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The REPUBLIC OF GENOA (Ligurian : _Repúbrica de Zêna_ /re\'pybrika \'de \'ze:na/ , Latin
Latin
: _Res Publica Ianuensis_, Italian : _Repubblica di Genova_) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the _Regnum Italicum _, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic . Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768 . The Ligurian Republicwas annexed by the First French Empire
First French Empire
in 1805; its restoration was briefly proclaimed in 1814 following the defeat of Napoleon, but it was ultimately annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
in 1815.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 Territories

* 2.1 Other territories outside Italy
Italy

* 3 History

* 3.1 Rise * 3.2 13th and 14th century * 3.3 Golden age of Genoese bankers * 3.4 Decline * 3.5 French satellite

* 4 See also * 5 References

OVERVIEW

Before 1100, Genoa
Genoa
emerged as an independent city-state , one of a number of Italian city-statesduring this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa
Genoa
was president of the city; however, actual power was wielded by a number of "consuls " annually elected by popular assembly . Genoa
Genoa
was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics" (_ Repubbliche Marinare
Repubbliche Marinare
_), along with Venice , Pisa
Pisa
, and Amalfi
Amalfi
and trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
. The Adorno , Campofregoso , and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic
Republic
, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city. The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
extended over modern Liguria
Liguria
and Piedmont , Sardinia
Sardinia
, Corsica
Corsica
, Nice and had practically complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades
Crusades
, Genoese colonieswere established in the Middle East
Middle East
, in the Aegean , in Sicily
Sicily
and Northern Africa
Africa
.

The collapse of the Crusader States
Crusader States
was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
and its aftermath, Genoa
Genoa
was able to improve its position. Genoa
Genoa
took advantage of this opportunity to expand into the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Crimea . Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi
Fieschi
, the Doria , Spinola , and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. In 1218–1220 Genoa
Genoa
was served by the Guelph _podestà _ Rambertino Buvalelli , who probably introduced Occitan literatureto the city, which was soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala , and Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisaat the naval Battle of Meloriain 1284, and with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola
Battle of Curzola
in 1298.

However, this prosperity did not last. The Black Death
Black Death
was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa
Caffa
(Theodosia ) in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa
Genoa
adopted the Venetian model of government, and was presided over by a doge (see Doge
Doge
of Genoa
Genoa
). The wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia(1378–1381)-- where Genoa
Genoa
almost managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa
Genoa
initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia . Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa
Genoa
came under rule by the Visconti of Milan
Milan
. Genoa
Genoa
lost Sardinia
Sardinia
to Aragon
Aragon
, Corsica
Corsica
to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. View of Genoa
Genoa
and its fleet by Christoforo de Grassi (1597 copy, after a drawing of 1481); Galata Museo del Mare, Genoa.

Genoa
Genoa
was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century, particularly thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria , who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa
Genoa
a satellite of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria, Grimaldi, Pallavicini, and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa
Genoa
developed in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(such as chattel slavery) were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
, for example, was a native of Genoa
Genoa
and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas
Americas
for Spain
Spain
to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa
Genoa
for the relief of taxation on foods.

At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens , Caravaggio
Caravaggio
and Van Dyck
Van Dyck
. The architect Galeazzo Alessi(1512–1572) designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi , as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco(1590–1657), designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa
Genoa
. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent.

TERRITORIES

At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
consisted of the city of Genoa
Genoa
and the surrounding areas. As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria
Liguria
fell under the Republic
Republic
of Genoa. After the First Crusadein 1098 Genoa
Genoa
gained settlements in Syria . (It lost the majority of them during the campaigns of Saladin
Saladin
in the 12th century.) In 1261 the city of Smyrna
Smyrna
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa
Genoa
established the colony of Caffa
Caffa
in Crimea
Crimea
. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia , Cherco and Cembalo . In 1275 the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
granted the islands of Chios
Chios
and Samos
Samos
to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the Black Sea
Black Sea
colonies of La Tana (present-day Azov) and Samsun
Samsun
in Anatolia
Anatolia
. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted Lesbos
Lesbos
to a Genoese lord . At the end of the 14th century the colony of Samastri was established in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Cyprus
Cyprus
was granted to the Republic. At that period the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
also controlled one quarter of Constantinople
Constantinople
, capital of the Byzantine Empire, and Trebizond , capital of the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered most of the Genoese overseas territories during the 15th century.

