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The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(Ligurian: Repúbrica de Zêna, pronounced [reˈpybrika de ˈze:na]; Latin: Res Publica Ianuensis; Italian: Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
French First Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768. The Ligurian Republic
Ligurian Republic
was annexed by the First French Empire
First French Empire
in 1805; its restoration was briefly proclaimed in 1814 following the defeat of Napoleon, but it was ultimately annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
in 1815.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Territories

2.1 Other territories outside Italy

3 History

3.1 Rise 3.2 13th and 14th century 3.3 Golden age of Genovese bankers 3.4 Decline 3.5 French satellite

4 See also 5 References

Overview[edit] Before 1100, Genoa
Genoa
emerged as an independent city-state,[how?] one of a number of Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa
Genoa
was president of the city; however, actual power was wielded by a number of "consuls" annually elected by popular assembly. Genoa
Genoa
was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics" (Repubbliche Marinare), along with Venice, Pisa, and Amalfi
Amalfi
and trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean. The Adorno, Campofregoso, and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city. The Republic of Genoa
Genoa
extended over modern Liguria
Liguria
and Piedmont, Sardinia, Corsica, Nice and had practically complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily
Sicily
and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Crusader States
Crusader States
was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
and its aftermath, Genoa
Genoa
was able to improve its position. Genoa
Genoa
took advantage of this opportunity to expand into the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria, Spinola, and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. Between 1218–1220 Genoa
Genoa
was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who probably introduced Occitan literature
Occitan literature
to the city, which was soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, and Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
at the naval Battle of Meloria
Battle of Meloria
in 1284, and with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola
Battle of Curzola
in 1298. This prosperity did not last. The Black Death
Black Death
was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa
Caffa
(Theodosia) in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa
Genoa
adopted the Venetian model of government, and was presided over by a doge (see Doge
Doge
of Genoa). The wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia
War of Chioggia
(1378–1381)-- where Genoa
Genoa
almost managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa
Genoa
initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa
Genoa
came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa
Genoa
lost Sardinia
Sardinia
to Aragon, Corsica
Corsica
to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire.

A view of Genoa
Genoa
and its fleet by Christoforo de Grassi (1597 copy, after a drawing of 1481); Galata
Galata
Museo del Mare, Genoa.

Genoa
Genoa
was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century, particularly thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa
Genoa
a satellite of the Spanish Empire. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria, Grimaldi, Pallavicini, and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa
Genoa
developed in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(such as chattel slavery) were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World.[1] Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa
Genoa
and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas
Americas
for Spain
Spain
to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa
Genoa
for the relief of taxation on foods. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens, Caravaggio
Caravaggio
and Van Dyck. The architect Galeazzo Alessi
Galeazzo Alessi
(1512–1572) designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco (1590–1657), designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. Territories[edit] At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
consisted of the city of Genoa
Genoa
and the surrounding areas. As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria
Liguria
fell under the Republic
Republic
of Genoa. After the First Crusade
First Crusade
in 1098 Genoa
Genoa
gained settlements in Syria. (It lost the majority of them during the campaigns of Saladin
Saladin
in the 12th century.) In 1261 the city of Smyrna
Smyrna
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
became Genoese territory.[2] In 1255 Genoa
Genoa
established the colony of Caffa
Caffa
in Crimea.[3] In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia, Cherco and Cembalo.[3] In 1275 the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
granted the islands of Chios
Chios
and Samos
Samos
to Genoa.[3] Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa
Genoa
established the Black Sea
Black Sea
colonies of La Tana (present-day Azov) and Samsun
Samsun
in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
granted Lesbos
Lesbos
to a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the colony of Samastri was established in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Cyprus
Cyprus
was granted to the Republic. At that period the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
also controlled one quarter of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, and Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond.[3] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered most of the Genoese overseas territories during the 15th century.[3] Other territories outside Italy[edit]

Giudicato of Logudoro
Giudicato of Logudoro
(island of Sardinia) 1259–1325 North Aegean
North Aegean
sea possessions, centered at Chios
Chios
1261–1566 Southern Crimea
Crimea
possessions of Gazaria 1266–1475 (lost to Ottoman Empire, Kefe Eyalet) Island of Corsica
Corsica
1284–1768 Island of Tabarka
Tabarka
off the coast of Tunisia
Tunisia
1540 - 1742

History[edit] Rise[edit]

The Siege of Antioch, 1098.

