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Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen); Macedonian: Македонија, translit. Makedonija, IPA: [makɛˈdɔnija]), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Република Македонија, translit. Republika Makedonija IPA: [rɛˈpublika ˌmakɛˈdɔnija] ( listen)), is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991. It became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
in 1993, but, as a result of an ongoing dispute with Greece
Greece
over the use of the name "Macedonia", was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[10][11] (sometimes abbreviated as FYROM and FYR Macedonia), a term that is also used by international organizations such as the European Union,[12] the Council of Europe,[13] and NATO.[14] A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
has borders with Kosovo[a] to the northwest, Serbia
Serbia
to the north, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the east, Greece
Greece
to the south, and Albania
Albania
to the west.[15] It constitutes approximately the northwestern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece
Greece
and smaller portions of southwestern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and southeastern Albania. The country's geography is defined primarily by mountains, valleys, and rivers. The capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to roughly a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians
Albanians
form a significant minority at around 25 percent, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, and others. Macedonia's history dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia, probably a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity.[16] In the late sixth century BC, the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, then annexed by the Kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century. The Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Τhe area remained part of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and was often raided and settled by Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
beginning in the sixth century of the Christian
Christian
era. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine and Serbian empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th century. Between the late 19th and early 20th century, a distinct Macedonian identity emerged, although following the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of Macedonia came under Serbian rule. In the aftermath of the First World War
First World War
(1914–1918), it became incorporated into the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which after the Second World War was re-established as a republic (1945) and which became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1963. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
until its peaceful secession in 1991. Macedonia is a member of the UN and of the Council of Europe. Since 2005 it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union
European Union
and has applied for NATO
NATO
membership. Although one of the poorest countries in Europe, Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient and Roman period 2.2 Medieval and Ottoman period 2.3 Macedonian nationalism 2.4 Kingdoms of Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia 2.5 World War II
World War II
period 2.6 Socialist Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
period 2.7 Declaration of independence 2.8 Albanian insurgency

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Hydrography 3.3 Climate 3.4 National parks 3.5 Flora 3.6 Fauna 3.7 Domestic animals

4 Politics

4.1 Governance 4.2 Law and courts 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Naming dispute 4.5 Administrative divisions 4.6 Human rights 4.7 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Infrastructure and e-infrastructure 5.2 Trade and investment 5.3 Transport 5.4 Tourism

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Cities

7 Education 8 Culture

8.1 Cuisine 8.2 Sport 8.3 Cinema 8.4 Media 8.5 Public holidays

9 International rankings 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 External links

Etymology See also: Macedonia naming dispute The country's name derives from the Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía),[17][18] a kingdom (later, region) named after the ancient Macedonians. Their name, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), derives ultimately from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), meaning "tall, taper",[19] which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός (makrós), meaning "long, tall, high" in ancient Greek.[20] The name is originally believed to have meant either "highlanders" or "the tall ones", possibly descriptive of the people.[18][21][22] However, Robert S. P. Beekes supports that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology.[23] History Main article: History of the Republic of Macedonia Ancient and Roman period Main articles: Paeonia (kingdom), Macedonia (ancient kingdom), and Dardanian Kingdom

Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon
Macedon
in the 4th century BC: ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"

The Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
roughly corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia,[24][25][26][27] which was located immediately north of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia.[28] Paeonia was inhabited by the Paeonians, a Thracian
Thracian
people,[29] whilst the northwest was inhabited by the Dardani
Dardani
and the southwest by tribes known historically as the Enchelae, Pelagones
Pelagones
and Lyncestae; the latter two are generally regarded as Molossian tribes of the northwestern Greek group, whilst the former two are considered Illyrian.[30][31][32][33][34][35] In the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persians under Darius the Great conquered the Paeonians, incorporating what is today the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
within their vast territories.[36][37][38] Following the loss in the Second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 479 BC, the Persians eventually withdrew from their European territories, including from what is today the Republic of Macedonia. In 356 BC Philip II of Macedon
Macedon
absorbed[39] the regions of Upper Macedonia ( Lynkestis
Lynkestis
and Pelagonia) and the southern part of Paeonia (Deuriopus) into the kingdom of Macedon.[40] Philip's son Alexander the Great conquered the remainder of the region, and incorporated it in his empire, reaching as far north as Scupi, but the city and the surrounding area remained part of Dardania.[41] The Romans established the Province of Macedonia in 146 BC. By the time of Diocletian, the province had been subdivided between Macedonia Prima ("first Macedonia") on the south, encompassing most of the kingdom of Macedon, and Macedonia Salutaris
Macedonia Salutaris
(known also as Macedonia Secunda, "second Macedonia") on the north, encompassing partially Dardania and the whole of Paeonia; most of the country's modern boundaries fell within the latter, with the city of Stobi
Stobi
as its capital.[42] Roman expansion brought the Scupi
Scupi
area under Roman rule in the time of Domitian
Domitian
(81–96 AD), and it fell within the Province of Moesia.[43] Whilst Greek remained the dominant language in the eastern part of the Roman empire, Latin spread to some extent in Macedonia.[44]

Medieval and Ottoman period Main article: South Slavs Further information: Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(theme) and Ottoman Vardar
Vardar
Macedonia Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
settled in the Balkan
Balkan
region including Macedonia by the late 6th century AD. During the 580s, Byzantine literature attests to the Slavs
Slavs
raiding Byzantine territories in the region of Macedonia, later aided by Bulgars. Historical records document that in c. 680 a group of Bulgars, Slavs
Slavs
and Byzantines led by a Bulgar called Kuber settled in the region of the Keramisian plain, centred on the city of Bitola.[45] Presian's reign apparently coincides with the extension of Bulgarian control over the Slavic tribes in and around Macedonia. The Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
that settled in the region of Macedonia converted to Christianity around the 9th century during the reign of Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria. In 1014, the Byzantine Emperor Basil II
Basil II
defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria, and within four years the Byzantines restored control over the Balkans
Balkans
(including Macedonia) for the first time since the 7th century. However, by the late 12th century, Byzantine decline saw the region contested by various political entities, including a brief Norman occupation in the 1080s. In the early 13th century, a revived Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
gained control of the region. Plagued by political difficulties, the empire did not last, and the region came once again under Byzantine control in the early 14th century. In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire, who saw themselves as liberators of their Slavic kin from Byzantine despotism. Skopje
Skopje
became the capital of Tsar Stefan Dusan's empire. Following Dusan's death, a weak successor appeared, and power struggles between nobles divided the Balkans
Balkans
once again. These events coincided with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. The Kingdom of Prilep
Prilep
was one of the short-lived states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
in the 14th century.[46] Gradually, all of the central Balkans
Balkans
were conquered by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and remained under its domination for five centuries. Macedonian nationalism Main article: Macedonian nationalism

Nikola Karev, president of the short-lived Kruševo Republic
Kruševo Republic
during the Ilinden Uprising

Avtonomna Makedonia periodical, Belgrade, 1905

With the beginning of the Bulgarian National Revival
Bulgarian National Revival
in the 18th century, many of the reformers were from this region, including the Miladinov Brothers,[47] Rajko Žinzifov, Joakim Krčovski,[48] Kiril Pejčinoviḱ[49] and others. The bishoprics of Skopje, Debar, Bitola, Ohrid, Veles and Strumica
Strumica
voted to join the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
after it was established in 1870.[50] Several movements whose goals were the establishment of an autonomous Macedonia, which would encompass the entire region of Macedonia, began to arise in the late 19th century; the earliest of these was the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, later becoming Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (SMARO). In 1905 it was renamed the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO), and after World War I
World War I
the organisation separated into the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
(IMRO) and the Internal Thracian
Thracian
Revolutionary Organisation (ITRO).[51] In the early years of the organisation, membership was open to only Bulgarians, but later it was opened to all inhabitants of European Turkey, regardless of their nationality or religion.[52] The majority of its members, however, were Macedonian Bulgarians.[53] In 1903, IMRO organised the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans, which after some initial successes, including the forming of the "Kruševo Republic", was "crushed with much loss of life.[54] The uprising and the forming of the Kruševo Republic
Kruševo Republic
are considered the cornerstone and precursors to the eventual establishment of the Macedonian state.[55][56][57]

Kingdoms of Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia

The division of the region of Macedonia after the Balkan
Balkan
Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest

