the 2016 presidential election by county, the most recent Republican electoral victory[B]

While Catholic Republican leaders try to stay in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church on subjects such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem cell research and same-sex marriage, they differ on the death penalty and contraception.[185] Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical Laudato si'
Laudato si'
sparked a discussion on the positions of Catholic Republicans in relation to the positions of the Church. The Pope's encyclical on behalf of the Catholic Church officially acknowledges a man-made climate change caused by burning fossil fuels.[186] The Pope says the warming of the planet is rooted in a throwaway culture and the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet in pursuit of short-term economic gains. According to The New York Times, Laudato si'
Laudato si'
put pressure on the Catholic candidates in the 2016 election: Jeb Bush, Bobby Jindal, Marco Rubio
Marco Rubio
and Rick Santorum.[187] With leading Democrats praising the encyclical, James Bretzke, a professor of moral theology at Boston College, has said that both sides were being disingenuous: "I think it shows that both the Republicans and the Democrats... like to use religious authority and, in this case, the Pope to support positions they have arrived at independently... There is a certain insincerity, a hypocrisy I think, on both sides".[188] While a Pew Research
Pew Research
poll indicates Catholics
Catholics
are more likely to believe the Earth is warming than non-Catholics, 51% of Catholic Republicans believe in global warming (less than the general population) and only 24% of Catholic Republicans believe global warming is caused by human activity.[189] Geography

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Since 1980, geographically the Republican "base" ("red states") is strongest in the South, the Midwest and Mountain West. While it is weakest on the West Coast and Northeast, this has not always been the case as historically the Northeast was a bastion of the Republican Party, with Vermont
Vermont
and Maine
Maine
being the only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
all four times. In the Northeast, Maine, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
continue to have a considerable Republican presence. The Midwest has been roughly balanced since 1854, with Illinois
Illinois
becoming more Democratic and liberal because of the city of Chicago (see below) and Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan
Michigan
and Wisconsin more Republican since 1990. Ohio, Missouri
Missouri
and Indiana
Indiana
all trend Republican. Since the 1930s, the Democrats have dominated most central cities while the Republicans now dominate rural areas and the majority of suburbs.[190] The South has become solidly Republican in national elections since 1980 and has been trending Republican at the state level since then at a slower pace.[191] In 2004, Bush led Kerry by 70–30% among Southern whites, who made up 71% of the Southern electorate. Kerry had a 70–30 lead among the 29% of the voters who were black or Hispanic. One-third of these Southern voters said they were white evangelicals and they voted for Bush by 80–20, but were only 72% Republican in 2006.[160][175] The Southwest, traditionally a Republican stronghold, is now more balanced, owing to the impact of migration both from Mexico and other states.[citation needed] While still strongly Republican states, Texas and Arizona
Arizona
have both become more Democratic in recent years. Colorado, Nevada
Nevada
and New Mexico
New Mexico
all trend Democratic.[citation needed] The Republican Party's strongest focus of political influence lies in the Great Plains
Great Plains
states, particularly Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota
South Dakota
and North Dakota; and in the Mountain states
Mountain states
of Idaho, Wyoming
Wyoming
and Utah
Utah
( Utah
Utah
gave George W. Bush
George W. Bush
more than 70% of the popular vote in 2004). These states are sparsely populated with few major urban centers and have majority white populations, making it extremely difficult for Democrats to create a sustainable voter base there. While still remaining notably Republican, Montana is the only state in the region with a more moderate lean.[192] Unlike the South, these areas have been strongly Republican since before the party realignments of the 1960s.[citation needed] The Great Plains
Great Plains
states were one of the few areas of the country where Republicans had any significant support during the Great Depression.[citation needed] Republican Presidents As of 2017, there have been a total of 19 Republican Party Presidents.