The Republic
Republic
originated in the early 11th century, when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the Regnum Italicum. At that time Muslim raiders were attacking coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Muslims raided Pisa
Pisa
in 1004 and in 1015 they escalated their attacks, raiding Luni, with Mujahid al-Siqlabi, Emir
Emir
of the Taifa of Denia attacking Sardinia
Sardinia
with a fleet of 125 ships.[4] In 1016 the allied troops of Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
defended Sardinia. In 1066 war erupted between Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
– possibly over the control of Sardinia.[5] In 1087, Genoese and Pisan fleets led by Hugh of Pisa
Pisa
and accompanied by troops from Pantaleone
Pantaleone
of Amalfi, Salerno
Salerno
and Gaeta, attacked the North African city of Mahdia, the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate. The attack, supported by Pope Victor III, became known as the Mahdia campaign. The attackers captured the city, but couldn't hold it against Arab forces. After the burning of the Arab fleet in the city's harbor, the Genoese and Pisan troops retreated. The destruction of the Arab fleet gave control of the Western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to Genoa, Venice, and Pisa. This enabled Western Europe to supply the troops of the First Crusade
First Crusade
of 1096–1099 by sea.[6] In 1092 Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa, in collaboration with Alfonso VI of León and Castile attacked the Muslim Taifa of Valencia. They also unsuccessfully besieged Tortosa
Tortosa
with support from troops of Sancho Ramírez, King of Aragon.[7] In its early centuries Genoa
Genoa
was an important trading city and its power began to increase. Genoa
Genoa
started expanding during the First Crusade. In 1097 Hugh of Châteauneuf, Bishop of Grenoble
Bishop of Grenoble
and William, Bishop of Orange, went to Genoa
Genoa
and preached in the church of San Siro in order to gather troops for the First Crusade. At the time the city had a population of about 10,000.[citation needed] Twelve galleys, one ship and 1,200 soldiers from Genoa
Genoa
joined the crusade. The Genoese troops, led by noblemen de Insula and Avvocato, set sail in July 1097.[8] The Genoese fleet transported and provided naval support to the crusaders, mainly during the siege of Antioch in 1098, when the Genoese fleet blockaded the city while the troops provided support during the siege.[8] In the siege of Jerusalem in 1099 Genoese crossbowmen
Genoese crossbowmen
led by Guglielmo Embriaco acted as support units against the defenders of the city. After the capture of Antioch on May 3, 1098, Genoa
Genoa
forged an alliance with Bohemond of Taranto, who became the ruler of the Principality of Antioch. As a result, he granted them a headquarters, the church of San Giovanni, and 30 houses in Antioch. On May 6, 1098 a part of the Genoese army returned to Genoa
Genoa
with the relics of Saint John the Baptist, granted[by whom?] to the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
as part of their reward for providing military support to the First Crusade.[8] Many settlements in the Middle East
Middle East
were given to Genoa
Genoa
as well as favorable commercial treaties.[8] Genoa
Genoa
later forged an alliance with King Baldwin I of Jerusalem (reigned 1100-1118). In order to secure the alliance Baldwin gave Genoa
Genoa
one-third of the Lordship of Arsuf, one-third of Caesarea, and one-third of Acre and its port's income.[8] Additionally the Republic of Genoa
Genoa
would receive 300 bezants every year, and one-third of Baldwin's conquest every time 50 or more Genoese soldiers joined his troops.[8] The Republic's role as a maritime power in the region secured many favorable commercial treaties for Genoese merchants. They came to control a large portion of the trade of the Byzantine Empire, Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, Armenia, and Egypt.[8] Although Genoa maintained free-trading rights in Egypt and Syria, it lost some of its territorial possessions after Saladin's campaigns in those areas in the late 12th century.[2][9] In 1147 Genoa
Genoa
took part in the Siege of Almería, helping Alfonso VII of León and Castile reconquer that city from the Muslims. After the conquest the republic leased out its third of the city to one of its own citizens, Otto de Bonvillano, who swore fealty to the republic and promised to guard the city with three hundred men at all times.[10] This demonstrates how Genoa's early efforts at expanding her influence involved enfeoffing private citizens to the commune and controlling overseas territories indirectly, rather than through the republican administration. In 1148, it joined the Siege of Tortosa
Tortosa
and helped Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona
Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona
take that city, for which it also received a third. Over the course of the 11th and particularly the 12th centuries, Genoa became the dominant naval force in the Western Mediterranean, as its erstwhile rivals Pisa
Pisa
and Amalfi
Amalfi
declined in importance. Genoa
Genoa
(along with Venice) succeeded in gaining a central position in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
slave trade at this time. This left the Republic
Republic
with only one major rival in the Mediterranean: Venice. Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant, which Genoese long regarded as the Holy Grail. Not all of Genoa's merchandise was so innocuous, however, as medieval Genoa
Genoa
became a major player in the slave trade.[11] 13th and 14th century[edit]

Galata Tower
Galata Tower
(1348) in Galata, Istanbul.