Following the two Balkan
Balkan
wars of 1912 and 1913 and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, most of its European-held territories were divided between Greece, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Serbia.[58] The territory of the modern Macedonian state was annexed by Serbia
Serbia
and named Južna Srbija, "Southern Serbia". Following the partition, an anti-Bulgarian campaign was carried out in the areas under Serbian and Greek control.[59] As many as 641 Bulgarian schools and 761 churches were closed by the Serbs, while Exarchist clergy and teachers were expelled.[59] The use of Bulgarian (including all Macedonian dialects) was proscribed.[59] In the fall of 1915, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
joined the Central Powers
Central Powers
in the First World War and gained control over most of the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia.[59] After the end of the First World War, the area returned to Serbian control as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes[60] and saw a reintroduction of the anti-Bulgarian measures of the first occupation (1913–1915): Bulgarian teachers and clergy were expelled, Bulgarian language signs and books removed, and all Bulgarian organisations dissolved.[59] The Serbian government pursued a policy of forced Serbianisation in the region,[61][62] which included systematic repression of Bulgarian activists, altering family surnames, internal colonisation, forced labor, and intense propaganda.[63] To aid the implementation of this policy, some 50,000 Serbian army and gendermerie were stationed in Macedonia.[59] By 1940 about 280 Serbian colonies (comprising 4,200 families) were established as part of the government's internal colonisation program (initial plans envisaged 50,000 families settling in Macedonia).[59] In 1929, the Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into provinces called banovinas. Southern Serbia, including all of what is now the Republic of Macedonia, became known as the Vardar Banovina
Vardar Banovina
of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[64] The concept of a United Macedonia
United Macedonia
was used by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) in the interbellum. Its leaders – including Todor Alexandrov, Aleksandar Protogerov, and Ivan Mihailov – promoted independence of the Macedonian territory split between Serbia
Serbia
and Greece
Greece
for the whole population, regardless of religion and ethnicity.[65] The Bulgarian government of Alexander Malinov
Alexander Malinov
in 1918 offered to give Pirin Macedonia
Pirin Macedonia
for that purpose after World War I,[66] but the Great Powers did not adopt this idea because Serbia
Serbia
and Greece
Greece
opposed it. In 1924, the Communist International suggested that all Balkan
Balkan
communist parties adopt a platform of a "united Macedonia" but the suggestion was rejected by the Bulgarian and Greek communists.[67] IMRO followed by starting an insurgent war in Vardar
Vardar
Banovina, together with Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization, which also conducted guerilla attacks against the Serbian administrative and army officials there. In 1923 in Stip, a paramilitary organisation called Association against Bulgarian Bandits was formed by Serbian chetniks, IMRO renegades and Macedonian Federative Organization (MFO) members to oppose IMRO and MMTRO.[68] The Macedonist ideas increased during the interbellum, in Yugoslav Vardar
Vardar
Macedonia, and among the left diaspora in Bulgaria, and were supported by the Comintern.[69] In 1934, it issued a special resolution in which for the first time directions were provided for recognizing the existence of a separate Macedonian nation
Macedonian nation
and Macedonian language.[70]

World War II
World War II
period Main article: National Liberation War of Macedonia

Metodija Andonov-Čento
Metodija Andonov-Čento
greeted in Skopje
Skopje
after the National Liberation War of Macedonia in 1944.

During World War II, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was occupied by the Axis Powers from 1941 to 1945. The Vardar Banovina
Vardar Banovina
was divided between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Italian-occupied Albania. Bulgarian Action Committees were established to prepare the region for the new Bulgarian administration and army.[71] The Committees were mostly formed by former members of IMRO, but some communists such as Panko Brashnarov, Strahil Gigov and Metodi Shatorov also participated.[72][73] As leader of the Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
communists, Shatorov switched from the Yugoslav Communist Party
Yugoslav Communist Party
to the Bulgarian Communist Party[73][74] and refused to start military action against the Bulgarian army.[75] The Bulgarian authorities, under German pressure,[76] were responsible for the round-up and deportation of over 7,000 Jews in Skopje
Skopje
and Bitola.[77] Harsh rule by the occupying forces encouraged many Macedonians to support the Communist Partisan resistance movement of Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
after 1943,[78] and the National Liberation War ensued, with German forces being driven out of Macedonia by the end of 1944.[79][80] In Vardar
Vardar
Macedonia, after the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944, the Bulgarian troops, surrounded by German forces, fought their way back to the old borders of Bulgaria.[81] Under the leadership of the new Bulgarian pro-Soviet government, four armies, 455,000 strong in total, were mobilised and reorganised. Most of them re-entered occupied Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in early October 1944 and moved from Sofia to Niš, Skopje and Pristina
Pristina
with the strategic task of blocking the German forces withdrawing from Greece.[82] Compelled by the Soviet Union with a view towards the creation of a large South Slav Federation, the Bulgarian government once again offered to give Pirin Macedonia
Pirin Macedonia
to such a United Macedonia in 1945.

Socialist Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
period Main article: Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
was the leader of SFR Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslavia
from 1944. to 1980. ; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in the White House, 1971.

In 1944 the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) proclaimed the People's Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
as part of the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[83] ASNOM remained an acting government until the end of the war. The Macedonian alphabet was codified by linguists of ASNOM, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and the principles of Krste Petkov Misirkov. The new republic became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav federation. Following the federation's renaming as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1963, the People's Republic of Macedonia was likewise renamed, becoming the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.[84][85][86] During the civil war in Greece
Greece
(1946–1949), Macedonian communist insurgents supported the Greek communists. Many refugees fled to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Socialist Republic of Macedonia
from there. The state dropped the "Socialist" from its name in 1991 when it peacefully seceded from Yugoslavia. Declaration of independence The country officially celebrates 8 September 1991 as Independence day (Macedonian: Ден на независноста, Den na nezavisnosta), with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia, albeit legalising participation in future union of the former states of Yugoslavia.[87] The anniversary of the start of the Ilinden Uprising
Ilinden Uprising
(St. Elijah's Day) on 2 August is also widely celebrated on an official level as the Day of the Republic. Robert Badinter, as the head of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia, recommended EC recognition in January 1992.[88] Macedonia remained at peace through the Yugoslav wars of the early 1990s. A few very minor changes to its border with Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
were agreed upon to resolve problems with the demarcation line between the two countries. However, it was seriously destabilised by the Kosovo War in 1999, when an estimated 360,000 ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo
Kosovo
took refuge in the country.[89] Although they departed shortly after the war, Albanian nationalists on both sides of the border took up arms soon after in pursuit of autonomy or independence for the Albanian-populated areas of Macedonia.[89][90]

Albanian insurgency Main article: 2001
2001
insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia A conflict took place between the government and ethnic Albanian insurgents, mostly in the north and west of the country, between February
February
and August 2001.[90][91][92] The war ended with the intervention of a NATO
NATO
ceasefire monitoring force. Under the terms of the Ohrid
Ohrid
Agreement, the government agreed to devolve greater political power and cultural recognition to the Albanian minority.[93] The Albanian side agreed to abandon separatist demands and to recognise all Macedonian institutions fully. In addition, according to this accord, the NLA were to disarm and hand over their weapons to a NATO
NATO
force.[94]

Geography Main article: Geography of the Republic of Macedonia

Mount Korab, the highest mountain in Macedonia

Macedonia has a total area of 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 40° and 43° N, and mostly between longitudes 20° and 23° E (a small area lies east of 23°). Macedonia has some 748 km (465 mi) of boundaries, shared with Serbia (62 km or 39 mi) to the North, Kosovo
Kosovo
(159 km or 99 mi) to the northwest, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(148 km or 92 mi) to the east, Greece
Greece
(228 km or 142 mi) to the south, and Albania
Albania
(151 km or 94 mi) to the west. It is a transit way for shipment of goods from Greece, through the Balkans, towards Eastern, Western and Central Europe
Europe
and through Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the east. It is part of a larger region also known as Macedonia, which also includes Macedonia (Greece)
Macedonia (Greece)
and the Blagoevgrad province in southwestern Bulgaria. Topography Main article: Mountains of the Republic of Macedonia Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar
Vardar
river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges. The terrain is mostly rugged, located between the Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
and Osogovo, which frame the valley of the Vardar
Vardar
river. Three large lakes — Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Dojran
Dojran
Lake — lie on the southern borders, bisected by the frontiers with Albania
Albania
and Greece. Ohrid
Ohrid
is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world.[95] The region is seismically active and has been the site of destructive earthquakes in the past, most recently in 1963 when Skopje
Skopje
was heavily damaged by a major earthquake, killing over 1,000. Macedonia also has scenic mountains. They belong to two different mountain ranges: the first is the Šar Mountains[96][97] that continues to the West Vardar/ Pelagonia
Pelagonia
group of mountains (Baba Mountain, Nidže, Kozuf and Jakupica), also known as the Dinaric range. The second range is the Osogovo– Belasica
Belasica
mountain chain, also known as the Rhodope range. The mountains belonging to the Šar Mountains and the West Vardar/ Pelagonia
Pelagonia
range are younger and higher than the older mountains of the Osogovo- Belasica
Belasica
mountain group. Mount Korab of the Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
on the Albanian border, at 2,764 m (9,068 ft), is the tallest mountain in Macedonia. Hydrography

Matka Canyon

In the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
there are 1,100 large sources of water. The rivers flow into three different basins: the Aegean, the Adriatic and the Black Sea.[98] The Aegean basin is the largest. It covers 87% of the territory of the Republic, which is 22,075 square kilometres (8,523 sq mi). Vardar, the largest river in this basin, drains 80% of the territory or 20,459 square kilometres (7,899 sq mi). Its valley plays an important part in the economy and the communication system of the country. The project named 'The Vardar
Vardar
Valley' is considered to be crucial for the strategic development of the country. The river Black Drin
Black Drin
forms the Adriatic basin, which covers an area of about 3,320 km2 (1,282 sq mi), i.e., 13% of the territory. It receives water from Lakes Prespa and Ohrid. The Black Sea
Black Sea
basin is the smallest with only 37 km2 (14 sq mi). It covers the northern side of Mount Skopska Crna Gora. This is the source of the river Binachka Morava, which joins the Morava, and later, the Danube, which flows into the Black Sea. Macedonia has around fifty ponds and three natural lakes, Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa
Lake Prespa
and Lake Dojran. In Macedonia there are nine spa towns and resorts: Banište, Banja Bansko, Istibanja, Katlanovo, Kežovica, Kosovrasti, Banja Kočani, Kumanovski Banji and Negorci. Climate

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See also: Climate of the Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia map of Köppen climate classification.