OTHER TERRITORIES OUTSIDE ITALY

* Giudicato of Logudoro(island of Sardinia
Sardinia
) 1259–1325 * North Aegeansea possessions, centered at Chios
Chios
1261–1566 * Southern Crimea
Crimea
possessions of Gazaria 1266–1475 (lost to Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, Kefe Eyalet) * Island of Corsica
Corsica
1284–1768 * Island of Tabarkaoff the coast of Tunisia
Tunisia
1540 - 1742

HISTORY

RISE

Siege of Antioch
Antioch
, 1098

The Republic
Republic
originated in the early 11th century, when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the _Regnum Italicum _. At that time Muslim raiders were attacking coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
. The Muslims raided Pisa
Pisa
in 1004 and in 1015 they escalated their attacks, raiding Luni , with Mujahid al-Siqlabi, Emir
Emir
of the Taifa of Denia attacking Sardinia
Sardinia
with a fleet of 125 ships. In 1016 the allied troops of Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
defended Sardinia
Sardinia
. In 1066 war erupted between Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa
Pisa
– possibly over the control of Sardinia. In 1087, Genoese and Pisan fleets led by Hugh of Pisa
Pisa
and accompanied by troops from Pantaleoneof Amalfi
Amalfi
, Salerno
Salerno
and Gaeta
Gaeta
, attacked the North African city of Mahdia, the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate . The attack, supported by Pope Victor III, became known as the Mahdiacampaign . The attackers captured the city, but couldn't hold it against Arab forces. After the burning of the Arab fleet in the city's harbor, the Genoese and Pisan troops retreated. However, the destruction of the Arab fleet gave control of the Western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to Genoa, Venice , and Pisa. This enabled Western Europe to supply the troops of the First Crusadeof 1096–1099 by sea. In 1092 Genoa
Genoa
and Pisa, in collaboration with Alfonso VI of León and Castile attacked the Muslim Taifa of Valencia; they also unsuccessfully besieged Tortosa
Tortosa
with support from troops of Sancho Ramírez , King of Aragon
King of Aragon
. In its early centuries Genoa
Genoa
was an important trading city and its power began to increase.

Genoa
Genoa
started expanding during the First Crusade. In 1097 Hugh of Châteauneuf , Bishop of Grenobleand William , Bishop of Orange, went to Genoa
Genoa
and preached in the church of San Siro in order to gather troops for the First Crusade. At the time the city had a population of about 10,000. Twelve galleys , one ship and 1,200 soldiers from Genoa
Genoa
joined the crusade. The Genoese troops, led by noblemen de Insula and Avvocato, set sail in July 1097. The Genoese fleet transported and provided naval support to the crusaders, mainly during the siege of Antioch
Antioch
in 1098, when the Genoese fleet blockaded the city while the troops provided support during the siege. In the siege of Jerusalem in 1099 Genoese crossbowmenled by Guglielmo Embriaco acted as support units against the defenders of the city.

After the capture of Antioch
Antioch
on May 3, 1098, Genoa
Genoa
forged an alliance with Bohemond of Taranto, who became the ruler of the Principality of Antioch
Antioch
. As a result, he granted them a headquarters, the church of San Giovanni, and 30 houses in Antioch. On May 6, 1098 a part of the Genoese army returned to Genoa
Genoa
with the relics of Saint John the Baptist , granted to the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
as part of their reward for providing military support to the First Crusade. Many settlements in the Middle East
Middle East
were given to Genoa
Genoa
as well as favorable commercial treaties. Genoa
Genoa
later forged an alliance with King Baldwin I of Jerusalem (reigned 1100-1118). In order to secure the alliance Baldwin gave Genoa
Genoa
one-third of the Lordship of Arsuf , one-third of Caesarea , and one-third of Acre and its port's income. Additionally the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
would receive 300 bezants every year, and one-third of Baldwin's conquest every time 50 or more Genoese soldiers joined his troops. The Republic's role as a maritime power in the region secured many favorable commercial treaties for Genoese merchants. They came to control a large portion of the trade of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Tripoli
Tripoli
, the Principality of Antioch
Antioch
, Armenia, and Egypt. Although Genoa
Genoa
maintained free-trading rights in Egypt and Syria, it lost some of its territorial possessions after Saladin's campaigns in those areas in the late 12th century.