The commercial and cultural rivalry of Genoa
Genoa
and Venice was played out through the 13th century. The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
played a significant role in the Fourth Crusade, diverting "Latin" energies to the ruin of its former patron and present trading rival, Constantinople. As a result, Venetian support of the newly established Latin
Latin
Empire meant that Venetian trading rights were enforced, and Venice gained control of large portion of the commerce of the eastern Mediterranean.[2] In order to regain control of the commerce, the Republic
Republic
of Genoa allied with Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Emperor of Nicaea, who wanted to restore the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by recapturing Constantinople. In March 1261 the treaty of the alliance was signed in Nymphaeum.[2] On July 25, 1261, Nicaean troops under Alexios Strategopoulos
Alexios Strategopoulos
recaptured Constantinople.[2] As a result, the balance of favour tipped toward Genoa, which was granted free trade rights in the Nicene Empire. Besides the control of commerce in the hands of Genoese merchants, Genoa
Genoa
received ports and way stations in many islands and settlements in the Aegean Sea.[2] The islands of Chios
Chios
and Lesbos
Lesbos
became commercial stations of Genoa
Genoa
as well as the city of Smyrna
Smyrna
(Izmir).

Territories of the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(economic influence areas shown in pink) around the mediterranean & Black Sea
Black Sea
coasts, 1400, since the Codex Latinus Parisinus (1395).

Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
became the only states with trading rights in the Black Sea.[2] In the same century the Republic
Republic
conquered many settlements in Crimea, where the Genoese colony of Caffa
Caffa
was established. The alliance with the restored Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
increased the wealth and power of Genoa, and simultaneously decreased Venetian and Pisan commerce. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had granted the majority of free trading rights to Genoa. In 1282 Pisa
Pisa
tried to gain control of the commerce and administration of Corsica, after being called for support by the judge Sinucello who revolted against Genoa.[12] In August 1282, part of the Genoese fleet blockaded Pisan commerce near the river Arno.[12] During 1283 both Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
made war preparations. Genoa built 120 galleys, 60 of which belonged to the Republic, while the other 60 galleys were rented to individuals. More than 15,000 mercenaries were hired as rowmen and soldiers. The Pisan fleet avoided combat, and tried to wear out the Genoese fleet during 1283. On August 5, 1284, in the naval Battle of Meloria
Battle of Meloria
the Genoese fleet, consisting of 93 ships led by Oberto Doria and Benedetto I Zaccaria, defeated the Pisan fleet, which consisted of 72 ships and was led by Alberto Morosini and Ugolino della Gherardesca. Genoa
Genoa
captured 30 Pisan ships, and sank seven.[12] About 8,000 Pisans were killed during the battle, more than half of the Pisan troops, which were about 14,000.[12] The defeat of Pisa, which never fully recovered as a maritime competitor, resulted in gain of control of the commerce of Corsica
Corsica
by Genoa. The Sardinian town of Sassari, which was under Pisan control, became a commune which was controlled by Genoa. Control of Sardinia, however, did not pass permanently to Genoa: the Aragonese kings of Naples disputed control and did not secure it until the 15th century.

The Genoese fortress in Sudak, Crimea.