Macedonia has a transitional climate from Mediterranean to continental. The summers are hot and dry, and the winters are moderately cold. Average annual precipitation varies from 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western mountainous area to 500 mm (19.7 in) in the eastern area. There are three main climatic zones in the country: temperate Mediterranean, mountainous, and mildly continental. Along the valleys of the Vardar
Vardar
and Strumica rivers, in the regions of Gevgelija, Valandovo, Dojran, Strumica, and Radoviš, the climate is temperate Mediterranean. The warmest regions are Demir Kapija
Demir Kapija
and Gevgelija, where the temperature in July and August frequently exceeds 40 °C (104 °F). The mountainous climate is present in the mountainous regions of the country, and it is characterised by long and snowy winters and short and cold summers. The spring is colder than the fall. The majority of Macedonia has a moderate continental climate with warm and dry summers and relatively cold and wet winters. There are thirty main and regular weather stations in the country. National parks The country has three national parks:

Name Established Size Map Picture

Mavrovo 1948 731 km²

Galičica 1958 227 km²

Pelister 1948 125 km²

Flora Main article: Flora
Flora
of Macedonia

Sunflower

Pinus peuce, the Macedonian Pine
Macedonian Pine
or Molika, one of Macedonia's most recognisable trees

The flora of Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
is represented by around 210 families, 920 genera, and around 3,700 plant species. The most abundant group are the flowering plants with around 3,200 species, followed by mosses (350 species) and ferns (42). Phytogeographically, Macedonia belongs to the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region
Circumboreal Region
within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of the Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Pindus Mountains mixed forests, Balkan
Balkan
mixed forests, Rhodopes
Rhodopes
mixed forests and Aegean sclerophyllous and mixed forests. National Park of Pelister in Bitola
Bitola
is known for the presence of the endemic Macedonian Pine, as well as some 88 species of plants representing almost 30 percent of Macedonian dendroflora. The Macedonian Pine
Macedonian Pine
forests on Pelister are divided into two communities: pine forests with ferns and pine forests with junipers. The Macedonian Pine, as a specific conifer species, is a relict of tertiary flora, and the five-needle pine Molika, was first noted on Pelister in 1893. Macedonia's limited forest growth also includes Macedonian Oaks, the sycamore, weeping willows, white willows, alders, poplars, elms, and the common ash. Near the rich pastures on Šar Mountain and Bistra, Mavrovo, is another plant species characteristic of plant life in Macedonia—the poppy. The quality of thick poppy juice is measured worldwide by morphine units; while Chinese opium contains eight such units and is considered to be of high quality, Indian opium contains seven units, and Turkish opium only six, Macedonian opium contains a full 14 morphine units and is one of the best quality opiums in the world.[99]

Fauna

The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
and the Šarplaninec.

Main article: Fauna of Macedonia The fauna of Macedonian forests is abundant and includes bears, wild boars, wolves, foxes, squirrels, chamois and deer. The lynx is found, although very rarely, in the mountains of western Macedonia, while deer can be found in the region of Demir Kapija. Forest birds include the blackcap, the grouse, the black grouse, the imperial eagle and the forest owl. The three artificial lakes of the country represent a separate fauna zone, an indication of long-lasting territorial and temporal isolation. The fauna of Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
is a relict of an earlier era and the lake is widely known for its letnica trout, lake whitefish, gudgeon, roach, podust, and pior, as well as for certain species of snails of a genus older than 30 million years; similar species can be found only in Lake Baikal. Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
is also noted in zoology texts for the European eel
European eel
and its baffling reproductive cycle: it comes to Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
from the distant Sargasso Sea,[100][101] thousands of kilometres away, and lurks in the depths of the lake for 10 years. When sexually mature, the eel is driven by unexplained instincts in the autumn to set off back to its point of birth. There it spawns and dies, leaving its offspring to seek out Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
to begin the cycle anew.[101] Domestic animals The shepherd dog of Šar Mountain is known worldwide as Šarplaninec (Yugoslav shepherd).[102][103][104] It stands some 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) tall[102] and is a brave and fierce fighter that may be called upon to fight bears or wolf packs while guarding and defending flocks. The Šarplaninec originates from the shepherd's dog of the ancient Epirotes, the molossus, but the Šarplaninec was recognised as its own breed in 1939 under the name of "Illyrian shepherd" and since 1956 has been known as Šarplaninec.[102][103][104]

Politics Main article: Politics of the Republic of Macedonia Main article: Politics of Macedonia Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature (Собрание, Sobranie) and an independent judicial branch with a constitutional court. The Assembly is made up of 120 seats and the members are elected every four years. The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government. The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President is elected every five years and he or she can be elected twice at most. On the second run of the presidential elections held on 5 April 2009, Gjorge Ivanov
Gjorge Ivanov
was elected as new Macedonian president.[105]

Gjorge Ivanov President Zoran Zaev Prime Minister

With the passage of a new law and elections held in 2005, local government functions are divided between 78 municipalities (општини, opštini; singular: општина, opština). The capital, Skopje, is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as the "City of Skopje". Municipalities in Macedonia are units of local self-government. Neighbouring municipalities may establish co-operative arrangements. The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically based political parties representing the country's ethnic Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, Macedonia's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians
Albanians
in areas where they predominate. After a troublesome pre-election campaign, Macedonia saw a relatively calm and democratic change of government in the elections held on 5 July 2006. The elections were marked by a decisive victory of the centre-right party VMRO-DPMNE led by Nikola Gruevski. Gruevski's decision to include the Democratic Party of Albanians
Albanians
in the new government, instead of the Democratic Union for Integration – Party for Democratic Prosperity coalition which won the majority of the Albanian votes, triggered protests throughout the parts of the country with a respective number of Albanian population. However, a dialogue was later established between the Democratic Union for Integration and the ruling VMRO-DMPNE party as an effort to talk about the disputes between the two parties and to support European and NATO aspirations of the country.[106] After the early parliamentary elections held in 2008, VMRO-DPMNE and Democratic Union for Integration
Democratic Union for Integration
formed a ruling coalition in Macedonia.[107] In April 2009, presidential and local elections in the country were carried out peacefully, which was crucial for Macedonian aspirations to join the EU.[108] The ruling conservative VMRO-DPMNE party won a victory in the local elections and the candidate supported by the party, Gjorgi Ivanov, was elected as the new president. As of 31 May 2017[update], the Prime Minister of Macedonia is Zoran Zaev, who also heads the SDUM,[109] and the current President of the Parliament is Talat Xhaferi.[110] The election of Xhaferi was immediately met with protests led by VMRO-DPMNE, which was quickly handled by Macedonian police.[110] Governance Main article: Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

The interior of the Parliament Building in Skopje

Parliament, or Sobranie (Macedonian: Собрание), is the country's legislative body. It makes, proposes and adopts laws. The Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
has been in use since the formation of the republic in the 1993. It limits the power of the government's, both local and national. The military is also limited by the constitution. The constitution states that Macedonia is a social free state, and that Skopje
Skopje
is the capital.[111] The 120 members are elected for a mandate of four years through a general election. Each citizen aged 18 years or older can vote for one of the political parties. The current president of Parliament is Talat Xhaferi. Executive power in Macedonia is exercised by the Government, whose prime minister is the most politically powerful person in the country. The members of the government are chosen by the Prime Minister and there are ministers for each branch of the society. There are ministers for economy, finance, information technology, society, internal affairs, foreign affairs and other areas. The members of the Government are elected for a mandate of four years. The current Prime Minister is Zoran Zaev. Law and courts Judiciary
Judiciary
power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council. The assembly appoints the judges. Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of the Republic of Macedonia See also: List of diplomatic missions of the Republic of Macedonia

PM Zoran Zaev
Zoran Zaev
with German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
, Berlin, February 2018.

Macedonia became a member state of the UN on 8 April 1993, eighteen months after its independence from Yugoslavia. It is referred to within the UN as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", pending a resolution of the long-running dispute with Greece
Greece
about the country's name. The major interest of the country is a full integration in the European and the Trans-Atlantic integration processes. Five foreign policy priorities are:[112]

Commencing negotiations for full-fledged membership in the European Union Lifting the visa regime for Macedonian nationals NATO
NATO
membership Resolving the naming issue with Greece Strengthening the economic and public diplomacy

Macedonia is a member of the following international and regional organisations:[113] IMF (since 1992), WHO (since 1993), EBRD (since 1993), Central European Initiative
Central European Initiative
(since 1993), Council of Europe (since 1995), OSCE (since 1995), SECI (since 1996), WTO (since 2003), CEFTA (since 2006), La Francophonie (since 2001). In 2005, the country was officially recognised as a European Union candidate state. On the NATO
NATO
summit held in Bucharest
Bucharest
in April 2008, Macedonia failed to gain an invitation to join the organisation because Greece
Greece
vetoed the move after the dispute over the name issue.[114] The USA had previously expressed support for an invitation,[115] but the summit then decided to extend an invitation only on condition of a resolution of the naming conflict with Greece. In March 2009, the European Parliament
European Parliament
expressed support for Macedonia's EU candidacy and asked the EU Commission to grant the country a date for the start of accession talks by the end of 2009. The parliament also recommended a speedy lifting of the visa regime for Macedonian citizens.[116] However, Macedonia has so far failed to receive a start date for accession talks as a result of the naming dispute. The EU's stance is similar to NATO's in that resolution of the naming dispute is a precondition for the start of accession talks. In October 2012, the EU Enlargement Commissioner Štefan Füle proposed a start of accession negotiations with Macedonia for the fourth time, while the previous efforts were blocked each time by Greece. At the same time Füle visited Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in a bid to clarify the state's position with respect to Macedonia. He established that Bulgaria
Bulgaria
almost has joined Greece
Greece
in vetoing the accession talks with Macedonia. The Bulgarian position was that Sofia cannot grant an EU certificate to Skopje, which is systematically employing an ideology of hate towards Bulgaria.[117] Naming dispute Main article: Macedonia naming dispute See also: Macedonia (terminology)