In 1147 Genoa
Genoa
took part in the Siege of Almería , helping Alfonso VII of León and Castile reconquer that city from the Muslims. After the conquest the republic leased out its third of the city to one of its own citizens, Otto de Bonvillano, who swore fealty to the republic and promised to guard the city with three hundred men at all times. This demonstrates how Genoa's early efforts at expanding her influence involved enfeoffing private citizens to the commune and controlling overseas territories indirectly, rather than through the republican administration.

Over the course of the 11th and particularly the 12th centuries, Genoa
Genoa
became the dominant naval force in the Western Mediterranean, as its erstwhile rivals Pisa
Pisa
and Amalfi
Amalfi
declined in importance. Genoa (along with Venice) succeeded in gaining a central position in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
slave trade at this time. This left the Republic
Republic
with only one major rival in the Mediterranean: Venice.

Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant
Levant
, which Genoese long regarded as the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
. Not all of Genoa's merchandise was so innocuous, however, as medieval Genoa
Genoa
became a major player in the slave trade.

13TH AND 14TH CENTURY

Galata Tower
Galata Tower
(1348) in Galata
Galata
, Istanbul
Istanbul
.

The commercial and cultural rivalry of Genoa
Genoa
and Venice was played out through the 13th century. The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
played a significant role in the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
, diverting "Latin" energies to the ruin of its former patron and present trading rival, Constantinople
Constantinople
. As a result, Venetian support of the newly established Latin
Latin
Empire meant that Venetian trading rights were enforced, and Venice gained control of large portion of the commerce of the eastern Mediterranean. The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
in order to regain control of the commerce, allied with Michael VIII Palaiologos Emperor of Nicaea , who wanted to restore the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by recapturing Constantinople
Constantinople
. In March 1261 the treaty of the alliance was signed in Nymphaeum . On July 25, 1261, Nicaean troops under Alexios Strategopoulos
Alexios Strategopoulos
recaptured Constantinople. As a result, the balance of favour tipped toward Genoa, which was granted free trade rights in the Nicene Empire; besides the control of commerce in the hands of Genoese merchants, Genoa
Genoa
received ports and way stations in many islands and settlements in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. The islands of Chios and Lesbos
Lesbos
became commercial stations of Genoa
Genoa
as well as the city of Smyrna
Smyrna
(Izmir). _ Territories of the Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(economic influence areas shown in pink) around the mediterranean "> The Genoese fortress in Sudak, Crimea
Crimea
.

Genoese merchants pressed south, to the island of Sicily, and into Muslim North Africas, where Genoese established trading colonies, pursuing the gold that traveled up through the Sahara and establishing Atlantic depots as far afield as Saléand Safi . In 1283 the population of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
revolted against the Angevin rule. The revolt became known as the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
. As a result, the Aragonese rule was established on the Kingdom. Genoa, which had supported the Aragonese, was granted free trading and export rights in the Kingdom of Sicily. Genoese bankers also profited from loans to the new nobility of Sicily. Corsica
Corsica
was formally annexed in 1347.

Genoa
Genoa
was far more than a depot of drugs and spices from the East: an essential engine of its economy was the weaving of silk textiles, from imported thread, following the symmetrical styles of Byzantine and Sassanian silks.