Genoese merchants pressed south, to the island of Sicily, and into Muslim North Africas, where Genoese established trading colonies, pursuing the gold that traveled up through the Sahara and establishing Atlantic depots as far afield as Salé
Salé
and Safi.[13] In 1283 the population of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
revolted against the Angevin rule. The revolt became known as the Sicilian Vespers. As a result, the Aragonese rule was established on the Kingdom. Genoa, which had supported the Aragonese, was granted free trading and export rights in the Kingdom of Sicily. Genoese bankers also profited from loans to the new nobility of Sicily. Corsica
Corsica
was formally annexed in 1347.[14] Genoa
Genoa
was far more than a depot of drugs and spices from the East: an essential engine of its economy was the weaving of silk textiles, from imported thread, following the symmetrical styles of Byzantine and Sassanian silks. As a result of the economic retrenchment in Europe in the late 14th century, as well as its long war with Venice, which culminated in its defeat at Chioggia (1380), Genoa
Genoa
went into decline. This pivotal war with Venice has come to be called the War of Chioggia
War of Chioggia
because of this decisive battle which resulted in the defeat of Genoa
Genoa
at the hands of Venice.[15] Prior to the War of Chioggia, which lasted from 1379 until 1381, the Genoese had enjoyed a naval ascendency that was the source of their power and position within northern Italy.[16] The Genoan defeat deprived Genoa
Genoa
of this naval supremacy, pushed it out of eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
markets and began the decline of the city state.[16] Rising Ottoman power also cut into the Genoese emporia in the Aegean, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
trade was reduced.[17] Golden age of Genovese bankers[edit]

Map of Italy
Italy
in 1494

During the 1450s and 1460s, the Republic
Republic
became a pawn in the struggle between France
France
and Aragon
Aragon
for power and influence in Italy.[18] Threatened by Alfonso V of Aragon, the Doge
Doge
of Genoa
Genoa
in 1458 handed the Republic
Republic
over to the French, becoming the Duchy of Genoa
Genoa
under the control of a French royal governor, John of Anjou. However, with support from Milan, Genoa
Genoa
revolted and the Republic
Republic
was restored in 1461. The Milanese then changed sides, conquering Genoa
Genoa
in 1464 and holding it as a fief of the French crown.[19][20][21] Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa
Genoa
during this period, but sought a career elsewhere. Genoa
Genoa
was ultimately occupied by the French or the Milanese for much of the period. From 1499 to 1528, the Republic
Republic
reached its nadir, being under nearly continual French occupation. The Spanish, with their intramural allies, the "old nobility" entrenched in the mountain fastnesses behind Genoa, captured the city on May 30, 1522, and subjected the city to a merciless pillage. When the great admiral Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
of the powerful Doria family allied with the Emperor Charles V to oust the French and restore Genoa's independence, a renewed prospect opened: 1528 marks the first loan from Genovese banks to Charles.[22] Thereafter, Genoa
Genoa
underwent something of a revival as a junior associate of the Spanish Empire, with Genovese bankers, in particular, financing many of the Spanish crown's foreign endeavors from their counting houses in Seville. Fernand Braudel has even called the period 1557 to 1627 the "age of the Genovese", "of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it" (Braudel 1984 p. 157), although the modern visitor passing brilliant Mannerist and Baroque palazzo facades along Genoa's Strada Nova (now Via Garibaldi) or via Balbi cannot fail to notice that there was conspicuous wealth, which in fact was not Genovese but concentrated in the hands of a tightly-knit circle of banker-financiers, true "venture capitalists". Genoa's trade, however, remained closely dependent on control of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sealanes, and the loss of Chios
Chios
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1566), struck a severe blow.[23] The opening for the Genovese banking consortium was the state bankruptcy of Philip II in 1557, which threw the German banking houses into chaos and ended the reign of the Fuggers as Spanish financiers. The Genovese bankers provided the unwieldy Habsburg system with fluid credit and a dependably regular income. In return the less dependable shipments of American silver were rapidly transferred from Seville to Genoa, to provide capital for further ventures. The Genovese banker Ambrogio Spinola, marqués de los Balbases, for instance, himself raised and led an army that fought in the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
in the Netherlands in the early 17th century. The decline of Spain
Spain
in the 17th century brought also the renewed decline of Genoa, and the Spanish crown's frequent bankruptcies, in particular, ruined many of Genoa's merchant houses. In 1684 the city was heavily bombarded by a French fleet as punishment for its alliance with Spain. Decline[edit] In May 1625 a French-Savoian army briefly laid siege to Genoa. Though it was eventually lifted with the aid of the Spanish, the French would later bombard the city in May 1684 for its support of Spain
Spain
during the War of the Reuinions.[24] In-between, a plague killed as many as half of the inhabitants of Genoa
Genoa
in 1656–57.[25] Genoa
Genoa
continued its slow decline well into the 18th century, losing its last Mediterranean colony, the island fortress of Tabarka, to the Bey of Tunis
Bey of Tunis
in 1742.[26] Genoa
Genoa
entered into the War of the Austrian succession
War of the Austrian succession
in 1745. Seeking protection from the rival Kingdom of Sardinia, who sought to annex the Mark of Finale Ligure
Finale Ligure
and cut the republic in half, Genoa
Genoa
reluctantly supported Bourbon France
France
and Spain. This decision would prove disastrous for Genoa, which later surrendered to the Austrians in September 1746 and was briefly occupied before a revolt liberated the city two months later. The Austrians returned in 1747 and, along with a contingent of Sardinian forces, laid siege to Genoa
Genoa
before being driven off by the approach of a Franco-Spanish army. Though Genoa
Genoa
retained its lands in the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, it was unable to keep its hold on Corsica
Corsica
in its weakened state. After driving out the Genoese, the Corsican Republic
Republic
was declared in 1755. Eventually relying on French intervention to quash the rebellion, Genoa
Genoa
was forced to cede Corsica
Corsica
to the French in the 1768 Treaty of Versailles. French satellite[edit] In 1797 the Republic
Republic
was occupied by the French revolutionary army of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, who overthrew the old elites which had ruled the city for all of its history, and replaced them with a popular republic known as the Ligurian Republic, under the watchful care of Napoleonic France. After Bonaparte's seizure of power in France, a more conservative constitution was enacted, but the Ligurian Republic's life was short—in 1805 it was annexed by France, becoming the départements of Apennins, Gênes, and Montenotte. Following the capture of the city by British troops between 17 and 22 April 1814, local elites encouraged by the British agent Lord William Bentinck proclaimed the restoration of the old Republic, but it was decided at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
that Genoa
Genoa
should be given to the Kingdom of Sardinia. British troops suppressed the republic on 26 December 1814 and then evacuated the city, which Sardinia
Sardinia
annexed on 7 January 1815. See also[edit]