The former and current flags of Macedonia in front of the Boris Trajkovski Sports Arena in Skopje

After the breakup of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1991, the name of Macedonia became the object of a dispute between Greece
Greece
and the newly independent Republic of Macedonia.[118] In the south, the Republic of Macedonia borders the region of Greek Macedonia, which administratively is split into three peripheries (one of them comprising both Western Thrace
Western Thrace
and a part of Greek Macedonia). Citing historical and territorial concerns resulting from the ambiguity between the Republic of Macedonia, the adjacent Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient kingdom of Macedon which falls within Greek Macedonia, Greece
Greece
opposes the use of the name "Macedonia" by the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
without a geographical qualifier, supporting a compound name (such as "Northern Macedonia") for use by all and for all purposes (erga omnes).[119] As millions of ethnic Greeks identify themselves as Macedonians, unrelated to the Slavic people who are associated with the Republic of Macedonia, Greece
Greece
further objects to the use of the term "Macedonian" for the neighboring country's largest ethnic group. The Republic of Macedonia is accused of appropriating symbols and figures that are historically considered parts of Greece's culture (such as Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the ancient kingdom of Macedon, and Alexander the Great), and of promoting the irredentist concept of a United Macedonia, which would include territories of Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, and Serbia.[citation needed] From 1992
1992
to 1995, the two countries engaged in a dispute over the Macedonian state's new flag, which incorporated the Vergina Sun symbol. This aspect of the dispute was resolved when the flag was changed under the terms of an interim accord agreed between the two states in October 1995.

The first flag of the sovereign Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(from 9/1991 to 8/1992) was simply the former SRM flag, used until a replacement was legislated.

The UN adopted the provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (Macedonian: Поранешна Југословенска Република Македонија) when the country was admitted to the organisation in 1993.[120] Most international organisations, such as the European Union, the European Broadcasting Union, and the International Olympic Committee, adopted the same convention.[121][122][123][124][125] NATO
NATO
also uses the reference in official documents but adds an explanation on which member countries recognise the constitutional name.[126] The same reference is also used in any discussion to which Greece
Greece
is a party[127] However, most UN member countries have abandoned the provisional reference and have recognised the country as the Republic of Macedonia instead. These include four of the five permanent UN Security Council members: the United States,[128] Russia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the People's Republic of China; several members of the European Union
European Union
such as Bulgaria, Poland, and Slovenia; and over 100 other UN members.[129] The UN has set up a negotiating process with a mediator, Matthew Nimetz, and the two parties to the dispute, Macedonia and Greece, to try to mediate the dispute. Negotiations continue between the two sides but have yet to reach any settlement of the dispute. Initially the European Community-nominated Arbitration Commission's opinion was that "the use of the name 'Macedonia' cannot therefore imply any territorial claim against another State";[130] despite the commission's opinion, Greece
Greece
continued to object to the establishment of relations between the Community and the Republic under its constitutional name.[131] Since the coming to power in 2006, and especially since Macedonia's non-invitation to NATO
NATO
in 2008, the VMRO-DPMNE government has pursued a policy of "Antiquisation" ("Antikvizatzija") as a way of putting pressure on Greece
Greece
as well as for the purposes of domestic identity-building.[132] Statues of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip of Macedon
Macedon
have been built in several cities across the country. Additionally, many pieces of public infrastructure, such as airports, highways, and stadiums have been renamed after Alexander and Philip. These actions are seen as deliberate provocations in neighboring Greece, exacerbating the dispute and further stalling Macedonia's EU and NATO
NATO
applications.[133] The policy has also attracted criticism domestically, as well as from EU diplomats.[132] In November 2008, Macedonia instituted proceedings before the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(ICJ) against Greece
Greece
alleging violations of the 1995 Interim Accord that blocked its accession to NATO.[134] The ICJ was requested to order Greece
Greece
to observe its obligations within the Accord, which is legally binding for both countries. In 2011, The United Nations' International Court of Justice ruled that Greece
Greece
violated Article 11 of the 1995 Interim Accord by vetoing Macedonia's bid for NATO
NATO
membership at the 2008 summit in Bucharest.[135] The court, however, did not consider it necessary to grant Macedonia's request that it instruct Greece
Greece
to refrain from similar actions in the future since "[a]s a general rule, there is no reason to suppose that a State whose act or conduct has been declared wrongful by the Court will repeat that act or conduct in the future, since its good faith must be presumed";[136] nor has there been to date a change in the EU's stance that Macedonia's accession negotiations cannot begin until the name issue is resolved.[137] Administrative divisions Main articles: Statistical regions of Macedonia
Statistical regions of Macedonia
and Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia

Rural/Urban municipalities

Macedonian statistical regions

Macedonia's statistical regions exist solely for legal and statistical purposes. The regions are:

Eastern Northeastern Pelagonia Polog Skopje Southeastern Southwestern Vardar

In August 2004, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
was reorganised into 84 municipalities (opštini; sing. opština); 10 of the municipalities constitute the City of Skopje, a distinct unit of local self-government and the country's capital. Most of the current municipalities were unaltered or merely amalgamated from the previous 123 municipalities established in September 1996; others were consolidated and their borders changed. Prior to this, local government was organised into 34 administrative districts, communes, or counties (also opštini). Human rights Main article: Human rights
Human rights
in the Republic of Macedonia The Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the U.N. Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Convention against Torture, and the Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Macedonian citizens. There do, however, continue to be problems with human rights. According to human rights organisations, in 2003 there were suspected extrajudicial executions, threats against, and intimidation of, human rights activists and opposition journalists, and allegations of torture by the police.[138][139] Military Main article: Military of the Republic of Macedonia

Army of the Republic of Macedonia

The Macedonian Armed Forces comprise the army, air force and Special Forces. The government's national defence policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land area and airspace and its constitutional order. Its main goals remain the development and maintenance of a credible capability to defend the nation's vital interests and development of the Armed Forces in a way that ensures their interoperability with the armed forces of NATO
NATO
and the European Union
European Union
member states and their capability to participate in the full range of NATO
NATO
missions. The Ministry of Defence develops the Republic's defence strategy and assesses possible threats and risks. It is also responsible for the defence system, including training, readiness, equipment, and development, and for drawing up and presenting the defence budget.[140]

Economy Main article: Economy of the Republic of Macedonia Ranked as the fourth "best reformatory state" out of 178 countries ranked by the World Bank
World Bank
in 2009, Macedonia has undergone considerable economic reform since independence.[141] The country has developed an open economy with trade accounting for more than 90% of GDP in recent years. Since 1996, Macedonia has witnessed steady, though slow, economic growth with GDP growing by 3.1% in 2005. This figure was projected to rise to an average of 5.2% in the 2006–2010 period.[142] The government has proven successful in its efforts to combat inflation, with an inflation rate of only 3% in 2006 and 2% in 2007,[141] and has implemented policies focused on attracting foreign investment and promoting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The current government introduced a flat tax system with the intention of making the country more attractive to foreign investment. The flat tax rate was 12% in 2007 and was further lowered to 10% in 2008.[143][144] Despite these reforms, as of 2005[update] Macedonia's unemployment rate was 37.2%[145] and as of 2006[update] its poverty rate was 22%.[142] However, due to a number of employment measures as well as the successful process of attracting multinational corporations, and according to the Macedonian State Statistical Office, country's unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2015 decreased to 27.3%.[146] Government's policies and efforts in regards to foreign direct investments have resulted with the establishment of local subsidiaries of several world leading manufacturing companies, especially from the automotive industry, such as: Johnson Controls
Johnson Controls
Inc., Van Hool
Van Hool
NV, Johnson Matthey
Johnson Matthey
plc, Lear Corp., Visteon
Visteon
Corp., Kostal GmbH, Gentherm Inc., Dräxlmaier Group, Kromberg & Schubert, Marquardt GmbH, Amphenol
Amphenol
Corp., Tekno Hose SpA, KEMET Corp., Key Safety Systems Inc., ODW-Elektrik GmbH, etc. Macedonia has one of the highest shares of people struggling financially, with 72% of its citizens stating that they could manage on their household’s income only "with difficulty" or "with great difficulty", though Macedonia, along with Croatia, was the only country in the Western Balkans
Balkans
to not report an increase in this statistic.[147] Corruption and a relatively ineffective legal system also act as significant restraints on successful economic development. Macedonia still has one of the lowest per capita GDPs in Europe. Furthermore, the country's grey market is estimated at close to 20% of GDP.[148]

Vineyard in Macedonia

Graphical depiction of Macedonia's product exports.