# President Portrait State Presidency start date Presidency end date Time in office

16 Lincoln, Abraham Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)

Illinois 000000001861-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1861 000000001865-04-15-0000Apr 15, 1865[a] 7003150300000000000♠4 years, 42 days

18 Grant, Ulysses S. Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)

Illinois 000000001869-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1869 000000001877-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1877 7003292200000000000♠8 years, 0 days

19 Hayes, Rutherford B. Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)

Ohio 000000001877-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1877 000000001881-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1881 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

20 Garfield, James A. James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)

Ohio 000000001881-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1881 000000001881-09-19-0000Sep 19, 1881[a] 7002199000000000000♠199 days

21 Arthur, Chester A. Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)

New York 000000001881-09-19-0000Sep 19, 1881 000000001885-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1885 7003126200000000000♠3 years, 166 days

23 Harrison, Benjamin Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)

Indiana 000000001889-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1889 000000001893-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1893 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

25 McKinley, William William McKinley
William McKinley
(1843–1901)

Ohio 000000001897-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1897 000000001901-09-14-0000Sep 14, 1901[a] 7003165400000000000♠4 years, 194 days

26 Roosevelt, Theodore Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)

New York 000000001901-09-14-0000Sep 14, 1901 000000001909-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1909 7003272800000000000♠7 years, 171 days

27 Taft, William H.William H. Taft (1857–1930)

Ohio 000000001909-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1909 000000001913-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1913 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

29 Harding, Warren G. Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)

Ohio 000000001921-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1921 000000001923-08-02-0000Aug 2, 1923[a] 7002881000000000000♠2 years, 151 days

30 Coolidge, Calvin Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)

Massachusetts 000000001923-08-02-0000Aug 2, 1923 000000001929-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1929 7003204100000000000♠5 years, 214 days

31 Hoover, Herbert Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)

California 000000001929-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1929 000000001933-03-04-0000Mar 4, 1933 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

34 Eisenhower, Dwight D. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)

Kansas 000000001953-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1953 000000001961-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1961 7003292200000000000♠8 years, 0 days

37 Nixon, Richard Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)

California 000000001969-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1969 000000001974-08-09-0000Aug 9, 1974[b] 7003202700000000000♠5 years, 201 days

38 Ford, Gerald Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)

Michigan 000000001974-08-09-0000Aug 9, 1974 000000001977-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1977 7002895000000000000♠2 years, 164 days

40 Reagan, Ronald Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)

California 000000001981-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1981 000000001989-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1989 7003292200000000000♠8 years, 0 days

41 Bush, George H. W. George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1924–)

Texas 000000001989-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1989 000000001993-01-20-0000Jan 20, 1993 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

43 Bush, George W. George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(1946–)

Texas 000000002001-01-20-0000Jan 20, 2001 000000002009-01-20-0000Jan 20, 2009 7003292200000000000♠8 years, 0 days

45 Trump, Donald Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(1946–)

New York 000000002017-01-20-0000Jan 20, 2017 Incumbent 7002442000000000000♠1 year, 77 days