As a result of the economic retrenchment in Europe in the late 14th century, as well as its long war with Venice , which culminated in its defeat at Chioggia (1380), Genoa
Genoa
went into decline. This pivotal war with Venice has come to be called the War of Chioggiabecause of this decisive battle which resulted in the defeat of Genoa
Genoa
at the hands of Venice. Prior to the War of Chioggia, which lasted from 1379 until 1381, the Genoese had enjoyed a naval ascendency that was the source of their power and position within northern Italy. The Genoan defeat deprived Genoa
Genoa
of this naval supremacy, pushed it out of eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
markets and began the decline of the city state. Rising Ottoman power also cut into the Genoese emporia in the Aegean, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
trade was reduced.

GOLDEN AGE OF GENOESE BANKERS

Map of Italy
Italy
in 1494.

During the 1450s and 1460s, the Republic
Republic
became a pawn in the struggle between France
France
and Aragon
Aragon
for power and influence in Italy. Threatened by Alfonso V of Aragon
Aragon
, the Doge
Doge
of Genoa
Genoa
in 1458 handed the Republic
Republic
over to the French, becoming the Duchy of Genoa
Genoa
under the control of a French royal governor, John of Anjou . However, with support from Milan, Genoa
Genoa
revolted and the Republic
Republic
was restored in 1461. The Milanese then changed sides, conquering Genoa
Genoa
in 1464 and holding it as a fief of the French crown. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was born in Genoa
Genoa
during this period, but sought a career elsewhere. Genoa was ultimately occupied by the French or the Milanese for much of the period. From 1499 to 1528, the Republic
Republic
reached its nadir, being under nearly continual French occupation. The Spanish, with their intramural allies, the "old nobility" entrenched in the mountain fastnesses behind Genoa, captured the city on May 30, 1522, and subjected the city to a merciless pillage. When the great admiral Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
of the powerful Doria family allied with the Emperor Charles V to oust the French and restore Genoa's independence, a renewed prospect opened: 1528 marks the first loan from Genoese banks to Charles.

Thereafter, Genoa
Genoa
underwent something of a revival as a junior associate of the Spanish Empire, with Genoese bankers, in particular, financing many of the Spanish crown's foreign endeavors from their counting houses in Seville. Fernand Braudelhas even called the period 1557 to 1627 the "age of the Genoese", "of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it" (Braudel 1984 p. 157), although the modern visitor passing brilliant Mannerist and Baroque palazzo facades along Genoa's _Strada Nova_ (now Via Garibaldi) or _via Balbi_ cannot fail to notice that there was conspicuous wealth, which in fact was not Genoese but concentrated in the hands of a tightly-knit circle of banker-financiers, true "venture capitalists ". Genoa's trade, however, remained closely dependent on control of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sealanes, and the loss of Chios
Chios
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1566), struck a severe blow.

The opening for the Genoese banking consortium was the state bankruptcy of Philip II in 1557, which threw the German banking houses into chaos and ended the reign of the Fuggers as Spanish financiers. The Genoese bankers provided the unwieldy Habsburg system with fluid credit and a dependably regular income. In return the less dependable shipments of American silver were rapidly transferred from Seville to Genoa, to provide capital for further ventures. The Genoese banker Ambrogio Spinola, marqués de los Balbases, for instance, himself raised and led an army that fought in the Eighty Years\' War in the Netherlands in the early 17th century. The decline of Spain
Spain
in the 17th century brought also the renewed decline of Genoa, and the Spanish crown's frequent bankruptcies, in particular, ruined many of Genoa's merchant houses. In 1684 the city was heavily bombarded by a French fleet as punishment for its alliance with Spain.

DECLINE

The plague killed as many as half of the inhabitants of Genoa
Genoa
in 1656–57. In May 1625 the French-Savoian army that invaded the Republic
Republic
was successfully driven out by the combined Spanish and Genoese armies. In May 1684, as a punishment for Genoese support for Spain, the city was subjected to a French naval bombardment , with some 13,000 cannonballs aimed at the city.

Genoa
Genoa
continued its slow decline in the 18th century. In 1742 the last possession of the Genoese in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
, the island fortress of Tabarka, was lost to the Bey of Tunis.