In terms of GDP structure, as of 2013[update] the manufacturing sector, including mining and construction constituted the largest part of GDP at 21.4%, up from 21.1% in 2012. The trade, transportation and accommodation sector represents 18.2% of GDP in 2013, up from 16.7% in 2012, while agriculture represents 9.6%, up from 9.1% in the previous year.[149] In terms of foreign trade, the largest sector contributing to the country's export in 2014 was "chemicals and related products" at 21.4%, followed by the "machinery and transport equipment" sector at 21.1%. Macedonia's main import sectors in 2014 were "manufactured goods classified chiefly by material" with 34.2%, "machinery and transport equipment" with 18.7% and "mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials" with 14.4% of the total imports. Even 68.8% of the foreign trade in 2014 was done with the EU which makes the Union by far the largest trading partner of Macedonia (23.3% with Germany, 7.9% with the UK, 7.3% with Greece, 6.2% with Italy, etc.). Almost 12% of the total external trade in 2014 was done with the Western Balkan countries.[150] With a GDP per capita of US$9,157 at purchasing power parity and a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of 0.701, Macedonia is less developed and has a considerably smaller economy than most of the former Yugoslav states. According to Eurostat
Eurostat
data, Macedonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 36% of the EU average in 2014.[151] Infrastructure and e-infrastructure Macedonia (along with Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo) belongs to the less-developed southern region of the former Yugoslavia. It suffered severe economic difficulties after independence, when the Yugoslav internal market collapsed and subsidies from Belgrade
Belgrade
ended. In addition, it faced many of the same problems faced by other former socialist East European countries during the transition to a market economy. Its main land and rail exports route, through Serbia, remains unreliable with high transit costs, thereby affecting the export of its formerly highly profitable, early vegetables market to Germany. Macedonia's IT market increased 63.8% year on year in 2007, which is the fastest growing in the Adriatic region.[152] Trade and investment The outbreak of the Yugoslav wars and the imposition of sanctions on Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
caused great damage to the Republic's economy, with Serbia
Serbia
constituting 60% of its markets before the disintegration of Yugoslavia. When Greece
Greece
imposed a trade embargo on the Republic in 1994–95, the economy was also affected. Some relief was afforded by the end of the Bosnian war in November 1995 and the lifting of the Greek embargo, but the Kosovo
Kosovo
War of 1999 and the 2001
2001
Albanian crisis caused further destabilisation. Since the end of the Greek embargo, Greece
Greece
has become the country's most important business partner. (See Greek investments in the Republic of Macedonia.) Many Greek companies have bought former state companies in Macedonia,[153] such as the oil refinery Okta, the baking company Zhito Luks, a marble mine in Prilep, textile facilities in Bitola, etc., and employ 20,000 people. However, local cross-border trade between Greece
Greece
and the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
sees thousands of Greek shoppers visiting to purchase cheaper domestic products.[citation needed] The moving of business to Macedonia in the oil sector has been caused by the rise of Greece
Greece
in the oil markets.[154] Other key partners are Germany, Italy, the United States, Slovenia, Austria
Austria
and Turkey. Transport

International Airport Skopje, Map of current and planed higways and European route E75
European route E75
in Republic of Macedonia.

The Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
is in its position a continental country in the middle of the Balkan
Balkan
Peninsula, and the main transport links in the country are those that connect the different parts of the peninsula (transbalkan links). Particularly important is the connection between north-south and Vardar
Vardar
valley, which connects Greece
Greece
with the rest of Europe. The total length of the railway network in the Republic of Macedonia is 699 km. The most important railway line is the line on the border with Serbia
Serbia
- Kumanovo
Kumanovo
- Skopje
Skopje
- Veles - Gevgelija
Gevgelija
- border with Greece. Since 2001, the railway line Beljakovci has been built - the border with Bulgaria, which will get a direct connection Skopje-Sofia. The most important railway hub in the country is Skopje, while the other two are Veles and Kumanovo. Macedonian Post is a Macedonian state-owned company for the provision of postal traffic. It was founded in 1992
1992
as PTT Macedonia. In 1993 she was admitted to the World Postal Union In 1997, PTT Macedonia was divided into Macedonian Telekom and Macedonian Post. As far as Water Transport is concerned, only lake traffic through Ohrid
Ohrid
and Prespan Lake has been developed, mostly for tourist purposes. There are 17 airports officially in the Republic of Macedonia, of which 11 are with solid substrates. Among them are two airports of international character, since they are listed on the airport's IATA Airport Code International Airport Skopje
Skopje
and Ohrid
Ohrid
"St. Paul the Apostle" Airport. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Macedonia Tourism is an important part of the economy of the Republic of Macedonia. The country's abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. It receives about 700,000 tourists annually.[155]

Lake Ohrid, Bitola, Mavrovo

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia, List of cities in the Republic of Macedonia, and Macedonians (ethnic group)

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in 2002

Macedonians

64.18%

Albanians

25.17%

Turks

3.85%

Romani

2.66%

Serbs

1.78%

Bosniaks

0.84%

Aromanians

0.48%

other

1.04%

The above table shows ethnic affiliation of the population according to the 2002 census:[3]

The last census data from 2002 shows a population of 2,022,547 inhabitants.[3] The last official estimate from 2009, without significant change, gives a figure of 2,050,671.[156] According to the last census data, the largest ethnic group in the country are the ethnic Macedonians. The second largest group are the Albanians
Albanians
who dominated much of the northwestern part of the country. Following them, Turks are the third biggest ethnic group of the country where official census data put them close to 80,000 and unofficial estimates suggest numbers between 170,000 and 200,000. Some unofficial estimates indicate that in the Republic of Macedonia, there are possibly up to 260,000 Romani.[157] Religion Main article: Religion in the Republic of Macedonia

Religion in Macedonia (2002)[158]   Eastern Orthodoxy (64.8%)    Islam
Islam
(33.3%)   Other Christian
Christian
(0.4%)   Others/None (1.5%)

The Church of St. George in Kumanovo
Kumanovo
(left) and Šarena Džamija Mosque in Tetovo
Tetovo
(right).

Eastern Orthodoxy is the majority faith of the Republic of Macedonia, making up 65% of the population, the vast majority of whom belong to the Macedonian Orthodox Church. Various other Christian
Christian
denominations account for 0.4% of the population. Muslims constitute 33.3% of the population. Macedonia has the fifth-highest proportion of Muslims in Europe, after those of Kosovo
Kosovo
(96%),[159] Turkey
Turkey
(90%),[160] Albania (59%),[161] and Bosnia-Herzegovina (51%).[162] Most Muslims are Albanians, Turks, or Romani, although few are Macedonian Muslims. The remaining 1.4% was determined to be "unaffiliated" by a 2010 Pew Research estimation.[163] Altogether, there were 1,842 churches and 580 mosques in the country at the end of 2011.[164] The Orthodox and Islamic religious communities have secondary religion schools in Skopje. There is an Orthodox theological college in the capital. The Macedonian Orthodox Church has jurisdiction over 10 provinces (seven in the country and three abroad), has 10 bishops and about 350 priests. A total of 30,000 people are baptised in all the provinces every year. Between the Macedonian and Serbian Orthodox Churches, there is a tension which arose from the former's separation and self-declared autocephaly in 1967. After the negotiations between the two churches were suspended, the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
recognised a group led by Zoran Vraniškovski (also known as Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid), a former Macedonian church bishop, as the Archbishop of Ohrid.

A 19th-century Macedonian silver Hanukkah Menorah

The reaction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church
Macedonian Orthodox Church
was to cut off all relations with the new Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric and to prevent bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
from entering Macedonia. Bishop Jovan was jailed for 18 months for "defaming the Macedonian Orthodox church and harming the religious feelings of local citizens" by distributing Serbian Orthodox church calendars and pamphlets.[165] The Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church has approximately 11,000 adherents in Macedonia. The Church was established in 1918, and is made up mostly of converts to Catholicism and their descendants. The Church is of the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
and is in communion with the Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches. Its liturgical worship is performed in Macedonian.[166] There is a small Protestant community. The most famous Protestant in the country is the late president Boris Trajkovski. He was from the Methodist community, which is the largest and oldest Protestant church in the Republic, dating back to the late 19th century. Since the 1980s the Protestant community has grown, partly through new confidence and partly with outside missionary help. The Macedonian Jewish community, which numbered some 7,200 people on the eve of World War II, was almost entirely destroyed during the war: only 2% of Macedonian Jews survived the Holocaust.[167] After their liberation and the end of the War, most opted to emigrate to Israel. Today, the country's Jewish community numbers approximately 200 persons, almost all of whom live in Skopje. Most Macedonian Jews are Sephardic – the descendants of 15th-century refugees who had been expelled from Castile, Aragon and Portugal. According to the 2002 Census, 46.5% of the children aged 0–4 were Muslim.[168] Languages Main articles: Macedonian language
Macedonian language
and Languages in the Republic of Macedonia See also: Political views on the Macedonian language

Linguistic map of Macedonia, 2002 census.

The official and most widely spoken language is Macedonian, which belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group. In municipalities where ethnic groups are represented with over 20% of the total population, the language of that ethnic group is co-official.[169] Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Standard Bulgarian. It also has some similarities with standard Serbian and the intermediate Torlakian and Shop dialects spoken mostly in southern Serbia
Serbia
and western Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(and by speakers in the north and east of Macedonia). The standard language was codified in the period following World War II
World War II
and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition. Although it is the only language explicitly designated as an official national language in the constitution, in municipalities where at least 20% of the population is part of another ethnic minority, those individual languages are used for official purposes in local government, alongside Macedonian.[citation needed] A wide variety of languages are spoken in Macedonia, reflecting its ethnic diversity. Besides the official national language, Macedonian, minority languages with substantial numbers of speakers are Albanian, Romani, Turkish (including Balkan
Balkan
Gagauz[170]), Serbian/Bosnian and Aromanian (including Megleno-Romanian).[171][172][173][174][175][176] There are a few villages of Adyghe speakers and an immigrant Greek community.[177][178] Macedonian Sign Language is the primary language of those of the deaf community who did not pick up an oral language in childhood. According to the last census, 1,344,815 Macedonian citizens declared that they spoke Macedonian, 507,989 declared Albanian, 71,757 Turkish, 38,528 Romani, 6,884 Aromanian, 24,773 Serbian, 8,560 Bosnian, and 19,241 spoke other languages.[179] Cities

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Republic of Macedonia 2002 Census results

Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.