Electoral history In congressional elections: 1950–present

United States House of Representatives

Election year No. of overall seats won +/– Presidency

1950

199 / 435

28 Harry S. Truman

1952

221 / 435

22 Dwight D. Eisenhower

1954

203 / 435

18

1956

201 / 435

2

1958

153 / 435

48

1960

175 / 435

22 John F. Kennedy

1962

176 / 435

1

1964

140 / 435

36 Lyndon B. Johnson

1966

187 / 435

47

1968

192 / 435

5 Richard Nixon

1970

180 / 435

12

1972

192 / 435

12

1974

144 / 435

48 Gerald Ford

1976

143 / 435

1 Jimmy Carter

1978

158 / 435

15

1980

192 / 435

34 Ronald Reagan

1982

166 / 435

26

1984

182 / 435

16

1986

177 / 435

5

1988

175 / 435

2 George H. W. Bush

1990

167 / 435

8

1992

176 / 435

9 Bill Clinton

1994

230 / 435

54

1996

227 / 435

3

1998

223 / 435

4

2000

221 / 435

2 George W. Bush

2002

229 / 435

8

2004

232 / 435

3

2006

202 / 435

30

2008

178 / 435

21 Barack Obama

2010

242 / 435

63

2012

234 / 435

8

2014

247 / 435

13

2016

241 / 435

6 Donald Trump

United States Senate

Election year No. of overall seats won +/– Presidency

1950

47 / 96

5 Harry S. Truman

1952

49 / 96

2 Dwight D. Eisenhower

1954

47 / 96

2

1956

47 / 96

0

1958

34 / 98

13

1960

35 / 100

1 John F. Kennedy

1962

34 / 100

3

1964

32 / 100

2 Lyndon B. Johnson

1966

38 / 100

3

1968

42 / 100

5 Richard Nixon

1970

44 / 100

2

1972

41 / 100

2

1974

38 / 100

3 Gerald Ford

1976

38 / 100

0 Jimmy Carter

1978

41 / 100

3

1980

53 / 100

12 Ronald Reagan

1982

54 / 100

1

1984

53 / 100

2

1986

46 / 100

8

1988

45 / 100

1 George H. W. Bush

1990

44 / 100

1

1992

43 / 100

0 Bill Clinton

1994

52 / 100

8

1996

55 / 100

2

1998

55 / 100

0

2000

50 / 100

4 [193] George W. Bush

2002

51 / 100

2

2004

55 / 100

4

2006

49 / 100

6

2008

41 / 100

8 Barack Obama

2010

47 / 100

6

2012

45 / 100

2

2014

54 / 100

9

2016

52 / 100

2 Donald Trump

In presidential elections: 1856–present

Election Candidate Votes Vote % Electoral votes +/- Outcome of election

1856 John C. Frémont 1,342,345 33.1

114 / 296

114 Democratic victory

1860 Abraham Lincoln 1,865,908 39.8

180 / 303

66 Republican victory

1864 Abraham Lincoln 2,218,388 55.0

212 / 233

32 Republican victory

1868 Ulysses S. Grant 3,013,421 52.7

214 / 294

2 Republican victory

1872 Ulysses S. Grant 3,598,235 55.6

286 / 352

72 Republican victory

1876 Rutherford B. Hayes 4,034,311 47.9

185 / 369

134 Republican victory[C]

1880 James A. Garfield 4,446,158 48.3

214 / 369

29 Republican victory

1884 James G. Blaine 4,856,905 48.3

182 / 401

32 Democratic victory

1888 Benjamin Harrison 5,443,892 47.8

233 / 401

51 Republican victory[D]

1892 Benjamin Harrison 5,176,108 43.0

145 / 444

88 Democratic victory

1896 William McKinley 7,111,607 51.0

271 / 447

126 Republican victory

1900 William McKinley 7,228,864 51.6

292 / 447

21 Republican victory

1904 Theodore Roosevelt 7,630,457 56.4

336 / 476

44 Republican victory

1908 William Howard Taft 7,678,395 51.6

321 / 483

15 Republican victory

1912 William Howard Taft 3,486,242 23.2

8 / 531

313 Democratic victory

1916 Charles E. Hughes 8,548,728 46.1

254 / 531

246 Democratic victory

1920 Warren G. Harding 16,144,093 60.3

404 / 531

150 Republican victory

1924 Calvin Coolidge 15,723,789 54.0

382 / 531

22 Republican victory

1928 Herbert Hoover 21,427,123 58.2

444 / 531

62 Republican victory

1932 Herbert Hoover 15,761,254 39.7

59 / 531

385 Democratic victory

1936 Alf Landon 16,679,543 36.5

8 / 531

51 Democratic victory

1940 Wendell Willkie 22,347,744 44.8

82 / 531

74 Democratic victory

1944 Thomas E. Dewey 22,017,929 45.9

99 / 531

17 Democratic victory

1948 Thomas E. Dewey 21,991,292 45.1

189 / 531

90 Democratic victory

1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower 34,075,529 55.2

442 / 531

253 Republican victory

1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower 35,579,180 57.4

457 / 531

15 Republican victory

1960 Richard Nixon 34,108,157 49.6

219 / 537

238 Democratic victory

1964 Barry Goldwater 27,175,754 38.5

52 / 538

167 Democratic victory

1968 Richard Nixon 31,783,783 43.4

301 / 538

249 Republican victory

1972 Richard Nixon 47,168,710 60.7

520 / 538

219 Republican victory

1976 Gerald Ford 38,148,634 48.0

240 / 538

280 Democratic victory

1980 Ronald Reagan 43,903,230 50.7

489 / 538

249 Republican victory

1984 Ronald Reagan 54,455,472 58.8

525 / 538

36 Republican victory

1988 George H. W. Bush 48,886,097 53.4

426 / 538

99 Republican victory

1992 George H. W. Bush 39,104,550 37.4

168 / 538

258 Democratic victory

1996 Bob Dole 39,197,469 40.7

159 / 538

9 Democratic victory

2000 George W. Bush 50,456,002 47.9

271 / 538

112 Republican victory[E]

2004 George W. Bush 62,040,610 50.7

286 / 538

15 Republican victory

2008 John McCain 59,948,323 45.7

173 / 538

113 Democratic victory

2012 Mitt Romney 60,933,500 47.2

206 / 538

33 Democratic victory

2016 Donald Trump 62,984,825 46.1

304 / 538

98 Republican victory[F]

See also

Politics portal Conservatism
Conservatism
portal Republican Party portal United States
United States
portal

Factions in the Republican Party Libertarian Republican List of African-American Republicans List of African-American United States
United States
Representatives List of state parties of the Republican Party (United States) List of United States
United States
Republican Party presidential tickets Political party strength in U.S. states Republican In Name Only South Park Republican

Notes

^ a b c d Died in office. ^ Resigned from office.