Battle of Meloria
Battle of Meloria
(1284) Battle of Curzola
Battle of Curzola
(1298) Battle of Ponza (1435) Doge
Doge
of Genoa Genoese colonies Maritime republics Italian city-states Christopher Columbus Spanish Empire

References[edit]

^ Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonization from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1229-1492. ^ a b c d e f g Alexander A. Vasiliev (1958). History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 537–38. ISBN 0-299-80926-9.  ^ a b c d e William Miller (2009). The Latin
Latin
Orient. Bibliobazaar LLC. pp. 51–54. ISBN 1-110-86390-X.  ^ Kirk, Thomas Allison (2005). Genoa
Genoa
and the Sea: Policy and Power in an Early Modern Maritime Republic. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-8018-8083-1.  ^ Kirk 2005, p. 188. ^ J. F. Fuller (1987). A Military History of the Western World, Volume I. Da Capo Press. p. 408. ISBN 0-306-80304-6.  ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2004). Reconquest and crusade in medieval Spain. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8122-1889-2.  ^ a b c d e f g Steven A. Epstein (2002). Genoa
Genoa
and the Genoese, 958–1528. UNC Press. pp. 28–32. ISBN 0-8078-4992-8.  ^ Robert H. Bates (1998). Analytic Narratives. Princeton University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-691-00129-4.  ^ John Bryan Williams, "The Making of a Crusade: The Genoese Anti-Muslim Attacks in Spain, 1146–1148" Journal of Medieval History 23 1 (1997): 29–53. ^ Steven A. Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy
Italy
(Conjunctions of Religion and Power in the Medieval Past. ^ a b c d William Ledyard Rodgers (1967). Naval warfare under oars, 4th to 16th centuries: a study of strategy, tactics and ship design. Naval Institute Press. pp. 132–34. ISBN 0-87021-487-X.  ^ H. Hearder and D.P. Waley, eds, A Short History of Italy
Italy
(Cambridge University Press)1963:68. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, Volume 7, page 201. ^ John Julius Norwich, History of Venice (Alfred A. Knopf Co.: New York, 1982) p. 256. ^ a b Lucas, Henry S. (1960). The Renaissance and the Reformation. New York: Harper & Bros. p. 42.  ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Story of Civilization. 5 - The Renaissance. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 189.  ^ Vincent Ilardi, 'The Banker-Statesman and the Condottiere-Prince: Cosimo de' Medici and Francesco Sforza, 1450–1464', Studies in Italian Renaissance Diplomatic History (Variorum Reprints: London, 1986) pp. 10–11. ^ Vincent Ilardi, The Italian League and Francesco Sforza – A Study in Diplomacy, 1450–1466 (Doctoral dissertation – unpublished: Harvard University, 1957) pp. 151–3, 161–2, 495–8, 500–5, 510–12. ^ Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II), The Commentaries of Pius II, eds. Florence Alden Gragg, trans., and Leona C. Gabel (13 books; Smith College: Northampton, Massachusetts, 1936-7, 1939–40, 1947, 1951, 1957) pp. 369–70. ^ Vincent Ilardi and Paul M. Kendall, eds., Dispatches of Milanese Ambassadors, 1450–1483(3 vols; Ohio University Press: Athens, Ohio, 1970, 1971, 1981) vol. III, p. xxxvii. ^ " Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
Genovese statesman". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-04-22.  ^ Philip P. Argenti, Chius Vincta or the Occupation of Chios
Chios
by the Turks (1566) and Their Administration of the Island (1566–1912), Described in Contemporary Diplomatic Reports and Official Dispatches (Cambridge, 1941), Part I. ^ Genoa
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1684, World History at KMLA. ^ Early modern Italy
Italy
(16th to 18th centuries) » The 17th-century crisis Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Alberti Russell, Janice. The Italian community in Tunisia, 1861–1961: a viable minority. pag. 142.