Skopje

Bitola 1 Skopje Skopje 506,926 11 Kavadarci Vardar 29,188

Kumanovo

Prilep

2 Bitola Pelagonia 74,550 12 Kočani Eastern 28,330

3 Kumanovo Northeastern 70,842 13 Kičevo Southwestern 27,067

4 Prilep Pelagonia 66,246 14 Struga Southwestern 16,559

5 Tetovo Polog 52,915 15 Radoviš Southeastern 16,223

6 Veles Vardar 43,716 16 Gevgelija Southeastern 15,685

7 Štip Eastern 43,652 17 Debar Southwestern 14,561

8 Ohrid Southwestern 42,033 18 Kriva Palanka Northeastern 14,558

9 Gostivar Polog 35,847 19 Sveti Nikole Eastern 13,746

10 Strumica Southeastern 35,311 20 Negotino Vardar 13,284

Education

The state university Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje

The higher levels of education can be obtained at one of the five state universities: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, St. Clement of Ohrid
Ohrid
University of Bitola, Goce Delčev University of Štip, State University of Tetovo
Tetovo
and University for Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle" in Ohrid. There are a number of private university institutions, such as the European University,[180] Slavic University in Sveti Nikole, the South East European University and others. The United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development
has underwritten a project called "Macedonia Connects" which has made Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country in the world. The Ministry of Education
Education
and Sciences reports that 461 schools (primary and secondary) are now connected to the internet.[181] In addition, an Internet Service Provider (On.net), has created a MESH Network to provide WIFI services in the 11 largest cities/towns in the country. The national library of Macedonia, National and University Library "St. Kliment of Ohrid", is in Skopje. The Macedonian education system consists of:

pre-school education primary secondary higher

Culture Main articles: Macedonian culture (Slavic), List of Macedonians (ethnic group), and Music of the Republic of Macedonia

Robevi family house – typical Macedonian architecture

Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites. Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. Macedonian music styles developed under the strong influence of Byzantine church music. Macedonia has a significant number of preserved Byzantine fresco paintings, mainly from the period between the 11th and 16th centuries. There are several thousands square metres of fresco painting preserved, the major part of which is in very good condition and represent masterworks of the Macedonian School of ecclesiastical painting. The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid
Ohrid
Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga
Struga
Poetry Evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, International Camera Festival in Bitola, Open Youth Theatre and Skopje Jazz Festival in Skopje
Skopje
etc. The Macedonian Opera opened in 1947 with a performance of Cavalleria rusticana
Cavalleria rusticana
under the direction of Branko Pomorisac. Every year, the May Opera Evenings are held in Skopje
Skopje
for around 20 nights. The first May Opera performance was that of Kiril Makedonski's Tsar Samuil in May 1972.[182]

Tavče Gravče

Cuisine Main article: Cuisine of the Republic of Macedonia Macedonian cuisine
Macedonian cuisine
is a representative of that of the Balkans—reflecting Mediterranean (Greek) and Middle Eastern (Turkish) influences, and to a lesser extent Italian, German and Eastern European (especially Hungarian) ones.[183] The relatively warm climate in Macedonia provides excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits. Thus, Macedonian cuisine
Macedonian cuisine
is particularly diverse. Famous for its rich Šopska salad, an appetiser and side dish which accompanies almost every meal, Macedonian cuisine
Macedonian cuisine
is also noted for the diversity and quality of its dairy products, wines, and local alcoholic beverages, such as rakija. Tavče Gravče
Tavče Gravče
and mastika are considered the national dish and drink of the Republic of Macedonia, respectively. Sport

Philip II Arena

Macedonia basketball team at a time out during a match with Latvia

Football and handball are the most popular sports in Macedonia. The national football team is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia. Their home stadium is the Philip II Arena. Handball is the other important team sport in the country. In 2002 Kometal Skopje
Skopje
won the EHF Women's Champions League European Cup. The European Women's Handball Championship
European Women's Handball Championship
took place in 2008 in Macedonia. The venues in which the tournament took place were located in Skopje
Skopje
and Ohrid; the national team finished seventh place. Macedonian clubs enjoyed success in European competitions. RK Vardar won 2016–17 EHF Champions League, while Kometal Gjorče Petrov Skopje
Skopje
won the women's event in 2002. The Macedonian national basketball team
Macedonian national basketball team
represents the Republic of Macedonia in international basketball. The team is run by the Basketball Federation of Macedonia, the governing body of basketball in Macedonia which was created in 1992
1992
and joined FIBA in 1993. Macedonia has participated in three Eurobaskets since then with its best finish at 4th place in 2011. It plays its home games at the Boris Trajkovski Arena in Skopje. In the summer months The Ohrid
Ohrid
Swimming Marathon is an annual event on Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
and during the winter months there is skiing in Macedonia's winter sports centres. Macedonia also takes part in the Olympic Games. Participation in the Games is organised by the Macedonian Olympic Committee.[184] Cinema Main article: Cinema of the Republic of Macedonia The history of film making in the republic dates back over 110 years.[citation needed] The first film to be produced on the territory of the present-day the country was made in 1895 by Janaki and Milton Manaki in Bitola. Throughout the past century, the medium of film has depicted the history, culture and everyday life of the Macedonian people. Over the years many Macedonian films have been presented at film festivals around the world and several of these films have won prestigious awards. The first Macedonian feature film was Frosina, released in 1952. The first feature film in colour was Miss Stone, a movie about a Protestant missionary in Ottoman Macedonia. It was released in 1958. The highest grossing feature film in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
was Bal-Can-Can, having been seen by over 500,000 people in its first year alone. In 1994 Milco Manchevski's film Before the Rain was nominated as Best Foreign Film. Manchevski continues to be the most prominent modern filmmaker in the country having subsequently written and directed Dust and Shadows. Media Main article: Media of the Republic of Macedonia The oldest newspaper in the country is Nova Makedonija
Nova Makedonija
from 1944. Other well known newspaper and magazines are: Utrinski Vesnik, Dnevnik, Vest, Fokus, Večer, Tea Moderna, Makedonsko Sonce, and Koha. Public channel is Macedonian Radio-Television
Macedonian Radio-Television
founded in 1993 by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. TEKO TV (1989) from Štip
Štip
is the first private television channel in the country. Other popular private channels are: Sitel, Kanal 5, Telma, Alfa TV, and Alsat-M. Public holidays Main article: Public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia The main public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
are:

Date English name Macedonian name Remarks

1–2 January New Year Нова Година, Nova Godina  

7 January Christmas Day (Orthodox) Прв ден Божик, Prv den Božik  

April/May Good Friday
Good Friday
(Orthodox) Велики Петок, Veliki Petok Ortodox Easter and other Easter dates do not match; see: List of dates for Easter

April/May Easter Sunday
Easter Sunday
(Orthodox) Прв ден Велигден, Prv den Veligden

April/May Easter Monday
Easter Monday
(Orthodox) Втор ден Велигден, Vtor den Veligden

1 May Labour Day Ден на трудот, Den na trudot  

24 May Saints Cyril and Methodius Day Св. Кирил и Методиј, Ден на сèсловенските просветители; Sv. Kiril i Metodij, Den na sèslovenskite prosvetiteli  

2 August Day of the Republic Ден на Републиката, Den na Republikata Day when the Republic was established in 1944, also Ilinden uprising in 1903.

8 September Independence Day Ден на независноста, Den na nezavisnosta Day of independence from Yugoslavia

11 October Revolution Day Ден на востанието, Den na vostanieto Beginning of Anti-fascist war during WWII in 1941

23 October Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle Ден на македонската револуционерна борба,Den na makedonskata revolucionarna borba Day when the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
(IMRO) was established in 1893.

1 Shawwal Eid ul-Fitr Рамазан Бајрам, Ramazan Bajram moveable, see: Islamic Calendar

8 December Saint Clement of Ohrid
Saint Clement of Ohrid
Day Св. Климент Охридски, Sv. Kliment Ohridski  

Besides these, there are several major religious & minorities holidays. (See:Public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia) International rankings

Organisation Survey Ranking

Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index[185] 79 out of 162

Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2013[186] 116 out of 179

The Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2013[187] 43 out of 177

Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2013[188] 67 out of 177

United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme Human Development Index
Human Development Index
2013[189] 78 out of 207

World Bank Ease of doing business index
Ease of doing business index
2016[190] 12 out of 189

See also

Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
portal

Outline of the Republic of Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
– book

Notes

^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February
February
2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