^ All major Republican geographic constituencies are visible: red dominates the map—showing Republican strength in the rural areas—while the denser areas (i.e. cities) are blue. Notable exceptions include the Pacific coast, New England, the Black Belt, areas with high Native American populations and the heavily Hispanic parts of the Southwest. ^ Similar to the 2004 map, Republicans dominate in rural areas, making improvements in the Appalachian states, namely Kentucky, where the party won all but two counties; and West Virginia, where every county in the state voted Republican. The party also improved in many rural counties in Iowa, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and other Midwestern states. Contrarily, the party suffered substantial losses in urbanized areas such Dallas, Harris and Fort Bend counties in Texas
Texas
and Orange and San Diego counties in California, all of which were won in 2004, but lost in 2016 ^ Although Hayes won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden
Samuel J. Tilden
won a majority of the popular vote. ^ Although Harrison won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
won a plurality of the popular vote. ^ Although Bush won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Al Gore
Al Gore
won a plurality of the popular vote. ^ Although Trump won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
won a plurality of the popular vote.

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and the GOP Dropped the Two-State Solution for Mideast Peace". Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 18, 2017.  ^ "Republicans possibly ready to reject two-state solution, Trump advisor says". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.  ^ a b "Republican Platform 2016" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2016.  ^ See "July 3, 2014 – Iraq – Getting In Was Wrong; Getting Out Was Right, U.S. Voters Tell Quinnipiac University National Poll" Quinnipiac University Poll item #51 ^ a b Zelizer, Julian E. (2004). The American Congress: The Building of Democracy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 704–05. ISBN 9780547345505.  ^ Chapman, Roger (2010). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M. E. Sharpe. p. passim. ISBN 9780765622501.  ^ Alan Fram; Philip Elliot (August 29, 2012). "GOP OKs platform barring abortions, gay marriage". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ " Bobby Jindal
Bobby Jindal
on the Issues". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved May 16, 2010.  ^ Stem cells: What they are and what they do. MayoClinic.com (March 23, 2013). Retrieved on 2013-07-15. ^ Watson, Stephanie. (November 11, 2004) HowStuffWorks "Embryonic Stem Cells". Science.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15. ^ FAQs [Stem Cell Information]. Stemcells.nih.gov. Retrieved on July 15, 2013. ^ "Bush criticizes university 'quota system'". CNN. January 15, 2003. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ Eilperin, Juliet (May 12, 1998). "Watts Walks a Tightrope on Affirmative Action". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 22, 2007.  ^ "Republican Views on Drugs Republican Views". www.republicanviews.org. Retrieved May 1, 2017.  ^ Greg Newburn (July 18, 2014). "Top GOP Presidential Contenders Support Mandatory Minimum Reform". Families Against Mandatory Minimums. Retrieved December 11, 2014.  ^ "Bush calls for ban on same-sex marriages". CNN.com. February 25, 2004.  ^ "Bush urges federal marriage amendment". NBC News. June 6, 2006.  ^ a b "A Shifting Landscape" (PDF). Publicreligion.org. 2003. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ " Young Republicans favor same-sex marriage Pew Research
Pew Research
Center". Pewresearch.org. March 10, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Republican Party Platforms: Republican Party Platform of 1992". Presidency.ucsb.edu. August 17, 1992. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Layout 1" (PDF). Gop.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Republican Party Platforms: 2008 Republican Party Platform". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Public Favors Expansion of Hate Crime Law to Include Sexual Orientation". Gallup. May 17, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  ^ Gallup, Inc. "Democrats Regain Edge in Party Affiliation". Gallup.com.  ^ Gallup, Inc. "Republican Conservative Base Shrinks". Gallup.com.  ^ Michael Barone (August 26, 2012). "The Evolution of the Republican Party Voter". The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