Genoa
Genoa
reluctantly entered into the War of the Austrian successionin 1745. The Genoese supported the Bourbon French and Spain
Spain
in order to prevent their mortal enemy the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
from annexing the Mark of Finale Ligure
Finale Ligure
, which would cut the republic in half. This decision resulted in a string of disasters— surrender to the Austrians on 6 September 1746 and the occupation of the city. There was a great popular insurrection in December 1746, precipitated by a boy named Giovan Battista Perasso and nicknamed Balilla, who threw a stone at an Austrian official and became a national hero to later generations. The Austrians were expelled, but returned for an unsuccessful Siege of Genoa
Genoa
in 1747. At least Genoa
Genoa
retained Finale in the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle . Being unable to retain its rule in Corsica
Corsica
, where the rebel Corsican Republic
Republic
was proclaimed in 1755, in 1768 Genoa
Genoa
was forced by endemic rebellion to sell its claim to Corsica
Corsica
to the French, so Corsica
Corsica
was ceded in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768.

An economic revival took place in the 1780s

FRENCH SATELLITE

In 1797 the Republic
Republic
was occupied by the French revolutionary army of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte , who overthrew the old elites which had ruled the city for all of its history, and replaced them with a popular republic known as the Ligurian Republic, under the watchful care of Napoleonic France. After Bonaparte's seizure of power in France, a more conservative constitution was enacted, but the Ligurian Republic's life was short—in 1805 it was annexed by France, becoming the _départements _ of Apennins, Gênes, and Montenotte . Following the capture of the city by British troops between 17 and 22 April 1814, local elites encouraged by the British agent Lord William Bentinck proclaimed the restoration of the old Republic, but it was decided at the Congress of Viennathat Genoa
Genoa
should be given to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
. British troops suppressed the republic in December 1814 and then evacuated the city, which Sardinia
Sardinia
annexed on 3 January 1815.

SEE ALSO

* Battle of Meloria (1284) * Battle of Curzola
Battle of Curzola
(1298) * Battle of Ponza (1435) * Doge
Doge
of Genoa
Genoa
* Genoese colonies * Maritime republics
Maritime republics
* Italian city-states * Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
* Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire

REFERENCES

* ^ _Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonization from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to the Atlantic, 1229-1492_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Alexander A. Vasiliev (1958). _History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453_. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 537–38. ISBN 0-299-80926-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ William Miller (2009). _The Latin
Latin
Orient_. Bibliobazaar LLC. pp. 51–54. ISBN 1-110-86390-X . * ^ Kirk, Thomas Allison (2005). _ Genoa
Genoa
and the Sea: Policy and Power in an Early Modern Maritime Republic_. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-8018-8083-1 . * ^ Kirk 2005 , p. 188. * ^ J. F. Fuller (1987). _A Military History of the Western World, Volume I_. Da Capo Press. p. 408. ISBN 0-306-80304-6 . * ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2004). _Reconquest and crusade in medieval Spain_. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8122-1889-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Steven A. Epstein (2002). _ Genoa
Genoa
and the Genoese, 958–1528_. UNC Press. pp. 28–32. ISBN 0-8078-4992-8 . * ^ Robert H. Bates (1998). _Analytic Narratives_. Princeton University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-691-00129-4 . * ^ John Bryan Williams, "The Making of a Crusade: The Genoese Anti-Muslim Attacks in Spain, 1146–1148" _Journal of Medieval History _ 23 1 (1997): 29–53. * ^ Steven A. Epstein, _Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy
Italy
(Conjunctions of Religion and Power in the Medieval Past_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ William Ledyard Rodgers (1967). _Naval warfare under oars, 4th to 16th centuries: a study of strategy, tactics and ship design_. Naval Institute Press. pp. 132–34. ISBN 0-87021-487-X . * ^ H. Hearder and D.P. Waley, eds, _A Short History of Italy_ (Cambridge University Press)1963:68. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, Volume 7, page 201. * ^ John Julius Norwich, _History of Venice_ (Alfred A. Knopf Co.: New York, 1982) p. 256. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lucas, Henry S. (1960). _The Renaissance and the Reformation_. New York: Harper & Bros. p. 42. * ^ Durant, Will (1953). _The Story of Civilization_. 5 - The Renaissance. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 189. * ^ Vincent Ilardi, 'The Banker-Statesman and the Condottiere-Prince: Cosimo de' Medici and Francesco Sforza, 1450–1464', _Studies in Italian Renaissance Diplomatic History_ (Variorum Reprints: London, 1986) pp. 10–11. * ^ Vincent Ilardi, _The Italian League and Francesco Sforza – A Study in Diplomacy, 1450–1466_ (Doctoral dissertation – unpublished: Harvard University, 1957) pp. 151–3, 161–2, 495–8, 500–5, 510–12. * ^ Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II), _The Commentaries of Pius II_, eds. Florence Alden Gragg, trans., and Leona C. Gabel (13 books; Smith College: Northampton, Massachusetts, 1936-7, 1939–40, 1947, 1951, 1957) pp. 369–70. * ^ Vincent Ilardi and Paul M. Kendall, eds., _Dispatches of Milanese Ambassadors, 1450–1483_(3 vols; Ohio University Press: Athens, Ohio, 1970, 1971, 1981) vol. III, p. xxxvii. * ^ " Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
Genoese statesman". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved 2016-04-22. * ^ Philip P. Argenti, _Chius Vincta or the Occupation of Chios
Chios
by the Turks (1566) and Their Administration of the Island (1566–1912), Described in Contemporary Diplomatic Reports and Official Dispatches_ (Cambridge, 1941), Part I. * ^ Early modern Italy
Italy
(16th to 18th centuries) » The 17th-century crisis _Encyclopædia Britannica._ * ^ _ Genoa
Genoa
1684_, World History at KMLA. * ^ Alberti Russell, Janice. _The Italian community in Tunisia, 1861–1961: a viable minority_. pag. 142. * ^ Outlined in Manlio Calegari, _La società patria delle arti e manifatture: Iniziativa imprenditoriale e rinnovamento tecnologico nel reformismo genovese del Settecento_ (Florence, 1969)