References

^ "The Macedonian language, written using its Cyrillic alphabet, is the official language in the Republic of Macedonia" – Article 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
Archived 5 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Official regional languages". CIA World Factbook. 2002. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ a b c d "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 – Book
Book
XIII, Skopje, 2005" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mk.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mk.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b c d "FYR Macedonia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ "Државен завод за статистика - Соопштенија по области". www.stat.gov.mk.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ "Св. Климент Охридски е патрон на македонскиот народ и неговата историја". dnevnik.mk. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.  ^ United Nations, A/RES/47/225, 8 April 1993 ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolutions 817 of 7 April and 845 June 18 of 1993, see UN resolutions made on 1993 ^ "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
– 47 States, one Europe". Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "NATO's relations with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ The Republic of Macedonia – BASIC FACTS, Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of foreign affairs Archived 16 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Paeonia - historical region".  ^ Μακεδονία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ a b Macedonia, Online Etymology Dictionary ^ μακεδνός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ μακρός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Eugene N. Borza, Makedonika, Regina Books, ISBN 0-941690-65-2, p.114: The "highlanders" or "Makedones" of the mountainous regions of western Macedonia are derived from northwest Greek stock; they were akin both to those who at an earlier time may have migrated south to become the historical "Dorians". ^ Nigel Guy Wilson, Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Routledge, 2009, p.439: The latest archaeological findings have confirmed that Macedonia took its name from a tribe of tall, Greek-speaking people, the Makednoi. ^ Beekes, Robert (2010), Etymological Dictionary of Greek, II, Leiden, Boston: Brill, p. 894  ^ Ovid (2005). Green, Peter, ed. The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea
Black Sea
Letters. University of California Press. p. 319. ISBN 0520242602. Ovid was lax in his geography, not least over Paeonia (in fact roughly coextensive with the present Slav republic of Macedonia).  ^ Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. p. 13. ISBN 1-4051-7936-8. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ Reames, Jeanne; Howe, Timothy (2008). Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza. Regina Books. p. 239. ISBN 1930053568. Having just conquered Paeonia (roughly where the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
is today).  ^ Peshkopia, Ridvan (2015). Conditioning Democratization: Institutional Reforms and EU Membership Conditionality in Albania
Albania
and Macedonia. Anthem Press. p. 189. ISBN 0857283251. Indeed, the territory of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
encompasses little of the ancient kingdom of Macedon, which, in most part, overlaps with the current region of the contemporary Greece, but the name Macedonia "flowed" northward with the creation of Roman region of Macedonia, after the Romans occupied Greece
Greece
in 168 BC. Besides the former kingdom of Macedon, the Roman region included the territories of Paeonia, where the contemporary FYR Macedonia rests.  ^ Strabo, Geography, Book
Book
7, Frg. 4: ^ Bauer, Susan Wise: The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome (2007), ISBN 0-393-05974-X, page 518: "...to the north, Thracian
Thracian
tribes known collectively as the Paeonians." ^ Willkes, John (1996). The Illyrians. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ Sealey, Raphael (1976). A history of the Greek city states, ca. 700-338 B.C. University of California Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-520-03177-7.  ^ Evans, Thammy (2007). Macedonia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84162-186-9.  ^ Borza, Eugene N. (8 September 1992). In the shadow of Olympus: the emergence of Macedon. Princeton University Press. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-691-00880-6.  ^ Lewis, D.M. et al. (ed.) (1994). The Cambridge ancient history: The fourth century B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 723–724. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4. Retrieved 2016-02-10. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 3, Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman and N. G. L. Hammond,1982,ISBN 0-521-23447-6, page 284 ^ Howe & Reames 2008, p. 239. ^ Roisman & Worthington 2011, pp. 135–138, 342–345. ^ "Persian influence on Greece
Greece
(2)". Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ Warfare in the ancient world: from the Bronze Age to the fall of Rome. By Stefan G. Chrissanthos, page 75 ^ Poulton, Hugh (23 February
February
2000). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-534-3.  ^ Macedonia yesterday and today Author Giorgio Nurigiani, Publisher Teleurope, 1967 p. 77. ^ A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, By Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, page 549 ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica – Scopje". Britannica.com. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ A. F. Christidis, A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.351: "Despite Roman domination, there was no retreat on the part of Greek tradition in the eastern part of the empire, and only in Macedonia did Latin spread in some extent". ^ "Acta Sancti Demetrii", V 195–207, Гръцки извори за българската история, 3, стр. 159–166 ^ Nicol, Donald Macgillivray (1993). The last Centuries of Byzantium, (1261–1453). Cambridge University Press. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ Phillips, John (2004). Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans. I.B.Tauris. p. 41. ISBN 1-86064-841-X.  ^ Becoming Bulgarian: The Articulation of Bulgarian Identity in the Nineteenth Century in its International Context: an Intellectual History, Ost-European studies, Janette Sampimon, Pegasus, 2006, ISBN 90-6143-311-8, p. 234. ^ James Franklin Clarke, Dennis P. Hupchick – "The pen and the sword: studies in Bulgarian history", Columbia University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-88033-149-6, page. 221 (...Peichinovich of Tetovo, Macedonia, author of one of the first Bulgarian books...) ^ Gawrych, George Walter (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam
Islam
and the Albanians, 1874–1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 28. ISBN 1-84511-287-3. ^ Historical dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0-8108-5565-8, p. 100. Google Books. Retrieved 14 November 2011.  ^ Roth, Klaus; Brunnbauer, Ulf (1 January 2008). "Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe". LIT Verlag Münster – via Google Books.  ^ Stanford J. Shaw (27 May 1977). History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey
Turkey
1808–1975. Cambridge University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-521-29166-8.  ^ There was even an attempt to form a kind of revolutionary government led by the socialist Nikola Karev. The Krushevo manifesto was declared, assuring the population that the uprising was against the Sultan and not against Muslims in general, and that all peoples would be included. As the population of Krushevo was two thirds hellenised Vlachs and Patriarchist Slavs, this was a wise move. Despite these promises, the insurgent flew Bulgarian flags everywhere and in many places the uprising did entail attacks on Muslim Turks and Albanians who themselves organised for self-defence." Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1850652384, p. 57. ^ In fact Macedonian historians as Blaze Ristovski have recognized, that the "government" of the "republic", nowadays a symbol of Macedonian statehood, was actually composed of people who identified themselves as "Greeks", "Vlachs" and "Bulgarians". "We, the People: Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe" Diana Mishkova, Central European University Press, 2009, ISBN 9639776289, p. 124. ^ "The IMARO activists saw the future autonomous Macedonia as a multinational polity, and did not pursue the self-determination of Macedonian Slavs
Slavs
as a separate ethnicity. Therefore, Macedonian was an umbrella term covering Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, Vlachs, Albanians, Serbs, Jews, and so on." Historical Dictionary of Macedonia, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956, Introduction. ^ The political and military leaders of the Slavs
Slavs
of Macedonia at the turn of the century seem not to have heard the call for a separate Macedonian national identity; they continued to identify themselves in a national sense as Bulgarians rather than Macedonians.[...] (They) never seem to have doubted "the predominantly Bulgarian character of the population of Macedonia". "The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world", Princeton University Press, Danforth, Loring M. 1997, ISBN 0691043566, p. 64. ^ Nicolle 2008, p. 162 ^ a b c d e f g Banac, Ivo (1984). The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics. London and Ithaka: Cornell University Press. p. 317. ISBN 0801416752.  ^ "Kraljevina Jugoslavija! Novi naziv naše države. No, mi smo itak med seboj vedno dejali Jugoslavija, četudi je bilo na vseh uradnih listih Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev. In tudi drugi narodi, kakor Nemci in Francozi, so pisali že prej v svojih listih mnogo o Jugoslaviji. 3. oktobra, ko je kralj Aleksander podpisal "Zakon o nazivu in razdelitvi kraljevine na upravna območja", pa je bil naslov kraljevine Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev za vedno izbrisan." (Naš rod ("Our Generation", a monthly Slovenian language periodical), Ljubljana 1929/30, št. 1, str. 22, letnik I.) ^ Dejan Djokić, Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918–1992, p. 123, at Google Books ^ R. J. Crampton, Eastern Europe
Europe
in the twentieth century—and after, p. 20, at Google Books ^ "An article by Dimiter Vlahov about the persecution of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia". newspaper "Balkanska federatsia", No. 140, 20 August 1930, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ War of words: Washington tackles the Yugoslav conflict, p. 43, at Google Books ^ Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1 January 2007). " Balkan
Balkan
Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South Eastern Europe". Purdue University Press – via Google Books.  ^ Gerginov, Kr., Bilyarski, Ts. Unpublished documents for Todor Alexandrov's activities 1910–1919, magazine VIS, book 2, 1987, p.214 – Гергинов, Кр. Билярски, Ц. Непубликувани документи за дейността на Тодор Александров 1910–1919, сп. ВИС, кн. 2 от 1987, с. 214. ^ Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, Praeger, 2002 p.100 ^ Vassil Karloukovski. "Гиза, Антони, "Балканските държави и Македония", Македонски Научен Институт София, 2001 г". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Bechev, Dimitar (13 April 2009). "Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.  ^ Duncan Perry, "The Republic of Macedonia: finding its way" in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrot (eds.), Politics, power and the struggle for Democracy in South-Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 228–229. ^ Bulgarian Campaign Committees in Macedonia – 1941 Dimitre Mičev ^ "Forming of the Local Campaign Committees". kroraina.com.  ^ a b Historical dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Valentina Georgieva, Sasha Konechni, Scarecrow Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8108-3336-0, p. 223. ^ Hugh Poulton (1995). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-85065-238-0. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ Miller, Marshall Lee (1975). Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during the Second World War. Stanford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-8047-0870-8. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ Bulgaria
Bulgaria
managed to save its entire 48,000-strong Jewish population during World War II
World War II
from deportation to Nazi concentration camps, but under German pressure those Jews from their newly annexed territories without Bulgarian citizenship were deported, such as those from Vardar Macedonia and Western Thrace. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ Mark Cohen, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry, United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ This policy changed after 1943 with the arrival of Tito's envoy Montenegrin Serb Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo. He began in earnest to organise armed resistance to the Bulgarian rule and sharply criticised Sharlo's pro-Bulgarian policy. At a meeting of the partisan brigades, as well as a group of battalions in the Resen region on 21 December 1943, Tempo makes the following comments about Shatorov and the leadership of the MCP: "They thought that the Macedonian people were Bulgarians and that they were oppressed by the hegemony of Great Serbia
Serbia
and had to be transferred to Bulgaria. Their basic slogan is: 'All non-Macedonians out of Macedonia'. The capital J [Serbo-Croatian spelling of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavian, etc.] was deleted from all documents. In fact they did not want Yugoslavia, no matter where it stood politically. When the war started, the initial decision of this leadership was to be separate from Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and from Tito. They declared that Macedonia would be free as soon as the Bulgarians came...." ^ "НОБ на Македонија" Јован Поповски. Скопје, 1962 ^ "Историја на Македонскиот Народ" Александар Стојановски, Иван Катарџиев, Данчо Зографски. Скопје, 1988 ^ History of Bulgaria, Petar Delev et al., 2001, p.364 ^ "Axis Forces in Yugoslavia
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1941–45". Bloomsbury USA. 13 March 1995 – via Google Books.  ^ Мичев, Добрин. Партизанското движение във Вардарска Македония, 1941–1944 г. сп. Македонски преглед, кн. 2, стр. 5–40. ^ Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, 1974 – Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(in Macedonian) ^ Устав Федеративне Народне Републике Југославије (1946), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on 19 October 2007. (in Serbo-Croatian) ^ Устав Социјалистичке Федеративне Републике Југославије (1963), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on 19 October 2007. (in Serbo-Croatian) ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1278 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7 ^ "Recognition of States: Annex 3". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 15 February
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2005. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ a b Thomas, Nigel (2006). The Yugoslav Wars
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Ohrid
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(1/2002). Retrieved 2015-05-18.  ^ [1] ^ "Macedonian Ministry of Environment". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica's article about Sar Mountains". Britannica.com. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Sar Mountains on the Euratlas map of the Europe's most significant mountain ranges". Euratlas.com. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Macedonia". Mymacedonia.net. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Macedonian Flora". Macedonia.co.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ Schmidt, J. (1912) Danish researches in the Atlantic and Mediterranean on the life-history of the Fresh-water Eel (Anguilla vulgaris, Turt.). Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 5: 317–342. ^ a b "Macedonian Fauna". macedonia.co.uk.  ^ a b c Fédération Cynologique Internationale: Official FCI-Standard N° 41, Published 24 November 1970. – Retrieved on 14 February
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2015. ^ a b The breed was initially standardised by the Yugoslavian Federation of Cynology (Jugoslovenski kinološki savez, JKS) and recognised as a Yugoslavian breed with two types by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 1939 under the designation Ilirski ovčar (Illyrian Shepherd Dog), FCI-Standard N° 41. Kraški ovčar and Šarplaninac
Šarplaninac
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Šarplaninac
(Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog Sharplanina), and this is the official name of the breed. After the collapse of Yugoslavia, Macedonia and Serbia
Serbia
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2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ International Olympic Committee. "List of national olympic committees participating in the xix olympic winter games in salt lake city" (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2006.  ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. "The situation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
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English edition, 16 September 2005 ^ "European Journal of International Law". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 15 February
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2005. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Floudas, Demetrius Andreas; "Pardon? A Name for a Conflict? FYROM's Dispute with Greece
Greece
Revisited" (PDF). in: Kourvetaris et al. (eds.), The New Balkans, East European Monographs: Columbia University Press, 2002, p. 85. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ a b Ghosts of the past endanger Macedonia's future. Boris Georgievski, BalkanInsight, 27 October 2009 [2]. ^ Greece
Greece
slates Skopje's provocative Alexander statue Sinisa Jakov Marusic, Balkan
Balkan
Insight, 15 June 2011 [3] ^ Davorin – Ljubljana. "Macedonia sues Greece
Greece
for blocking NATO entry". France
France
24. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
institutes proceedings against Greece
Greece
for a violation of Article 11 of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995" (PDF). International Court of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ "Application of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995" (PDF). International Court of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ "Call it what you want". 10 December 2011 – via The Economist.  ^ "Amnesty International – Summary – Macedonia". Web.amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ "Human Rights Watch - Defending Human Rights Worldwide". 14 April 2013. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013.  ^ National Command Management Archived 4 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Macedonia Country Brief" (PDF). The World Bank. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ a b " World Bank
World Bank
development data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Government of the Republic of Macedonia". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Macedonia's Flat Tax". Nuwireinvestor.com. 15 February
February
2007. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Macedonian unemployment rate". Worldbank.org.mk. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ State Statistical Office Active population – Unemployment
Unemployment
data ^ Gallup Balkan
Balkan
Monitor, 2010 Archived 27 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The 2006 CIA Factbook CIA Factbook Macedonia ^ State Statistical Office Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
2013 ^ State Statistical Office External trade volume 2014 ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ "Investment in Government, Finance, and Telecom Sectors Makes Macedonia's IT Market the Fastest Growing in the Adriatic Region, Says IDC", IDC (global provider of market intelligence) ^ "Greek investments in FYROM at 1 bil. Euros". Greekembassy.org. 16 July 2008. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2009.  ^ "DEPA sees natural gas role for Greece
Greece
exiting from the crisis". New Europe. 2017-04-03. Retrieved 2017-04-18.  ^ "101 facts about Macedonia". Faq.macedonia.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Macedonia – State Statistical Office". www.stat.gov.mk. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe
Europe
Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". CIA.  ^ "CIA The World Factbook: Kosovo". CIA.gov. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ "Türkiye'deki Ateist Nüfus Hızla Artıyor". onedio.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ "Presentation of the main results of the Census of Population and Housing 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  ^ "CIA The World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina". CIA.gov. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". 2 April 2015.  ^ "Во Македонија има 1.842 цркви и 580 џамии" (in Macedonian). Dnevnik. 28 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011.  ^ "Church Rivalry Threatens to Brim Over". Iwpr.net. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ "Blog Archives » Macedonia's Jewish Community Commemorates the Holocaust, and Embraces the Future". Balkanalysis.com. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "naslovna-9PUB" (PDF). Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ "Basic Facts". president.gov.mk. Archived from the original on 25 February
February
2012.  ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition". SIL International. Retrieved 3 November 2008. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Core document forming part of the reports of States Parties : The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ "Macedonia ethnic and linguistic minorities". Eurominority. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ "Map of the European languages". Eurominority. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ "Indo-European languages in contemporary Eurasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.  ^ "BBC: Languages across Europe – Macedonia". BBC. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ " Europe
Europe
languages map". Eupedia. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition". SIL International. Retrieved 4 November 2008. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: ethnologue.com". SIL International. Retrieved 13 July 2010. Immigrant languages: Greek" "Adyghe [ady] A few villages in Macedonia. Alternate names: Adygey, West Circassian CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Census final data" (PDF). stat.gov.mk. 2002.  ^ "Home". www.oic.org.mk.  ^ "U.S. Agency for International Development". Macedonia.usaid.gov. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Macedonian Opera Marks 60th Anniversary. Culture – Republic of Macedonia". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.  ^ Friedman, Victor; Palmer, Veselka (1995), "La cuisine macédonien", in Aufray, Michel; Perret, Michel, Cuisines d'Orient et d'ailleurs (PDF), Paris: INALCO/Grenoble: Glénant, pp. 76–79, retrieved 2016-02-10  ^ World InfoZone. "Macedonia Information". worldinfozone.com. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ "Global peace index 2013". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ "Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2013". Rsf.org. Archived from the original on 15 February
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2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ "Index of Economic Freedom 2013". Heritage.org. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2013". Transparency.org. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ " Human Development Index
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2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 