for the People & the Press, "Beyond Red vs. Blue: The Political Typology" June 26, 2014 ^ Jeremy W. Peters (November 8, 2014). "With Fear of Being Sidelined, Tea Party Sees the Republican Rise as New Threat". The New York Times.  ^ William A. Galston, "Restive Republicans Target the Ex-Im Bank", The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal July 2, 2014; Galston uses the "establishment" and "populist" terminology. ^ Dan Balz (June 26, 2014). "Pew study: What divides the GOP coalition". The Washington Post.  ^ Alison Dagnes, Politics on demand: the effects of 24-hour news on American politics (2010) p. 53 ^ Michael Wolraich, Unreasonable Men: Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and the Republican Rebels Who Created Progressive Politics (2014) ^ Nicol C. Rae, The Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: From 1952 to the Present (1989) ^ Fried, pp. 104–05, 125. ^ Harrison, J. D. (August 30, 2012). "Small business a common theme at Republican Convention". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ a b c d "Exit Polls". CNN. November 7, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2006.  ^ a b "Election Results – 2012 Election Center". CNN. Archived from the original on December 26, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Exit Poll Analysis: Vote 2010 Elections Results". ABC News. November 2, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ Weeks, Linton (November 3, 2010). "10 Takeaways From The 2010 Midterms". NPR. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ "Affordable Family Formation–The Neglected Key To GOP's Future". VDARE.com. June 16, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ Unmarried Women in the 2004 Presidential Election Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Report by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research, January 2005. p. 3: "The marriage gap is one of the most important cleavages in electoral politics. Unmarried women voted for Kerry by a 25-point margin (62 to 37 percent), while married women voted for President Bush by an 11-point margin (55 percent to 44 percent). Indeed, the 25-point margin Kerry posted among unmarried women represented one of the high water marks for the Senator among all demographic groups." "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2006.  ^ "Republicans should worry that unmarried women shun them". The Economist. December 14, 2013.  ^ Meg T. McDonnell (December 3, 2012). "The Marriage Gap in the Women's Vote". Crisis Magazine. Retrieved December 11, 2014.  ^ Suzanne Goldenberg (November 9, 2012). "Single women voted overwhelmingly in favour of Obama, researchers find". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2014.  ^ "Detailed Party Identification Tables" (PDF). Pew Research
Pew Research
Center for the People & the Press. Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ "Educational differences between Democrats and Republicans – Public Program Testing Organization". Socialsecuritywaste.org. December 8, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ In the South, they were often not allowed to vote, but still received some Federal patronage appointments from the Republicans ^ Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal
New Deal
for Blacks (1978). ^ Fried, p. 321. ^ L. A. Holmes (April 7, 2010). "Black Republicans Win First Congress Seats Since 2003". FoxNews.com. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ a b "Exit Polls". CNN. November 2, 2004. Retrieved November 18, 2006.  ^ "Americas Profile: Bobby Jindal". BBC News. February 25, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2010.  ^ " Bobby Jindal
Bobby Jindal
may become first Indian-American to be US prez". Deccan Herald. October 23, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2010.  ^ John Avlon
John Avlon
(January 18, 2013). "GOP's surprising edge on diversity". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2013.  ^ Tom Scocca, "Eighty-Eight Percent of Romney Voters Were White," Slate November 7, 2012 ^ "Dissecting the 2008 Electorate: Most Diverse in U.S. History". Pew Research Center. April 30, 2009 ^ "The Latino Vote in the 2010 Elections". Pew Research
Pew Research
Center. November 3, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ To some extent the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
decision Roe v. Wade caused American Christians to blur their historical division along the line between Catholics
Catholics
and Protestants and instead to realign as conservatives or liberals, irrespective of the Reformation Era distinction. ^ "Religion in the 2010 Elections". Pew Research
Pew Research
Center. November 3, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ Grover Norquist (2008). Leave Us Alone: Getting the Government's Hands Off Our Money, Our Guns, Our Lives. HarperCollins. pp. 146–49. ISBN 9780061133954.  The Democratic Obama administration's support for requiring institutions related to the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
to cover birth control and abortion in employee health insurance has further moved traditionalist Catholics
Catholics
toward the Republicans. ^ Lee (June 18, 2015). "Pope hands GOP climate change dilemma". CNN. Retrieved July 3, 2015.  ^ Thomas Reese, "A readers' guide to 'Laudato Si'," National Catholic Register, June 26, 2015 ^ Davenport, Caral (June 16, 2015). "Pope's Views on Climate Change Add Pressure to Catholic Candidates". The New York Times.  ^ Brian Fraga (June 26, 2015). "Political Role Reversal: Democrats Praise Encyclical, While GOP Remains Cautious". Ncregister.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ " Catholics
Catholics
Divided Over Global Warming". Pew Research. June 16, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015.  ^ "Election 2004". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2007.  ^ Earl Black and Merle Black. Politics and Society in the South (2005) ^ Micah Cohen (June 21, 2012). "Presidential Geography: Montana". FiveThirtyEight. The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
provided tie breaking vote, giving Republicans a majority.