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta

Ancient History
Ancient History
and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia
Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento * Duchy of Friuli * Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona
March of Ancona
* Duchy of Aosta
Duchy of Aosta
* Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro * Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic
Republic
of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale * City of Fiume and its District * Republic
Republic
of Florence * Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence
* March of Friuli * Republic
Republic
of Genoa * Republic
Republic
of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic
Republic
of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont * Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy * Duchy of Savoy * Republic
Republic
of Siena * Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
March of Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna(584–751)

* Duchy of Rome(533–751) * Duchy of Perugia(554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis(554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr * Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi * Duchy of Gaeta
Gaeta
* Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Duchy of Naples
* Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari * Emirate of Sicily
Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno
Salerno
* Principality of Capua
Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria * County of Aversa * County of Sicily
Sicily
* Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura
Giudicato of Gallura
* Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and Corsica
Corsica
* Corsican Republic
Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
(1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora
Duchy of Sora
* Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic
Republic
(1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate
Malta Protectorate
* Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria
Liguria
* Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica
Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Free State of Fiume(1920–1924) * Duchy of Genoa
Genoa
(1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca(1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara(1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio(1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma(1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces(1831) * Provisional Government of Milan
Milan
(1848) * Republic
Republic
of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

* Italian Empire(1869–1946)

* Italian Social Republic
Republic
(1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Maritime republics
Maritime republics

* Amalfi
Amalfi
* Ancona * Gaeta
Gaeta
* Genoa * Noli * Pisa
Pisa
* Ragusa * Venice

* v * t * e

Crusader states
Crusader states

LEVANT

* Kingdom of Jerusalem * Principality of Antioch
Antioch
* County of Edessa
County of Edessa
* County of Tripoli
Tripoli
* Kingdom of Cilicia * Kingdom of Cyprus
Cyprus

GREECE

* Latin
Latin
Empire * Kingdom of Thessalonica * Principality of Achaea * Duchy of Athens * Duchy of Neopatras
Duchy of Neopatras
* Duchy of the Archipelago * Triarchy of Negroponte * County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos * Lordship of Argos and Nauplia * Stato da Màrof the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
* Possessions of the Republic
Republic
of