Bibliography

Nicolle, David (2008). The Ottomans: Empire of Faith. Thalamus Publishing. ISBN 1902886119.  Howe, Timothy; Reames, Jeanne (2008). Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza. Regina Books. ISBN 978-1-930-05356-4. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-44-435163-7. Retrieved 2016-02-10. 

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autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

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Crown dependencies

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Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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Balkan
Balkan
Peninsula countries

Geographically fully located

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Kosovo1 Macedonia Montenegro

Significantly located

Serbia Greece Croatia

Mostly outside of the peninsula

Romania Slovenia Turkey

See also

Southeast Europe History of the Balkans Balkan
Balkan
languages (Sprachbund) Balkanization

1 Declared independence from Serbia
Serbia
on 17 February
February
2008 and is recognised by 113 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

International membership

v t e

Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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Enlargement and partners of the European Union

Previous enlargements

1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Statistics

Negotiating

  Montenegro
Montenegro
(status)   Serbia
Serbia
(status)   Turkey
Turkey
(status)

Candidate status

  Albania
Albania
(status)  Macedonia (status)

Potential candidates

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(status)  Kosovo* (under the Belgrade– Pristina
Pristina
agreement; status)

Partnerships

Free trade agreements

  Iceland
Iceland
(relations)   Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(relations)   Norway
Norway
(relations)    Switzerland
Switzerland
(relations)

Eastern Partnership

  Armenia
Armenia
(relations)   Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(relations)   Belarus
Belarus
(relations)  Georgia (relations) (accession)   Moldova
Moldova
(relations)   Ukraine
Ukraine
(relations)

Northern Dimension

  Russia
Russia
(relations)   Norway
Norway
(relations)

Union for the Mediterranean

 Algeria  Egypt   Israel
Israel
(relations)   Jordan
Jordan
(relations)   Lebanon
Lebanon
(relations)  Mauritania  Monaco   Morocco
Morocco
(relations)  Palestine (relations)  Syria  Tunisia

Current membership Criteria Withdrawal

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

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Members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo/UNMIK Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Serbia

v t e

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE)

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan

Partners for Cooperation

Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia

Bodies and posts

Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media

Coordinates: 41°36′N 21°42′E / 41.6°N 21.7°E / 41.6; 21.7

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135978180 ISNI: 0000 0004 0581 699X GND: 4114937-3 SUDOC: 153588349 BNF: cb15518086d (data) HDS: 3

.