Further reading Main article: Bibliography of the Republican Party

American National Biography (20 volumes, 1999) covers all politicians no longer alive; online at many academic libraries. Aistrup, Joseph A. The Southern Strategy Revisited: Republican Top-Down Advancement in the South (1996). Barone, Michael. The Almanac of American Politics 2014: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (2013); revised every two years since 1975. Black, Earl and Merle Black. The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002). Brennan, Mary C. Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP (1995). Conger, Kimberly H. The Christian Right in Republican State Politics (2010) 202 pages; focuses on Arizona, Indiana, and Missouri. Crane, Michael. The Political Junkie Handbook: The Definitive Reference Books on Politics (2004) covers all the major issues explaining the parties' positions. Critchlow, Donald T. The Conservative Ascendancy: How the Republican Right Rose to Power in Modern America (2nd ed. 2011). Ehrman, John, The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan (2005). Fauntroy, Michael K. Republicans and the Black vote (2007). Fried, J (2008). Democrats and Republicans—Rhetoric and Reality. New York: Algora Publishing.  Frank, Thomas. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (2005). Frum, David. What's Right: The New Conservative Majority and the Remaking of America (1996). Gould, Lewis (2003). Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. ISBN 0-375-50741-8.  Jensen, Richard (1983). Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854–1983. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-6382-X.  Judis, John B. and Ruy Teixeira. The Emerging Democratic Majority (2004), two Democrats project social trends. Kabaservice, Geoffrey. Rule and Ruin: The Downfall of Moderation and the Destruction of the Republican Party, From Eisenhower to the Tea Party (2012) scholarly history ISBN 978-0-19-976840-0. Kleppner, Paul, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983), applies party systems model. Kurian, George Thomas ed. The Encyclopedia of the Republican Party (4 vol., 2002). Lamis, Alexander P. ed. Southern Politics in the 1990s (1999). Levendusky, Matthew. The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans (2009). Chicago Studies in American Politics. Mason, Robert. The Republican Party and American Politics from Hoover to Reagan (2011). Mason, Robert and Morgan, Iwan (eds.) Seeking a New Majority: The Republican Party and American Politics, 1960–1980. (2013) Nashville, TN. Vanderbilt University Press. 2013. Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854–1966. 2d ed. (1967). Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2002), broad account of 1964. Perlstein, Rick. Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America (2009). Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right since 1945 (1983). Rutland, Robert Allen. The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush (1996). Sabato, Larry J. Divided States of America: The Slash and Burn Politics of the 2004 Presidential Election (2005). Sabato, Larry J. and Bruce Larson. The Party's Just Begun: Shaping Political Parties for America's Future (2001), textbook. Schlesinger, Arthur Meier Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). Essays on the most important election are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972). Shafer, Byron E. and Anthony J. Badger, eds. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000 (2001), long essays by specialists on each time period:

includes: "To One or Another of These Parties Every Man Belongs": 1820–1865 by Joel H. Silbey; "Change and Continuity in the Party Period: 1835–1885" by Michael F. Holt; "The Transformation of American Politics: 1865–1910" by Peter H. Argersinger; "Democracy, Republicanism, and Efficiency: 1885–1930" by Richard Jensen; "The Limits of Federal Power and Social Policy: 1910–1955" by Anthony J. Badger; "The Rise of Rights and Rights Consciousness: 1930–1980" by James T. Patterson; and "Economic Growth, Issue Evolution, and Divided Government: 1955–2000" by Byron E. Shafer.

Shafer, Byron and Richard Johnston. The End of Southern Exceptionalism (2006), uses statistical election data and polls to argue GOP growth was primarily a response to economic change. Steely, Mel. The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt Gingrich Mercer University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-86554-671-1. Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States
United States
(1983). Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America (2004).

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