v t e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta

Etruscan civilization

Lega dei popoli

Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC) Roman Republic
Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

Roman Italy Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia
Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

Odoacer's rule (476–493) Ostrogothic rule (493–553) Vandal rule (435–534) Lombard rule (568–774)

Duchy of Benevento Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Ivrea Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States and other independent states

March of Ancona Duchy of Aosta Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) Bishopric of Bressanone Duchy of Castro Commune of Rome Marquisate of Ceva Republic
Republic
of Cospaia Duchy of Ferrara Marquisate of Finale City of Fiume and its District Republic
Republic
of Florence Duchy of Florence March of Friuli Republic
Republic
of Genoa Republic
Republic
of Noli County of Gorizia Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla March of Istria Duchy of Ivrea Republic
Republic
of Lucca Margravate of Mantua Duchy of Mantua Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy of Merania Duchy of Milan Duchy of Mirandola Duchy of Modena and Reggio March of Montferrat Duchy of Montferrat County of Nizza Duchy of Parma Principality of Piedmont Principality of Piombino Republic
Republic
of Pisa Duchy of Reggio Marquisate of Saluzzo County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Republic
Republic
of Siena Duchy of Spoleto Terra Sancti Benedicti Bishopric of Trento March of Turin March of Tuscany Grand Duchy of Tuscany County of Tirolo Duchy of Urbino March of Verona Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
(533–751) Duchy of Perugia
Duchy of Perugia
(554–752) Duchy of the Pentapolis
Duchy of the Pentapolis
(554–752)

Exarchate of Africa
Africa
(585–698)

Republic
Republic
of Venice (697–1797)

Dogado Stato da Màr Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

Byzantine

Duchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily
Sicily
and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of Sorrento

Arab

Emirate of Bari Emirate of Sicily

Lombard

Principality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of Capua

Norman

County of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

Giudicati

Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro

Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and Corsica Corsican Republic
Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

State of the Presidi Duke of San Donato Duchy of Sora Principality of Taranto Neapolitan Republic
Republic
(1647–1648) Malta under the Order Gozo Malta Protectorate Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1792–1815)

Republics

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Monarchies

Benevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany Elba Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

Duchy of Genoa
Genoa
(1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
(1815–1847) Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
(1814–1829) Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
(1815–1859) Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) Provisional Government of Milan
Milan
(1848) Republic
Republic
of San Marco (1848–1849) Roman Republic
Republic
(1849) United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
(1920–1924) Italian Social Republic
Republic
(1943–1945) Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947-1954)

v t e

Maritime republics

Amalfi Ancona Gaeta Genoa Noli Pisa Ragusa Venice

v t e

Crusader states

Levant

Kingdom of Jerusalem Principality of Antioch County of Edessa County of Tripoli Kingdom of Cilicia Kingdom of Cyprus

Greece

Latin
Latin
Empire Kingdom of Thessalonica Principality of Achaea Duchy of Athens Duchy of Neopatras Duchy of the Archipelago Triarchy of Negroponte County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos Lordship of Argos and Nauplia Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic
Republic
of Venice Possessions of the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(Lordship of Chios) Knights Hospitaller

Baltic

State of the Teutonic Order
State of the Teutonic Order
(Teutonic Order) Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonian Brothers of the Sword) Dobrzyń Land
Dobrzyń Land
(Order of Dobrzyń)

Crusades
Crusades
portal Catholicism portal

Coordinates: 44°24′39″N 8°55′56″E / 44.4108°N 8.9322°E

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